Overview• What are Workstations / Client machines?• Anything that an actual user sits at!• Potentially Windows 7 Professional / Ultimate, Network Design & Administration Vista Business / Ultimate, XP Professional, Linux and OS X.• Have to be able to communicate with Servers and use their services – otherwise standalone.• Much more likely to cause problems because user is directly involved. 2
New Workstations• May already be bought with an operating system on.• Generally need to install OS if: • Home version of OS – unsatisfactory. Network Design & Administration • Not corporate standard – e.g. Vista rather than Windows 7. • User preference – only if corporation allows • Need multiple boot. • Bought bare – will use volume licencing. • Want to ensure consistency. i.e. starting from a 3 known state.
What do you get?• Microsoft – basic versions of standard tools. E.g. works, outlook express…• Linux – full set of free standard tools.• Apple – complete turnkey system. Network Design & Administration• Microsoft expect you to buy full Office suite and use Exchange server if used within a corporate environment. 4
Life and Death of aWorkstation New Rebuild UpdateBuild Entropy Network Design & Administration Initialise Unknown Clean Configured Debug Retire Off• Computer is only usable in a configured state.• Entropy occurs as workstation gets modified over time (failed installs, malware, inappropriate software). 5• Need to have processes / procedures to bring back to configured state as efficiently as possible.
User Expectations• A configured machine must: • Have the corporate standard word processing package, in the standard corporate setup (e.g. with foreign language support if required by business). Network Design & Administration • Allow use of the standard email package with no extra user initialisation. • Have any business-specific software already installed. • Have any corporate purchased anti-virus, anti- spam, malware software. 6 • Have appropriate web access.
User Expectations• The workstation must not: • Force the user to do anything except log on to start working. • Allow the user to install their own choices of Network Design & Administration packages (unless authorised). • Encourage the user to keep files locally. i.e. it must, wherever possible, default to sending work to file servers. • It may be worthwhile to provide users with a do / don’t list when they first get a new workstation. 7
File System FormatsHistorical (nearly)Still used Network Design & AdministrationNecessary for servers 8
Hard disk geometry Network Design & Administration• Hard disks usually have a number of platters contained within them.• Each side of a platter is used and will have it’s own read/write head. 9• Each surface will contain a number of tracks and sectors.
Magnetic Disks Network Design & Administration• Example of two sectors on a portion of a disk track 10
Installing the OS• There are a number of ways of doing this: • Locally – by typing in parameters as prompted during the process (media option) • Using Windows Automated Installation Kit (AIK) Network Design & Administration • Can deploy from: • Media (unattended flash drive/ISO/DVD) • Network (deploy image via a network) • Server (deploy via a server) 12
Windows Systems ImageManager Architecture Network Design & Administration 13
Integrating Linux• Easy to add Windows workstations to an Active Directory Domain!• It is not so easy to integrate other Operating Systems (e.g. Linux)Considerations for integrating Linux:1. Authenticate against the AD server Network Design & Administration • Setup Kerberos package (install using apt-get) • Configure Kerberos with realm for domain • Configure key server and domain details • Generate a new Kerberos ticket2. Setup SMB file access (via Samba) • Configure smb.conf with realm details3. Configure nsswitch.conf • Add WINS, DNS and BIND information4. Join domain. 155. Still have to set up file shares etc!
Summary• Many different methods of installation.• Can depend on starting point (e.g. upgrade or bare machine)• More automation has more pre-requisites. Network Design & Administration• Increased automation reduces Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) • This is critical in a business environment. 16
Next Time & References• Corporate architecture• Domains and Active Directory Domain Services “The Practice of System and Network Administration”, Limoncelli, Network Design & AdministrationChapter 184.108.40.206 “The Practice of System and Network Administration”, Limoncelli, p42,Figure 3.1 (from Evard, 1997) Windows SIM architecture, Microsoft help file (WAIK)(http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc766157%28WS.10%29.aspx) “Structured Computer Organisation”, Andrew Tanenbaum, 2006 17