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This was made along with a simple research paper in my Network + course. I don't have any negative intention in uploading of this. I only hope it could help in any ways

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  1. 1. Willa Reyes
  2. 2. IEEE is the leading organization defining most of the LAN protocols  Local Area Network (LAN) is a data communications network connecting terminals, computers and printers within a building or other geographically limited areas  Ethernet, Token Ring and Wireless LAN using IEEE 802.11 Standard  Ethernet is by far the most commonly used LAN technology 
  3. 3. Fiber-Optic made of silicon glass cylinders or strands. Most secure media, fast, expensive, transmits at 100Mbps  Coaxial Cable comes in two versions: Thinnet & Thicknet. Transmits at 10 Mbps  Twisted Pair Two versions: 1.Shielded Twisted Pair commonly used in Token Ring networks and Unshielded Twisted Pair being use in Ethernet networks where it is referred to as "10baseT." Transmits vary b/w 10-00 Mb 
  4. 4. Ethernet is a type of network cabling and signaling specifications developed back in the days and uses a communication concept called datagrams to get messages across the network. The Ethernet datagrams take the form of self-contained packets of information. These packages have fields containing information about the data, their origin, their destination and the type of data.
  5. 5.      1970's - Ethernet specification began by Xerox PARC 1980’s – Launched Ethernet Version 1 and improved upon by Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel, and Xerox (DIX) 1982 - Ethernet Version 2 1983 – Novell adapted IEEE 802.3 1985 - IEEE 802.3 was born over the use of thick and thin coax
  6. 6.      1990 - Ethernet was upgraded over twisted pair copper wiring with 10Base-T 2000 – Apple's was the first to use 1000BASET connection 2002 - 10 Gigabit Ethernet fiber-based became standard 2006 - Twisted Pair standard 2009 - 10Gb Ethernet replaced1Gb as the backbone network
  7. 7. 10Base-T o o o o o IEEE 802.3 Standard 10 stands for 10 Mbps Base refer to baseband signaling T for twisted-pair, or F for fiber-optic Cable length 100m Baseband is the type of communication used by Ethernet and it means that when a computer is transmitting, it uses ALL the available bandwidth Broadband(Cable Modems) shares the bandwidth available. (This is the reason cable modem users notice a slowdown in speed when they are connected on a busy node)
  8. 8. 100Base T Fast Ethernet IEEE 802.3u Standard Can either be UTP or fiber optic cable All 100mb rated cables use CAT5 except the 100Base-FX o Speed rate of 100 Mbps o Cable length 100m o o o Category 5 cable is a twisted pair network cable also use to carry other signals such as telephony and video.
  9. 9. 100Base TX 100BaseT version IEEE 802.3u Standard o A 2 pairs of high-quality twisted pair wires. Pin type similar to telephone wire or RJ-45 o Cable length100 meters max., minimum length between nodes is 2.5 meters o
  10. 10. 100Base FX o o o o 100BaseT version IEEE 802.3u Standard FX means a 2-strand fiber optic cable only Uses multimode optical fiber cable Maximum length is usually up to 2 kms Multimode fiber optic cable has a large diametric core that allows multiple modes of light to propagate the number of light reflections core increases the more data pass through at a given time, the quality of the signal is reduced over long distances
  11. 11. 1000Base X Gigabit Ethernet o o o IEEE 802.3z Standard It came into use beginning in 1999, gradually replace Fast Ethernet in wired local networks, where it performed considerably faster The cables and equipment are very similar to previous standards and have been very common and economical since 2010 GbE or 1GigE) is a term describing various technologies for transmitting Ethernet frames at a rate of a gigabit per second (1,000,000,000 bits per second)
  12. 12. Name Medium Specified distance 1000BASE-CX Shielded balanced copper cable 25 meters 1000BASE-KX Copper backplane 1 meter 1000BASE-SX Multi-mode fiber 220 to 550 meters dependent on fiber diameter and bandwidth 1000BASE-LX Multi-mode fiber 550 meters 1000BASE-LX Single-mode fiber 5 km 1000BASE-LX10 Single-mode fiber using 1,310 nm wavelength 10 km 1000BASE-EX Single-mode fiber at 1,310 nm wavelength 40 km 1000BASE-ZX Single-mode fiber at 1,550 nm wavelength 70 km 1000BASE-BX10 Single-mode fiber, over single-strand fiber: 1,490 nm downstream 1,310 nm upstream 10 km 1000BASE-T Twisted-pair cabling (Cat-5, Cat-5e, Cat-6, or Cat-7) 100 meters 1000BASE-TX Upgrade of 1000BASE-T Twisted-pair cabling (Cat-6, Cat-7) created and promoted by Telecommunications Industry Association 100 meters
  13. 13. CSMA/CD CARRIER SENSE MULTIPLE ACCESS / COLLISION DETECTION Is phenomena that when two or more devices send data or start transmitting on a single segment simultaneously a collision will happen. o Carrier. Signal on a channel o Carrier Sense. Waiting period to transmit o Multiple Access. Ethernet interfaces are equal in their ability to send frames onto the network o Collision Detection. Identifying two or more objects' intersection points and impact time to prevent collision The CSMA/CD protocol is designed to provide fair access to the shared channel so that all stations get a chance to use the network. After every packet transmission, all stations use the CSMA/CD protocol to determine which station gets to use the Ethernet channel next.
  14. 14. CSMA/CA CARRIER SENSE MULTIPLE ACCESS / COLLISION AVOIDANCE Primary objective is to eliminate and minimize any potential collisions. It is a protocol for carrier transmission in Ethernet and acts to prevent collisions before they happen o o o o As soon as a node receives a packet that is to be sent, it checks to be sure the channel is clear that no other node is transmitting at the time If the channel is clear, then the packet is sent. If the channel is not clear, the node waits for a randomly chosen period of time, and then checks again to see if the channel is clear This period of time is called the backoff factor, and is counted down by a backoff counter. If the channel is clear when the backoff counter reaches zero, the node transmits the packet If the channel is not clear when the backoff counter reaches zero, the backoff factor is set again, and the process is repeated
  15. 15. BROADCAST o o When a computer sends data across a network by sending the data frame containing the data to all computers directly connected to it on a local network Ethernet is a broadcast-based network technology. As such it is a transmission that involves one transmitter and multiple receivers.
  16. 16. COLLISION o It happens when more than one station transmit on the Ethernet channel at the same moment then the signals are most likely to collide. As more computers are added to a given network, the traffic level increases, more collisions will occur as part of the normal operation of an Ethernet meaning to say collisions are expected events. BONDING o o Is the process of combining more than one bearer channel of an ISDN line to increase throughput. Using two or more NICs, channels, or connections to push data through instead of just one
  17. 17. SPEED The measure of how much data can move through the network in a given amount of time. o Speed can be measured in kilobits per second (kbps), megabits per second (mbps), gigabits per second (gbps), or terabits per second (tbps) o DISTANCE o The extent or amount of space between two things, point, lines,the length of a line, especially the shortest line joining two points or things that are separate. Regarding the medium device, distance refers to how far a data signal can travel before it needs to be rebuilt, such as by a switch.
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  19. 19. THANK YOU!