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  • 1. Earth Pavan Sukhdev El valor de la naturaleza en estado silvestre
  • 2. 11/12/09 10 th Nov 2009 WILD-9 Merida The Value of Nature : Perspectives from TEEB Pavan Sukhdev Study Leader, TEEB, & Special Adviser & Head - Green Economy, UNEP llllllllllllllll
  • 3.
    • 9% improvement in our citizens’ health ?
    • 9% more education – either quantity or quality ?
    • 9% increase in our citizen’s well-being ?
    • 9% decrease in poverty ?
    • None of the above ?
    Question : Which of the following was achieved by 9% GDP Growth ?
  • 4.
    • 9% improvement in our citizens’ health ?
    • 9% more education – either quantity or quality ?
    • 9% increase in our citizen’s well-being ?
    • 9% decrease in poverty ?
    • None of the above ?
    Question : Which of the following was achieved by 9% GDP Growth ? V
  • 5. “ Green GDP”: Losses too large to ignore… Source : GIST’s “Green Accounting for Indian States Project” Monographs # 1, 4, 7, & 8. ( Eg : INDIA : Net Resource Loss Adj’s as % of Gross State Domestic Product ; 2002-03) Natural Infrastructure must be treated the same as Built Infrastructure : Invest in it, Account for Depreciation …. A must for Sustainable Development Natural Resource State Fresh-water Forest Biomass Forest Bio-diversity Forest Eco-Services Capital Loss as % of GSDP Freshwater Quality Timber, Fuel-wood, Carbon storage, NTFP Eco-Tourism, Species WTP, Bio-prospecting, Water storage, Flood control, Topsoil retention Bihar - 5.4 % - 4.7 % - 0.0 % - 0.4 % - 10.5 % Himachal - 9.7 % - 2.0 % - 21.8 % - 7.4 % - 40.9 % Karnataka - 1.7 % +0.1 % - 8.2 % - 2.6 % - 12.4 % Uttar Pradesh - 17.5 % - 0.1 % - 8.7 % - 1.8 % - 28.1 % Goa -17.6 % +0.4 % -20.9 % - 5.1 % - 43.2 %
  • 6. 11/12/09 Chichen-Itza : Sacrificial Temple
  • 7. 11/12/09 Chichen-Itza : Pre-sacrificial Cleansing Bath
  • 8. TEEB – “Phase 1” Three Key Messages Economic Size & Welfare Impact of Losses is huge Strong link with Poverty & risk of MDG’s failure Discount rates are ethical choices
  • 9. 12.11.09 UNEP ETB Source: Ben ten Brink (MNP) presentation at the Workshop: The Economics of the Global Loss of Biological Diversity 5-6 March 2008, Brussels, Belgium. Original source: Pauly
    • Open Access & Perverse Subsidies are key drivers of the loss of fisheries
    • Half of wild marine fisheries are fully exploited, with a further quarter already over-exploited
    • at risk : $ 80-100 billion income from the sector
    • at risk : est. 27 million jobs
    • but most important of all…..
    at risk : Health … over a billion rely on fish as their main or sole source of animal protein, especially in developing countries. Global Loss of Fisheries… Human Welfare Impact We are fishing down the food web to ever smaller species…
  • 10. TEEB ‘Phase 2’ is FIVE reports.. (“Mainstreaming”) D0 D1 D3 D2 D4 Businesses.. Citizens.. Administrators.. Policy-Makers.. 11/12/09 Ecology & Economics Foundations..
  • 11. 12.11.09 Global Loss of Fisheries… Is there a Solution ? (see TEEB – D1, out in November) We are fishing down the food web to ever smaller species… (Source : Prof. Callum Roberts, University of York) Is there evidence that reserves work ? Reserves all over the world show dramatic increases in spawning stocks
  • 12. Source: Fogarty et al. (2007) Eg : Distribution of fishing effort around Georges Bank closed areas
  • 13. 73% of the United States Haddock catch is now taken within 5km of the closed area boundaries Source: Fogarty et al. (2007)
  • 14. TEEB - Climate Issues Update
    • Coral reef emergency
    Ecosystem investment for climate adaptation National accounting for forest carbon Forest carbon for climate mitigation
  • 15. Tropical Coral Reefs… … can be very valuable : Eco-tourism, hazard defence, food, etc, values of upto $ 1.1 million/ hectare/year ( median about $ 100 K, across 90 examples)
  • 16. WHAT WE THINK CORAL REEFS LOOK LIKE….
  • 17. WHAT THEY ACTUALLY LOOK LIKE….
  • 18. Coral Reef Valuations & Thresholds…
    • Tropical Coral Reefs are at a threshold of irreversibility
    • Remember …..“Economics is mere weaponry, its targets are ethical choices”
    • Ethical choice coming up : Stabilization Targets …
    • @ 450 ppm CO2
    • (no Tropical Coral Reefs in 10-40 yrs)
    • OR
    • @ 350 ppm CO2 ?
    • (Tropical Coral Reef may survive in the long term….)
    11/12/09
  • 19. TEEB - Climate Issues Update
    • Coral reef emergency
    Ecosystem investment for climate adaptation National accounting for forest carbon Forest carbon for climate mitigation
  • 20. The Colours of Carbon
    • H alting the loss of “green” and “blue” carbon could mitigate as much as 25% of total GHG emissions,
    • with co-benefits for biodiversity, food & water security, and livelihoods ( IPCC 2007, Nellemann et al. in press )
    • Brown Carbon
    • CO 2 emissions from energy use and industry
    Green Carbon carbon stored in terrestrial ecosystems, including tropical forests Blue Carbon 55% of all carbon in living organisms is stored in oceans Black Carbon C arbon (soot) emitted by inefficient wood & coal burning
  • 21.
    • store a fourth of all terrestrial carbon (Trumper et al, 2009)
    • capture up to 4.8 Gt CO2 annually (Lewis & White, 2009)
    Tropical Forests of the World…. Largest Terrestrial Carbon Sinks
  • 22. TEEB - Climate Issues Update
    • Coral reef emergency
    Ecosystem investment for climate adaptation National accounting for forest carbon Forest carbon for climate mitigation
  • 23. 11/12/09 Ecological Infrastructure for Adaptation
    • ADAPTING TO THREE BIG CLIMATE IMPACTS
    • Freshwater Scarcity : Maintain and Restore Forests, Lakes, Wetlands
    • 2. Agricultural & Fisheries Productivity : Forests for nutrients and freshwater flows, Mangroves and Coral reefs as fish nurseries, and small-scale natural buffers ( forest and grassland patches) agricultural areas
    • 3. Natural Hazards : Storm & Cyclone damage reduction through
    • Coral reefs, mangrove forests ; flood and drought damage limitation
    • through forest cover
  • 24. Exceptional Returns from Ecosystem Restoration…
  • 25. 11/12/09
  • 26. 11/12/09 Tarzali, Atherton Tablelands, North Queensland
  • 27. 11/12/09 Complex Mesophyll Vine Forest (CMVF-1(b))…. Day 1
  • 28. 11/12/09 Local Volunteers – TREAT
  • 29. 11/12/09 Complex Mesophyll Vine Forest (CMVF-1(b))…. 9 Months !
  • 30. Thank you ! Further information www.teebweb.org