Military leadership


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Military leadership

  2. 2. OVERVIEW<br />Definition of Leadership<br />Factors of Leadership<br />Principles of Leadership<br />Leadership Attributes<br />Leadership Styles<br />Definition of Followership<br />Types of Followers<br />Rules of Followership<br />
  3. 3. "Leadership is the art of getting someone else to do something you want done because he wants to do it."<br />~ Dwight D. Eisenhower<br />
  4. 4. Leadership Defined:<br />Leadership is the process of directing the behavior of others toward the accomplishment of some common objectives.<br />"Leadership is influencing people to get things done to a standard and quality above their norm. And doing it willingly."<br />
  5. 5. FACTORS of leadership:<br /><ul><li>Different people require different styles of leadership.
  6. 6. A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation.
  7. 7. You must know your people!
  8. 8. The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature, such as needs, emotions, and motivation.
  9. 9. You must come to know your employees' be, know, and do attributes.
  10. 10. Must have an honest understanding of who you are, what you know, and what you can do.
  11. 11. It is the followers, not the leader or someone else who determines if the leader is successful.
  12. 12. To be successful you have to convince your followers, not yourself or your superiors, that you are worthy of being followed.
  13. 13. You lead through two-way communication.
  14. 14. Much of it is nonverbal.
  15. 15. What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees.
  16. 16. All situations are different. What you do in one situation will not always work in another.
  17. 17. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation.
  18. 18. The situation normally has a greater effect on a leader's action than his or her traits. </li></li></ul><li>BE<br />what they are (such as beliefs and character)<br />know<br />what they know (such as job, tasks, and human nature)<br />DO<br />what they do (such as implementing, motivating, and providing direction). <br />
  19. 19. PRINCIPLES OF LEADERSHIP<br />Know yourself and seek self-improvement. In order to know yourself, you have to understand your “be”, “know”, and “do” attributes. This is possible by continually strengthening your attributes by reading and self-study.<br />Be technically proficient. As a leader, you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your employees’ jobs.<br />Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions. Search for ways to guide your organization to new heights. And when things go wrong, do not blame others.<br />
  20. 20. PRINCIPLES OF LEADERSHIP<br />Make sound and timely decisions. Use good problem solving, decision-making, and planning tools.<br />Set the example. Be a good role model for you employees. They will believe what they see not what they hear.<br />Know your people and look out for their well-being. Know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for your workers.<br />Keep your people informed. Know how to communicate with your people, seniors, and other key people within the organization.<br />
  21. 21. PRINCIPLES OF LEADERSHIP<br />Develop a sense of accountability, ownership and responsibility in your people. These traits will help them carry out their professional responsibilities.<br />Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished. Communication is the key to this responsibility.<br />Train your people as a team. By developing team spirit, you will be able to employ your organization, department, section, etc. to its fullest capabilities.<br />
  22. 22. Attributes OF a LEADER:<br />BE a professional. Examples: Be loyal to the organization, perform selfless service, take personal responsibility. <br />BE a professional who possess good character traits. Examples: Honesty, competence, candor, commitment, integrity, courage, straightforwardness, imagination. <br />KNOW the four factors of leadership — follower, leader, communication, situation. <br />KNOW yourself. Examples: strengths and weakness of your character, knowledge, and skills. <br />KNOW human nature. Examples: Human needs, emotions, and how people respond to stress. <br />KNOW your job. Examples: be proficient and be able to train others in their tasks. <br />KNOW your organization. Examples: where to go for help, its climate and culture, who the unofficial leaders are. <br />DO provide direction. Examples: goal setting, problem solving, decision making, planning. <br />DO implement. Examples: communicating, coordinating, supervising, evaluating. <br />DO motivate. Examples: develop morale and esprit de corps in the organization, train, coach, counsel. <br />
  23. 23. LEADERSHIP STYLES:<br />Authoritarian or autocratic <br />Participative or democratic <br />Delegative or Free Reign <br />
  24. 24. LEADERSHIP STYLES:<br />Authoritarian or autocratic <br /><ul><li>“I want both of you to. . .”
  25. 25. Used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers.
  26. 26. Some of the appropriate conditions to use it is when you have all the information to solve the problem, you are short on time, and your employees are well motivated. </li></li></ul><li>LEADERSHIP STYLES:<br />Participative (democratic)<br /><ul><li>Let's work together to solve this. . .
  27. 27. Involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority.
  28. 28. Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect.
  29. 29. Normally used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other parts.
  30. 30. Using this style is of mutual benefit — it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions. </li></li></ul><li>LEADERSHIP STYLES:<br />Delegative (free reign)<br /><ul><li>You two take care of the problem while I go. . .
  31. 31. The leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made.
  32. 32. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything! You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks.
  33. 33. This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this is a style to be used when you fully trust and confidence in the people below you. Do not be afraid to use it, however, use it wisely!</li></li></ul><li>followership Defined:<br />Adherence to a leader<br />It is jointly an art and a science requiring skill and conceptualization of roles in innovative ways—one perhaps more essential to mission success than leader development. <br />Without followership, a leader at any level will fail to produce effective institutions.<br />It is a responsibility no less important than that of a leader and it enables good leadership. <br />It is a given that we are followers more often than leaders. <br />
  34. 34. REASONS TO FOLLOW:<br />Fear of Retribution<br />“If I do not follow, I may lose my job!” <br />Following out of fear isn’t as much following as it is using a coercive type of power. <br />The leader in this case only continues being successful (in maintaining followers) as long as the follower sees no other option. Not a tool of effective (and ethical) leaders.<br />Blind Hope<br />“We must do something, and I hope this works!” <br />In this situation, the follower is desperate for some solution and is probably only following due to a lack of alternatives. <br />Leaders should watch out for followers like these, as they are likely to flee and follow others who give them more hope.<br />
  35. 35. REASONS TO FOLLOW:<br />Faith in Leader<br />“What a great person. If anyone knows the answer, they do!” <br />The follower is blind to the solution but follows because they have put faith in the leader. <br />Leaders should also be wary of these individuals, as they believe that by some magic or genius, the leader will provide the answer to the follower’s needs. Disappointment is inevitable, and no leader is perfect.<br />Intellectual Agreement<br />“What a good idea, that certainly makes sense!” <br />Logic guides this rationale, and the follower understands the logic of the argument the leader is putting forward. <br />This type of followership is common for educated individuals who need to comprehend why things happen.<br />
  36. 36. REASONS TO FOLLOW:<br />Buying the Vision<br />Whata brilliant idea, I don’t care who thought of it!” <br />When followers buy a vision, they are emotionally identifying with a view of the future that appeals to them in some way. <br />They are not just following a leader or logic; they are focused on the idea of moving toward the shared goals of a group or organization. <br />This is a very useful rationale for leaders to work toward, but only if it can be sustained over a period of time.<br />
  37. 37. TYPES OF FOLLOWERS:<br />Isolators<br />Know little about the leader.<br />Disinterested in company.<br />Disappears into the crowd.<br />Works to pay the bills.<br />Detached and lethargic.<br />Incentives to engage don’t work.<br />Bystanders<br />Aware but chooses not to engage.<br />Passively goes along to serve self interest.<br />Not motivated.<br />Avoid the risk to be involved.<br />Could be swayed by incentives to engage.<br />
  38. 38. TYPES OF FOLLOWERS:<br />Participants<br />Engaged to make a difference.<br />Willing to speak up.<br />Supports the leader and organization.<br />Intrinsically self motivated<br />Activists<br />Strongly supports or doesn’t support the leader and/or organization.<br />Eager and energetic.<br />Puts in long hours.<br />Often in the leaders’ inner circle.<br />High degree of initiative.<br />
  39. 39. TYPES OF FOLLOWERS:<br />Participants<br />All consuming commitment either for or against leader and/ or organization.<br />Often emerge in dire situations.<br />Risk their own well being for their cause.<br />
  40. 40. Rules of followership<br />Don't blame your boss for an unpopular decision; your job is to support, not undermine. Although extremely easy to blame a superior, it only exhibits disloyalty and undermines unit cohesion. The question is irrelevant whether we agree; the boss has decided and we will carry it out.<br />Fight with your boss if necessary; but do it in private. As followers we have an obligation to express our reservations about an issue. Speak frankly and honestly with your boss; fight for your people and your organization; but do so in private.<br />Use initiative. No one likes micromanagers, created when subordinates stand by and wait for specific instructions. Overcome this by simply showing initiative, accomplishing the task, and accurately briefing the results.<br />
  41. 41. Rules of followership<br />Accept responsibility when offered. The military cannot succeed and evolve unless it is composed of risk takers willing to accept responsibility. It is difficult to assume responsibility because people fear failure. Even Gen Curtis LeMay commented that he had never been given a job that he felt qualified to handle. Be a risk taker, accept responsibility.<br />Tell the truth; don't quibble; your boss gives advice up the chain of command. Human nature is to cover up mistakes but this can lead to misfortunes. Tell the truth, your nation and the military's reputation depends on it.<br />Do your homework; give your boss all the necessary information; anticipate possible questions. Become an expert on your subject. Think through the implications of the problem. Anticipate questions and prepare answers. Then propose your course of action.<br />
  42. 42. Rules of followership<br />When making a recommendation, remember who will probably have to implement it. Know your strengths, limitations and weaknesses. Do not propose impracticable solutions. Know who you are; put yourself in positions that maximize your strengths while masking your limitations. This will make you a more successful subordinate.<br />Keep your boss informed of what's going on in the unit. As leaders advance in rank others are less inclined to speak with them. When information does flow it is heavily filtered. The boss needs subordinates who routinely mention what has transpired in the unit. The boss needs to know the good and bad.<br />If you see a problem, fix it. Don't worry about who gets the credit. Too often we notice a problem and think "it's not my problem." It is our problem. The essence of military life is teamwork. If you see a problem, take care of it. We are all in this together.<br />
  43. 43. Rules of followership<br />Put in more than an honest day's work, but don't forget the needs of your family. Work hard, but don't become a "workaholic." Your family needs you. If they are miserable it will probably adversely affect your job performance.<br />
  44. 44. SUMMARY:<br />Definition of Leadership<br />Factors of Leadership<br />Principles of Leadership<br />Leadership Attributes<br />Leadership Styles<br />Definition of Followership<br />Types of Followers<br />Rules of Followership<br />
  45. 45. Any Questions?<br />
  46. 46. We have good corporals and good sergeants and some good lieutenants and captains, and those are far more important than good generals.<br />—Gen William T. Sherman<br />