Engine systems diesel engine analyst - full

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Engine systems diesel engine analyst - full

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  • February 4, 2013
  • February 4, 2013
  • February 4, 2013 Let’s briefly review the agenda for the presentation. First, I will briefly go over the Caterpillar engine families, features of each family, their service strategies, and machine usage of the engines. Second, we will cover the works and wears of Caterpillar engines. Specifically, I will describe the works and wears of main parts of the engines starting with (1) internal components, then (2) the cooling system, then (3) the lubrication system, then (4) the fuel system, then (5) the air system, and finally (6) electronics on Caterpillar engines. Thirdly, I will briefly explain how Caterpillar engine parts are differentiated from competitive parts in design, quality, and life. Next, we will cover how Cat Reman Products supplies a viable repair option by offering quality remanufactured parts at a fraction of the price of new parts.
  • February 4, 2013 This chart shows that Caterpillar has a very broad range of power ratings (11 - 13,600 hp) for it’s diesel engine product line. Acquisitions of Perkins and MaK make this range the broadest in the world. Although shown on this chart, this presentation will not cover the Caterpillar 3600 Series Engine family or the C-M (Caterpillar-MaK) engine products.
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  • February 4, 2013 An engine’s compression ratio is the ratio of the maximum volume of a cylinder (cylinder volume when piston is at bottom dead center) to the minimum volume (cylinder volume when piston is at top dead center). This ratio is usually expressed as a value-to-1. For example, if the maximum cylinder volume is 160 in. 3 and the minimum cylinder volume is 10 in. 3 , then according to the formula: 160/10 = 16 Therefore the compression ratio is 16:1 (16-to-1)
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  • February 4, 2013 All engine manufacturers have to use a set of values given by the Society of Automotive Engineers to measure the horsepower of their engines. This is to guarantee that everyone is comparing the same set of values for their customers to compare with other manufacturers.
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  • February 4, 2013 For 2002 and after, no dash between the letter and number means an ACERT engine
  • February 4, 2013 4 represents bore size like 4” bore size on the 3406
  • February 4, 2013 These are some of the features of the 3000 Series Engines. Dry Sleeve Engine One piece block assembly -- provides increased structural integrity and durability to the engine block, the core structure for the whole engine. Improved fuel economy Lightweight w/ high horsepower to weight ratios -- Since most of these smaller engines are used in vehicular applications, weight is important. When an engine’s power is used for vehicle movement, having a high horsepower to weight ratio is beneficial because not only is the engine moving the vehicle, but it’s also moving itself. So, if higher horsepower can be achieved with lower weight, power to move the vehicle is supplied more efficiently. How many work with these machines. How are you product supporting? Special Rates? They will be very popular We are working on product support. Some are supported at the component level, some at piece part. There are various fuel systems from suppliers.
  • February 4, 2013 We will now discuss the service strategy for the 3000 series engines, first reviewing the current serviceability for the engines, then going over the rebuild strategies for the engines. The current serviceability of 3000 series engines can differ depending on the engine model. For example, the 3003, 3013, 3024, and the 3034 are supported only at component level. This means that only whole components (like water pumps, oil pumps, turbochargers, etc.) can be purchased for these engines. Also, for these smaller 3000 series engines, reman offerings will be offered only as volume or the need dictates the creation of reman parts. On the other hand, the 3046, 3054, 3056, 3066 are supported at the piece part level. This means that individual piece parts for the components (such as seals, gaskets, o-rings, pump gears, etc.) can be purchased. Rebuild strategies for the 3000 series family also differ depending on the engine model. The 3003 - 3034 have and expected engine life equal to that of the machine life, and therefore will not be rebuilt. Conversely, the 3046 - 3066 have limited rebuild opportunities; the machine life is longer than that of the engine, so engine rebuild is one option to help extend the life of the machine. There are various fuel systems from suppliers.
  • February 4, 2013 C6.6The injectors are fully electronically controlled and located under the rocker cover. In the 3056E the injectors were fully mechanical and located outside the rocker cover. Quite a difference! 4 valves per cylinder The bottom end of the C6.6 ACERT is all new as well. With a sculpted block design, stiffness has increased and noise has decreased. In fact, the C6.6 ACERT is noticeably quieter than it’s predecessor. That’s the first thing most people notice about this engine… how quiet it is! A new heavy duty crankshaft handles the increased power output of the C6.6 ACERT, while new connecting rods and pistons do their part to increase power and lower emissions and noise. For the first time, 100% of the engine power can be taken off the front of the crankshaft . The C6.6 is currently used in industrial and generator set applications. Future machines that will use this engine include: WL 924,928,938; TTL 953,763; TTT D5N; WTS 613C; Wheel Skidder 525C
  • February 4, 2013 Crossflow cylinder heads help make air flow through the engine and combustion chamber more efficiently, adding to the overall effectiveness of ACERT. Cross-flow cylinder head design is an air system enhancement. It means that the air intake is on one one side of the head and the exhaust is on the other or opposite side. Intake air flows into one side and the spent exhaust gases flows out the other side of the head. The results are that the engine breathes better and will performs better and produces more power.
  • February 4, 2013 The ADEM A4 Electronic Control module manages fuel delivery, valve timing and airflow to get the most performance per gallon of fuel used. The control module also monitors engine and machine conditions while keeping the engine at peak efficiency. C& engine sound reduction features include composite valve covers with a fully isolated base, a steel oil pan and a cat iron front cover The turbocharged ATAAC system provides high horsepower with increased response time while keeping exhaust temperatures low for long hours of continuous operation. ATAAC keeps air intake temperatures down, maximizing fuel efficiency and minimizing emissions
  • February 4, 2013 Unlike 3000 series engines, all 3100 series engines basically have the same service strategy. In terms of current serviceability, all 3100 series engines are supported at the piece part level. Also, as one repair option, cost-effective rebuilds can be performed on each 3100 series engine. Another repair option for the 3100 series engines is reman. Reman components and piston packs are available for these engines along with limited availability of reman short blocks. Currently, a 3116 reman bare block is also available. Could press in dry sleeve into block for block repair.
  • February 4, 2013 Following are the features of 3300 and 3400 series engines: One piece block -- This engine block is a very rigid and durable cast block. One piece cylinder head -- is a one piece high strength gray iron casting that is designed for rigidity. The cylinder head is cast using an encapsulated core process, which improves core cleanliness and maintains closer casting tolerances resulting in a higher quality casting. Caterpillar fuel system -- Since a Caterpillar system is used, the engine components are designed to work as a system, therefore resulting in a systematic and predictable manner. Using will-fit parts is using parts that don’t incorporate “designed-in” qualities that may result in poor engine operation and failure. Replaceable wet cylinder liners -- are used so that worn liners can be replaced easily without having to bore the block (as done with parent bore engines). “wet” cylinder liners allow cooling of the liners to reduce friction and overheating which could cause early-hour failure. Roller cam followers and steel camshaft -- Roller cam followers help the push rods follow the camshaft geometry in a more controlled manner while reducing wear on the camshaft and on traditional cam followers. A steel camshaft provides increased strength and wear resistance which results in longer life and reliability. Totally hardened forged steel crankshaft -- Forging the crankshaft produces a high strength, rigid, durable crankshaft. Because it is totally hardened (through hardened), the crankshaft has a higher resistance to impact throughout the cross-section of the crankshaft. Together, forging and hardening contributes to a reliable crankshaft with a longer life.
  • February 4, 2013 Compression ratio 17:1
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  • February 4, 2013 C15 ACERT is based off the C-15 platform Displacement changes from 14.6 to 15.2 ltr. Bore remains 137mm Stroke increases to 171mm from 165mm Compression ratio is constant across the various HP ratings. Major differences between ratings is seen in the turbocharger boost setting, fuel injector changes (e.g. nozzle orifice size) and camshaft configuration (fuel injector lobe). The increase to 18:1 compression ratio has beneficial effects on cold start and white smoke. One of the key features of ACERT technology is increased sophistication in the fuel injection system. A more powerful ECM is able to more precisely control the fuel injection event. C18 – Bore increased from137mm to 145mm Stroke increased from 171mm to 183mm
  • February 4, 2013 The C27 engine with ACERT™ Technology uses advanced engine technology to meet worldwide emissions regulations. The electronic engine delivers improved performance, serviceability, and reliability. The twelve cylinder engine is twin turbocharged and aftercooled with a high displacement to horsepower ratio. The large engine displacement produces better lugging capability, lower internal stresses, and longer component life. Two, single (one per head) overhead cams are driven by gears on the flywheel side of the engine (instead of a single camshaft in the engine block as found on the 3412E in the D10R). Placing cam gears at the flywheel significantly reduces noise and vibration. Vibration and noise add tremendous load to an engine and contribute to premature wear. The C27 features unprecedented tight system tolerances between the pistons and the wet cylinder liners. These tight tolerances support the significantly higher cylinder pressures and compression ratios in the engine, resulting in more complete combustion of fuel, reduced blow-by and fewer emissions. The C27 engine block eliminates internal bends and turns within the engine resulting in improved air flow. The block features a design that adds structural strength through compaction and thicker walls. The MEUI fuel system is a highly evolved fuel system with a proven track record of reliability in the field. It is a system that combines the technical advancement of electronic controls with the simplicity of direct mechanically controlled unit fuel injection. The ADEM™A4 electronic control module manages the fuel delivery and airflow to get the best performance per gallon/liter of fuel used. It provides flexible fuel mapping, allowing the engine to respond quickly to varying application needs. Increased compression ratio of 18:1.
  • February 4, 2013 3300 and 3400 series engine models are all serviced at the piece part level in addition to the sub-component level. Cost-effective rebuilds can be performed on all 3300 and 3400 series engine models. Also, Reman components, short blocks, long blocks, and complete engines are offered through Cat Reman.
  • February 4, 2013 Following are the features of 3500 series engines: One piece high strength cast engine block -- one piece block offers rigidity and durability, while casting the block offers high strength all resulting in a very reliable engine block with a very long life. Except for 3524 which has 2 blocks. Individual cylinder heads Four valves per cylinder -- to increase the flow in and out of the combustion chamber. Increased amounts of air allows more fuel to be burned and creates higher engine horsepower output. Self-aligning roller cam followers -- roller cam followers that follow the curvature of the camshaft lobes precisely so that valves open and close at precisely the right time to increase overall performance and efficiency of the engine. Oil cooled pistons -- oil reservoirs in the pistons allow cooling of the not only the piston skirt, but also the stainless steel upper part of the piston that is exposed to combustion. Keeping the pistons cool prevents out of round and fiction and other damage due to elevated temperatures of the piston. Unit injectors at 20,000 psi -- Increase injection pressures allows the fuel to burn more efficiently and effectively, providing increased horsepower and less emissions. NOTE: For elevated injection pressures in the injectors, fuel must be filtered very well or contamination particles will cause injection failure. Caterpillar fuel system -- Since a Caterpillar system is used, the engine components are designed to work as a system, therefore resulting in a systematic and predictable manner. Using will-fit parts is using parts that don’t incorporate “designed-in” qualities that may result in poor engine operation and failure.
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  • February 4, 2013 This chart shows the engine usage in 4 selected vehicular applications; Track Type Tractors (TTT), Off-Highway Trucks (OHT), Hydraulic Excavators (HEX), Wheel Loaders (WL). The chart also shows how many other vehicular applications the engines are used in other than the 4 selected.
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  • February 4, 2013 Hand in hand with the discussion of how engines work is how they wear. No matter the quality, every engine experiences wear, there is no denying it. (Yes even Caterpillar engines!) Wear is the result of three things; contact, pressure, and relative motion. All three must be present in a component or on a part in order for wear to take place. For our purpose, we will classify engine wear into two categories; normal and abnormal engine wear. Normal wear occurs in all engines. As parts push, slide and work against each other, wear occurs. Normal wear is that which we expect during engine operation. The normal wear items in a diesel engine include the piston rings, cylinder liners, valves and valve guides, main and rod bearings and if equipped, turbocharger bearings and seals. Abnormal wear is any wear other than that from normal engine operation. Generally, abnormal wear results from incorrect maintenance or operating technique. Using the wrong oil, extending oil changes interval, not maintaining the coolant conditioner concentration, and inadequate machine warm-up are typical practices that cause abnormal wear and premature engine failure. It is important to understand the major wear items in a diesel engine, and they’re worth repeating: Cylinder liners Piston rings Seals & gaskets Turbocharger bearings and seals Valves, guides, and seats Main and rod bearings Other parts which usually require reconditioning at overhaul but have a war life of two or more engine overhaul cycles are: Cylinder block Pistons Crankshaft Cylinder heads & valves Connecting rods Camshafts & valve train
  • February 4, 2013 We’ll start off talking about engine works and wears by first understanding some basic engine terms and the combustion process.
  • February 4, 2013 On the intake stroke, as the piston moves from top dead center to bottom dead center, air is pulled into the cylinder through the open intake valve(s). As the piston moves up, both the intake and exhaust valves are closed. Air trapped in the combustion chamber is compressed by the upward travel of the piston to around 1/15 th its original volume. As the air is compressed, the cylinder pressures increase up to 600 – 1000 psi Compressing the air to such a small volume causes it to reach a temperature of about 1,000 degrees F. This extreme temperature increase caused by the increase in pressure is called the “Heat of Compression”
  • February 4, 2013 On the power stroke, the piston reaches the top of its stroke, atomized diesel fuel is injected into the combustion chamber. The 1,000 degree F temperature of the compressed air causes the fuel to ignite immediately. The burning fuel raises the temperature in the combustion chamber to 3500 degrees F, producing rapidly expanding combustion gases, which increase pressure in the combustion chamber to over 1,800 psi. This high pressure combustion gas drives the piston downward. The downward force of the expanding combustion gas is transferred through the piston and connecting rod to the crankshaft, and converted to rotating power at the flywheel. By the time the piston reaches the bottom of its stroke, the combustion process has ended and no more power is transferred to the piston. The rotating momentum of the crankshaft and flywheel force the piston upward as the exhaust valve opens. Burned combustion gas is forced out of the combustion chamber and into the exhaust system. When the piston reached the top of its stroke, the exhaust valve closes, and the intake valve opens. The continuing momentum of the crankshaft and flywheel pulls the piston downward as pressurized air enters the combustion chamber through the open intake valve. This starts the intake cycle and repeats the combustion process.
  • February 4, 2013 This animation shows how the combustion process of a diesel engine creates reciprocating motion of the piston inside the cylinder.
  • February 4, 2013 This animation shows how the connecting rod and crankshaft convert the reciprocating motion of the piston inside the cylinder to rotational motion at the flywheel.
  • February 4, 2013 Most engine overhauls are due to normal long term wear of the piston rings. When the rings reach the end of their usable wear life, they begin to lose the ability to effectively seal combustion gas and control oil on the cylinder wall. Symptoms which indicate ring wear are: low power, excessive blow-by, and excessive oil consumption. Oil consumption occurs when lubricating oil on the cylinder liner walls is allowed past the piston rings into the combustion chamber or when oil passes into the combustion chamber due to excessive clearance between the valves and valve guides. Normally the rings control the amount and thickness of the oil on the liner wall, but if worn, the increased clearance between the ring and liner allows excessive amounts of oil in the combustion chamber. The oil then burns along with the fuel. As the engine operates, additional amounts of oil are consumed creating the need to continually add oil to the engine. Blowby occurs when combustion gases travel past the rings and/or valves and valve guides from the combustion chamber into the crankcase. This allows carbon, soot and other contaminants to mix with the oil increasing engine wear. Other causes of increased oil consumption and blowby include: worn turbocharger bearings and seals worn crankshaft seals worn oil-lubricated governor seals oil leaking into the fuel or cooling systems The terms oil consumption and blowby are often used interchangeably. To assist in diagnosing engine problems, blowby is a more specific term and is easier to measure than increased oil consumption. Blowby can be checked by measuring crankcase pressure with a pressure gauge or by checking blowby volume with a blowby meter. Oil consumption is harder to measure since it depends on good consistent maintenance records - something many customers don’t have. Also blowby can be measured at any time. Whereas oil consumption has to be measured over several days or weeks. The important point is oil consumption and blowby both result from engine wear, the most common type being piston ring and liner wear.
  • February 4, 2013 There have been many design improvements to the basic engine components and combustion development over the years. Improvements to the block, heads, pistons, rods, and bearings, and crankshaft have permitted much higher cylinder pressures to be converted to flywheel horsepower. We’ll start off talking about engine works and wears with internal components.
  • February 4, 2013 The internal components of an engine (here, the components that are required for the engine to supply usable horsepower) are: pistons, rings, and liners valves and valve guides connecting rods crankshaft, main bearings, and connecting rod bearings cylinder head gaskets The most critical wear parts (parts that need replacement most often) in the Internal Components category are: Rings Valve Guides Bearings
  • February 4, 2013 The C11/C13 engines have the cam lobe in the block itself as in this diagram; therefore, they use pushrods to operate the rocker arms whereas the C15 has its cam in the head as illustrated in a later slide. Intake and exhaust valves must withstand high heat and operating stresses of opening and closing. They are considered normal wear items and are replaced at each engine overhaul
  • February 4, 2013 The piston, piston rings, and cylinder liner work together to seal expanding combustion gas in the combustion chamber. Cyl. Liner: The cylinder liner forms the walls of the combustion chamber. It houses the piston and provides a path and dynamic sealing surface during piston movement. Part of engine block coolant passage that removes heat from the combustion chamber. The o-ring seals are used to contain the coolant circulating the coolant. Piston: The piston is the component which transfers the energy thru the connecting rod and into the crankshaft. The piston will act as a pump during, the intake, the compression and exhaust strokes, it’ll draw air into the cylinder, compress it and force exhaust out of the cylinder. Piston rings perform two critical functions: Provides a positive seal between the moving piston and stationary cylinder liner to prevent high pressure combustion gas from leaking past the piston. Scrape all but a very thin film of lube oil of the cylinder wall during the downward movement of the piston to prevent the oil from burning as the cylinder wall is exposed to hot combustion gas. There are 2 basic types of piston rings: Pistons usually contain 3 or 4 piston rings. All but the bottom ring are single piece compression rings. Top and middle rings are specially designed for their respective position on the piston. Their primary function is to provide a positive seal to prevent combustion gas from leaking past the piston. Oil control rings are typically a three piece design, with two narrow scraper rings and a spring expander to separate the scraper rings and force the against the cylinder wall. Oil control rings are always on the bottom of the piston so they can scrape excess oil off the cylinder wall during the downward stroke of the piston.
  • February 4, 2013 C15 uses a one piece steel piston. Connecting rod has four cap bolts and a oil hole through the beam to lubricate the wrist pin. Since a main part of ACERT technology is increased cylinder pressure, the piston and connecting rod have been beefed up to withstand the greater forces placed on them.
  • February 4, 2013 Connecting rods are one of the most robust parts of the engine. Rods rarely suffer physical failure unless they are subjected to extreme forces, such as an engine hydraulic lock or overspeed. Connecting rods may be reused for multiple life cycles, as long as they are not distorted, or do not display fretting at the rod cap from excessive use. Connecting Rod: Combustion forces are transmitted from the piston to the crankshaft by a connecting rod. It is connected to the piston with a pin at the top end It saddles the crankshaft connecting rod journal at the bottom end It is fastened in place with a connecting rod cap. Both top and bottom ends of the rod are free to rotate so that the up & down or reciprocating motion of the piston can be converted to rotary motion Combustion force loads are carried by the rod eye bushing & pin at the top. At the bottom end of the connecting rod, a bearing on the crankshaft pin journal supports combustion force loading.
  • February 4, 2013 The cylinder head is a structurally robust casting which has no inherent failure modes and typically lasts through multiple engine life cycles. Cracking of the cylinder head is a fairly rare occurrence, and is caused by severe engine overheating. Depending on the size and location of the crack, modern salvage methods often allow heads to be repaired. Pictured is a C15 cylinder head. Cylinder heads cover & seal to contain the combustion forces Also provides the air flow passages that route fresh air into and exhaust gas out of the combustion chamber. This entry and exit flow is controlled by the timed actuation of the valve train assembly controlled by the cam shaft. flow passages that route air/fuel/coolant/lubricant flow through and out of the head. AND KEEP THEM SEPRATE Cylinder Head: The cylinder head assembly is the cover that seals & contains the combustion forces. The head also provides the air flow passages that route fresh air into and exhaust gas out of the combustion chamber. This entry and exit flow is controlled by the timed actuation of the valve train assembly. The operation of the valve train assembly is controlled by the cam shaft. The intake & exhaust valves act as doors of the chamber. When the engine is running, the chamber & components are subjected to constant high temperature heat pulses generated by combustion. This heat must be removed to prevent damage to the engine. The cylinder head performs this function with flow passages that route coolant flow through and out of the head.
  • February 4, 2013 One piece unit on C11/C13 on highway truck engines and a option for C15. Works as an engine brake and controls inlet valve timing during the compression stroke. The CAT compression brake will be on some applications. This is a new component that has been developed and manufactured by CAT. Functionally it is similar to previous (Jake) compression brakes. The Cat compression braking system provides engine braking by opening the exhaust valves during the compression stroke of the engine. Using a conventional master/salve brake actuation system, the retarder opens the exhaust valves to release compressed air. The ECM contols the actuator valves through a data link that supplies and receives information from vehicle sub systems, automatically activating and deactivating the system as needed. Drivers can slow vehicle speeds on down grades without using the service brakes, making brake fade much less likely. The brake also helps the driver slow the vehicle without using the service brake when adjusting to ever changing traffic speeds on the highway.
  • February 4, 2013 The crankshaft is a very durable, forged and hardened component which lasts through multiple engine life cycles. The only wear parts on the crankshaft are the precision ground rod and main bearing journals. If moderate wear damage to the journal does occur, they can be re-ground within specified limits of material removal. Care should be taken during handling and assembly of the crankshaft to assure that no physical damage occurs to any part of the crankshaft, especially the machined surfaces. Physical damage could create a stress riser and increase the probability of a fracture and catastrophic failure. Crankshaft: Converts the up & down movement (reciprocating motion) of the pistons into a rotary motion to perform work. There are 2 rotations of the crankshaft for each 4-stroke cycle It is the power source of the engine and transmits energy to the flywheel and to the front gear train . The oil passages allow for oil to reach the journals to provide lubrication Describe & explain the parts of a crankshaft; front and rear, main brg journals, conn. rod journals, webs and counter weights. Crankshaft: The crankshaft converts the up and down movement (reciprocating motion) of the pistons into a rotary (horizontally spinning) motion that can be used to perform work. It is the power source of the engine. It transmits energy to the flywheel and the front gear train. The shape of the crankshaft determines the pistons timed movement though a stroke, the length of the stroke and the engines’ firing order. The crankshaft also smoothes out the operation of the engine by maintaining crankshaft inertia and greatly reducing the speed variation between timing pulses (power strokes).
  • February 4, 2013 The cyl. block is the structure that: The internal components mounted into The external components are bolted or fastened to. It is the cast iron foundation or supporting structure of the engine. The block when assembled has drilled and formed passages that allow coolant and lubrication oil to circulate through it.
  • February 4, 2013 We’ll start off talking about engine works and wears with internal components.
  • February 4, 2013 A key customer expectation is for increased power density; more horsepower from the smaller and lighter engines. This requires smaller engines burning more fuel to produce more horsepower. The turbo charger is basically an air pump that uses the energy of the escaping exhaust gases to compress and pump inlet air into the cylinders. Otherwise wasted exhaust energy is recovered and used to compress the inlet air. Exhaust gases flow from the cylinders, through the exhaust manifolds to the inlet, or turbine side of the turbocharger. The exhaust gases then travel from the turbine to the mufflers and exit the exhaust system. The energy from the moving exhaust gases passing through the turbine section of the turbocharger causes the blades of the turbine wheel to spin at very high speeds. The turbine wheel is mounted on a shaft that has a compressor wheel on the other end. The spinning turbine wheel drives the shaft, and causes the compressor wheel on the other end to turn at high speeds. The rapidly spinning compressor wheel draws clean air from the air filters and inlet piping, and pressurizes from atmospheric pressure to as much as 42 psi. The pressure of the compressed inlet air is known as “boost pressure”. The most common reason for turbocharger replacement is that it has reached the end of its expected wear life. If clean lube oil and inlet air is maintained, turbochargers usually run to engine overhaul. A common cause of premature failure of the turbocharger bearings is poor oil quality. These bearings spin at speeds up to 100,000 rpm and must withstand temperatures as high as 450 degrees F. Lube oil which is depleted or contaminated is not capable of providing adequate protection to the bearings. Dirt ingestion through the inlet air system causes erosion of the vanes on the compressor wheel. This erosion causes an out-of-balance condition which results in bearing failure. Turbos carry a tremendous heat load during normal operation. The bearings are protected by lube oil flowing through them, which provides lubrication and carries heat away. Shutting down a hot engine does not allow adequate time for the turbo to cool. When the engine is shut down, lube oil flow stops. The excessive heat in the turbo causes the oil in the bearings to cook into a hard carbon-like substance. This substance restricts oil flow through the bearings and results in bearing failures when the engine is restarted.
  • February 4, 2013 On a wastegate turbocharger, the wastegate is a governing system that kicks in at higher power levels. It vents excess exhaust gases to keep the turbine from spinning too fast. Wastegate turbochargers are a feature of ACERT Technology used in both on-highway and off-road applications. Using a smaller turbocharger with a wastegate the turbo spins up quicker giving good engine response. The wastegate regulates turbo speed and prevents overspeed.
  • February 4, 2013 The act of compressing the inlet air causes it to reach temperatures of up to 350 degrees F. This high temperature air is unsuitable for combustion. Peak combustion efficiency requires the cylinder be filled with the maximum amount of cool dense inlet air. Excess heat is removed from the compressed inlet air by passing it through a heat exchanger. The aftercooler is a heat exchanger that is simply comprised of a series of metal tubes through which the hot air flows. Heat from the inlet air flowing inside the tubes is absorbed through the tube walls and carried away. There are two types of aftercoolers. In an air-to-air aftercooler, air is pumped through the aftercooler housing and absorbs heat dissipated through the tube walls. This action transfers heat from the boost air within the tube to the cooler air in the housing. Jacket water aftercooler systems or separate circuit aftercooler systems use coolant pumped through the aftercooler housing to absorb heat. The heat is carried by the coolant to the radiator where it is dissipated through the radiator. The temperature of the compressed inlet air entering the aftercooler is about 335 degrees F. Upon leaving the aftercooler, the temperature has been reduced to about 190 degrees F which then travels through the intake manifolds on the engine and into the cylinders for combustion.
  • February 4, 2013 One of the most common causes of damage to the aftercooler is failure of the turbocharger compressor wheel. Catastrophic failure of the compressor wheel can cause physical damage to the aftercooler tubes resulting in coolant leakage into the inlet air stream on jacket water systems. Poor coolant maintenance may cause pitting and corrosion of the aftercooler tubes resulting in water to air leakage. Water leaking into the cylinders after the engine is shut down usually causes hydraulic lock and major engine damage.
  • February 4, 2013 Water pumps on Cat engines are generally gear driven, except on the 3208, 3114, and 3116 Engines which have belt driven water pumps.
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  • February 4, 2013 Air compressor are mostly used for brake systems on trucks, but are sometimes used for air starting systems
  • February 4, 2013 The cooling system performs several function which are critical to proper machine operation: a) Maintains proper engine temperature for optimum performance b) Cools compressed inlet air to optimize combustion c) Dissipates excess heat from other machine systems and components such as engine lube oil, powertrain, turbochargers, brakes and steering and fan.
  • February 4, 2013 Why be concerned about radiators and cooling systems? 40 - 60% of all engine downtime is associated with cooling system problems. Cooling system components include the radiator, fan, coolant, water pump, oil coolers and water temperature regulators. It is important to remind our customers to use proper start-up procedures. For example, never start operating the machine until the engine has reached the correct temperature. Clean debris from the radiator and fan. Check the radiator cap seal to ensure the rubber seal is in good condition. Inspect the water pump daily for dripping coolant or oil. Select the right coolant Cat Extended Life Coolant helps prevent overheating, overcooling and other cooling system problems and at least twice as long as traditional coolant.
  • February 4, 2013 Diesel engines operate by converting the heat energy from diesel fuel into usable mechanical energy. Ideally, 100% of the heat produced could be converted into mechanical energy. In reality, a four stroke diesel engine is only about 33% efficient. Roughly 67% of the heat produced is dissipated by the following means: 30% cooling system 30% exhaust system 7% radiated by the engine The primary function of the cooling system is to maintain correct engine temperature by taking away unwanted heat generated by combustion and friction. The temperature of burning fuel in Caterpillar Engines can reach 3,500°F (1,927°C). Coolant circulates through passages in the engine called water or coolant jackets. The coolant absorbs heat from the hot engine surfaces and carries it to the radiator where it is dissipated into the atmosphere. The cooling system also helps maintain the correct temperature of engine oil, transmission oil, and hydraulic oil through the use of oil coolers. Finally, the cooling system also provides the means for the aftercooler to cool the compressed air leaving from the turbocharger upon intake.
  • February 4, 2013 Water Pump -- The water pump provides continuous circulation of coolant whenever the engine is turning. Water pumps on Cat engines are generally gear driven, except on the 3208, 3114, and 3116 Engines which have belt driven water pumps. Radiator -- The radiator transfers heat away from the coolant, lowering coolant temperature. Coolant flows through the radiator tubes while air circulates around the fins providing a transfer of heat to the atmosphere. Coolant is a mixture of water, antifreeze (glycol), and coolant conditioner (inhibitor). For proper cooling, each must be maintained in the correct proportion. Temperature Regulator -- Also called thermostat, the temperature regulator assists in engine warm-up and helps maintain coolant and engine temperature during operation. When the engine is cold the thermostat allows coolant circulation just through the engine, bypassing the radiator (to help the engine warm-up). When the engine is at proper operating temperature the thermostat opens to allow coolant flow through the radiator (so cooling takes place). The thermostat continually opens and closes as the coolant temperature changes. Water Temperature Gauge -- The temperature gauge indicates the temperature of the coolant. The recommended operating range is generally between 190°-210°F (88-99°C). Fan - The fan forces air through the radiator to transfer heat out of the coolant and decrease coolant temperature. Fans are usually belt driven off a crankshaft pulley, but sometimes are hydraulically driven. Oil Coolers -- Oil coolers function to maintain the correct temperature of engine, transmission, and hydraulic oils. The two basic types are oil-to-coolant and oil-to-air. 1. Coolant flow is initiated by the water pump that starts and continues pumping as soon as the engine is started. 2. Coolant circulates through the engine oil cooler to cool the engine oil. 3. From the oil cooler, coolant travels into the engine block and around the hot cylinder liners picking up heat and cooling engine parts. 4. Then it travels through intricate passages in the cylinder head(s) picking up more heat around the critical valve areas. 5. From the cylinder head(s) the coolant goes to the thermostat and on to the radiator for cooling unless the regulator forces the coolant to bypass the radiator at engine warm-up. Engines with turbochargers and aftercoolers circulate partial flow of coolant from the water pump directly to the aftercooler. Here the coolant is used to lower the temperature of the air coming from the compressor side of the turbo. In addition, some machines have torque converter and transmission oil coolers which are also cooled by engine coolant.
  • February 4, 2013 Problems in the cooling system can cause accelerated erosion or catastrophic damage to the core engine components. The single most common problem is poor coolant quality. Which causes accelerated cavitation erosion of cylinder liners, corrosion, and failure of waste pump seals. Poor coolant quality is due to: Not maintaining adequate levels of coolant additives Using coolant that does not meet Cat’s specifications Not keeping the cooling system topped off Using coolant past it’s useful life Other cooling system problems which can damage core engine components include: Coolant to air leaks in the aftercooler which can cause hydraulic lock Radiator or hose failures from reusing old radiators and hosing when a new engine is installed or failure to service the coolant relief valve. Hose failures can result in a sudden coolant loss causing a very rapid increase in temperature and cracked cylinder heads. With the exception of aftercooler leaks caused by excessive vibration, most cooling system problems can be avoided with proper maintenance practices. The most critical wear parts (parts that need replacement most often) in the Cooling System are: Water Pump Regulator Connecting Hoses & Pipes
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  • February 4, 2013 We’ll start off talking about engine works and wears with internal components.
  • February 4, 2013 The lube system is the simplest, but most critical system of all to avoid damage to core engine components. Providing adequate lube pressure and keeping lube oil clean, cool and in good condition is essential to prevent accelerated wear or failure of piston rings and liners, main and rod bearings, and valve train components. The condition of the oil in the system is critical, 70-80% crankshaft bearing failures are due to oil contamination.
  • February 4, 2013 The engine Lubrication System has three main functions: Cleans Cools Seals & Lubricates Cleaning : Oil cleans parts by carrying away damaging metal particles that materialize during normal engine operations. Oil also cleans the cylinder walls and carries away carbon and lacquer deposits produced during combustion. Cooling : The second function of oil is to cool and seal parts by absorbing and carrying heat away. Sealing & Lubricating : Thirdly, oil forms a thin film or layer between the surfaces of moving parts to support and separate them. This prevents metal-to-metal contact that causes excessive wear. Synethic oil is not required for Cat engines. Customers can use it but we ship with petroleum based oil.
  • February 4, 2013 1. Oil travels from the oil pan (sump), at the bottom of the engine, up through the oil pump and 2. Then to the oil cooler. Here the oil is cooled by engine coolant. 3. Then the oil goes through the oil filter(s) where debris and contaminants are removed. 4. Clean oil then moves into the oil manifold where it takes two path: A. Into the engine to lubricate components, such as the bearings, gears, pistons, liners, valves, etc. B. And a smaller flow directly to the turbocharger. The oil then returns to the engine oil sump (pan) to start the cycle again. A bypass valve in the filter base allows unfiltered oil to bypass a plugged filter so the engine will always have some oil. When the oil is cold an oil cooler bypass valve bypasses oil around the oil cooler during start-up Components include: Oil Pump -- The oil pump operates whenever the engine is turning to provide continuous circulation of oil through the engine. Relief Valve -- If the flow of oil is restricted in the system, the relief valve will open at a certain pressure to discontinue flow of oil through the system so that pressure doesn’t build up and cause even more damage. Oil Cooler -- Coolant circulates through the oil cooler providing a heat transfer, from the oil to the coolant. This lowers the oil temperature and protects the oil properties. Oil Filter -- The oil filter cleans the oil by collecting metal particles and other debris that can damage engine parts. Oil Level Gauge (dipstick) -- The dipstick provides a method to check the amount of oil in the engine. Bypass Valves -- Bypass valves allow the flow of oil to be redirected to bypass or skip flow through a certain component. (1. Oil filter; 2. Oil cooler) Oil Pressure Gauge -- The oil pressure gauge indicates the pressure in the engine lubrications system during engine operation. Oil Pan -- The oil pan (sump) bolts to the bottom of the engine and is the reservoir for the engine oil.
  • February 4, 2013 Problems in the lube system can cause accelerate abrasive wear or catastrophic failure of core engine components. By far, the single largest problem is: Short engine life due to excessive soot in the oil. Microscopic soot particles accumulate in the oil very quickly due to more complete combustion on many newer emission controlled engines. Soot particles are highly abrasive and cause accelerated wear of piston rings, cylinder liners, and valvetrain components. At high altitudes soot levels may increase too fast to control by changing oil. Soot particles are too small to be effectively trapped with oil fiters or centrifuges. Poor quality/low performance engine oil. Inexpensive oils often have poor quality/low performance additive packages that cannot provide adequate performance or protection. Extended oil change intervals. Extending oil change intervals past the usable life of the oil results in increased soot levels, additive depletion and degraded lubricity and oil performance. Poor maintenance practices. Contamination of new oil due to poor handling or lack of filtration. Adding contamination to the lube system by pre-filling oil filters. Extending oil change intervals past the oils’ useful life. Fuel dilution – Contamination of oil due to fuel dilution reduces the oil viscosity and promotes premature wear. The maximum amount of fuel dilution allowed is 4%. By far, bearings and seals are the most sensitive engine parts to oil related problems, especially in the turbocharger. If a lubrication problem exists, the first sign will be worn turbocharger bearings and seals. Main and rod bearings and seals are the next most susceptible parts. But because they are bigger and thicker, they can often survive marginal lubrication longer than the smaller, thinner, faster moving turbocharger bearings and seals. The point to remember is; if bearing or seal wear is a problem, the cause will most likely be found in the lubrication system. Even though these seals and bearing are not “part of” the lubrication system, a problem in the lubrication system could cause wear here.
  • February 4, 2013 Modern engines with electronic fuel systems and controls burn fuel more completely and produce far less visible smoke from the exhaust stack. However, a byproduct of the improved combustion is a large increase in the number of very small soot particles in the combustion gases. Some of the combustion gases leak past the piston rings and into the engine crankcase. These soot particles and other combustion products are mixed with the oil in the sump and build up in the oil over time. Individual soot particles are smaller than a micron in diameter. Although many soot particles are only ½ micron in diameter, they are highly abrasive, and have a natural chemical attraction to bond together into larger abrasive particles. These large soot particles can cause accelerated wear and failure of core engine components. Modern oils have a very effective soot dispersant additive that overcomes the chemical attraction and keep soot particles suspended in the oil. But this presents a different problem; large numbers of small soot particles can still cause accelerated wear. Improvements in filtration have occurred that increase the filtration efficiency to better protect engine components from wear while still maintaining change intervals and without causes system restriction. A barrier filter is an additional filter added to the engine lube system that is much more efficient at removing small particles than the full flow filters. Two types: centrifugal and barrier. A barrier filter is a more efficient method of removing soot from oil since it is able to function better under different engine RPM cycles and on slopes and grades. A centrifuge filter must maintain peak speeds to remove soot. In large diesel engines, the most effective method of controlling soot levels in the crankcase is to consume it by mixing a controlled amount of oil with fuel and burning it. The consumed oil is then replaced with new oil. This is the oil renewal systems primarily used in the mining industry.
  • February 4, 2013 The fuel system is the most sophisticated, expensive and critical of all the engine systems. Engine performance, economy and durability depend on proper performance of the fuel system. Keeping fuel clean and using high quality, high efficient fuel filters will allow the fuel system components to perform properly until the engine reaches overhaul life. The single fuel system is also known as the common rail fuel system.
  • February 4, 2013 The function of the fuel system is threefold. First, it meters the amount fuel that is injected into the combustion chamber to achieve the desired horsepower output for the engine. Second, the fuel system regulates the engine speed and the timing sequence of the engine. And thirdly, since higher injection pressures cause the fuel to burn more completely and lowers the emissions, the fuel system helps to control emissions.
  • February 4, 2013 Supply fuel is drawn from the fuel tank, through the primary fuel filter and into the inlet port of the gear-type fuel transfer pump. Pressurized fuel flows from the outlet port of the fuel transfer pump through the engine ECM. The fuel provides cooling to the ECM to remove excess heat produced by the electronic components inside. Pressurized supply fuel flows from the ECM through the high efficiency secondary fuel filters to the fuel supply passages in each cylinder head, and to each injector. The volume of supply fuel flowing through the cylinder heads is about 3 to 4 times the amount being injected into the cylinder. The unneeded supply fuel flows past the injectors and removes some of the excess heat of combustion. Keeping the injectors cool is necessary to prevent fuel inside the injector nozzle from becoming so hot that it turns to asphaltines and causes the injector to fail.
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  • February 4, 2013 It is important to understand some of the differences in fuel delivery that might be found in the field as the populations of Caterpillar engines are quite large. Since the 1960’s, there have been two methods of delivering fuel into the combustion chamber; the first is pre-combustion, where the fuel begins ignition in a pre-combustion chamber before going into the cylinder; and the second is direct injection, in which the fuel is injected directly into the cylinder for combustion. The pre-combustion chamber system is found on older engine models such as the D330 and D333 engines as well as some of the first 3304 & 3306 engines. Fuel is pulled from the tank by the fuel transfer pump and pumped through the primary and secondary fuel filters to the fuel injection pump housing where the individual fuel pumps are located. The fuel injection pumps force fuel through the high pressure lines to the fuel nozzles. A precision drilled hole in the end of each nozzle atomizes fuel as it enters the pre-combustion chamber. As the fuel begins to ignite, the heat of combustion forces the remaining fuel and air mixture through the orifice in the pre-combustion chamber into the cylinder. On direct injection engines, fuel travels from the tank through the filters, pump, and lines to the injector housing. However, instead of pre-igniting the fuel, direct injection engines inject fuel directly into the cylinder. You can tell pistons on DI engines because the top of the piston crown has a conical crater design and no steel heat plug. Each unit injector has a high pressure injection pump and injector nozzle built-in each unit assembly. There is one unit injector for each cylinder. Low pressure fuel is delivered from the fuel transfer pump to each unit injector.
  • February 4, 2013 When the plunger and sleeve are in the filling position, the low pressure fuel can fill the pump through the low pressure fill port. When the cam moves the plunger up, the fill port is closed by the barrel. This is the point where the pressure starts to increase on the fuel. When the pressure is high enough to open the valve in the nozzle, the fuel is injected into the cylinder. The cam is still lifting the plunger higher. When the spill port opens above the sleeve, the injection stops because the pressure is released,
  • February 4, 2013 The Cat 3406A was introduced in 1973 with the current scroll metering fuel system. Since then, a number of changes have been made to meet the demand for an even more reliable and economical engine, while meeting governmental regulations. The 3406B, released in 1983, included the new scroll metering fuel system. The new scroll metering fuel system had been in production since 1980 on the 3300 engines. This fuel system is a key factor in the emissions, performance and fuel economy improvements in the 3406B. In 1991, the fuel system was changed to incorporate a more aggressive fuel camshaft to improve emissions. In 1992, the 3406C was introduced and there were no changes to this mechanical fuel system. “ The simple operation of this compact unit provides reliability with easy maintenance.” A scroll or helix is the top half of the plunger. A simple slot takes the place of the vertical hole used before. As the plunger is rotated by the rack, a higher or lower part of the helix faces the supply port. Simple, but limited high performance capability. This schematic of the 3406B/C engine fuel system (NSFS). The transfer pump (5) pulls fuel from the fuel tank (1) through the supply shutoff valve (3) through the primary fuel filter (4) to the fuel transfer pump itself. The transfer pump then pressurizes the fuel and pushes it through the hand priming pump (7), into the secondary fuel filter (6) and into the fuel manifold (8) under moderate pressure. With moderate fuel pressure inside the fuel manifold and the void (vacuum) inside the high pressure pumps, the fuel is loaded into the cavity of the high pressure pump, the high pressure pump now meters a small amount of fuel and sends it through the high pressure fuel lines (9) and through the head adapter (10) to the injection nozzle (11) at a very high pressure. (2) = tank drain to remove water and sediment
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  • February 4, 2013 The fuel is “atomized” into each cylinder by its own fuel injector.
  • February 4, 2013 While the plunger is up out of the way, fuel can flow through the injector and eventually into the barrel to await a signal from the ECM.
  • February 4, 2013 As the ECM tells the solenoid to close the fuel valve, pressure gets elevated by the rocker arm pressure on the plunger. This high pressure then unseats the valve so that injection can begin.
  • February 4, 2013 The ECM will tell the solenoid when to open the “spill-port” valve; thereby relieving enough of the spring pressure to allow the fuel an easier way to escape. This lowered pressure then causes the strong spring in the barrel to overcome the lowered pressure to close its own valve; thus stopping the injection of the fuel.
  • February 4, 2013 Point out where the pressurized oil is pressing down on the top of the barrel. This fuel system is currently used on the C7
  • February 4, 2013 Replaces 3056E. Will be used on WL 924,928,938; TTL 953,963; TTT D5N; WTS 613C; Skidder 525C The Cat Fuel System used on the C6.6 ACERT is completely new. It has been designed at Caterpillar fuel systems in Pontiac Illinois and sets a new standard in fuel delivery and control. The Cat Fuel System is fully electronically controlled and has the capability of multiple injections for each combustion event. This capability gives the fuel system the ability to meet future emissions standards. Fuel is pressurized to injection pressure in a single, high pressure pump and directed to a manifold where it is available via fuel injection lines to the electronically controlled injectors. The ECM fires the injectors, using maps stored within its memory, choosing optimum injection quantity and timing for all operating conditions. This closed loop system constantly monitors the fuel injection requirements and adjusts the fuel system output accordingly. The fuel system can be flash programmed via CAT ET. Let’s take a look at some of the system components as used in the C6.6 ACERT. This computer drawing shows a general system layout for the Cat Fuel System used in the C6.6. Filtered fuel is pressurized to injection pressure by the high pressure pump, which can be seen in the bottom center of this drawing. Pressurized fuel is then routed to a fuel manifold via a steel pipe where it is available for each of the injectors. The fuel manifold can be seen in the upper right of this drawing. The fuel injectors are connected by steel pipes to the manifold and electronically opened and closed by the ECM, giving the ECM complete control over the injection event. Let’s take a closer look at some of the individual fuel system components. The fuel manifold is a high quality steel component, specially designed to withstand the high injection pressures required by modern fuel systems. Fuel injection pressures may be in the neighborhood of 160 MPa (more than 23,000 PSI) with this system. The manifold consists of a fuel inlet, fuel outlets for each cylinder, a high pressure relief valve and a pressure sensor. Naturally with such high pressures in the fuel system, extreme caution must be used when performing any service on the system. High pressure lines to be replaced any time one of the connector fittings is loosened. The pump responsible for generating the fuel pressure is driven off the front gear train and is roughly the same size, shape and location as a HEUI pump. Unlike the HEUI pump however, this pump pressurizes fuel and not oil. It’s a two plunger pump with the fuel transfer pump attached to the end. The transfer pump will be the only serviceable component. Here’s a shot of the fuel injector after it has been removed from the cylinder head. The single hold down clamp fits over the squared off midsection and is held to the head with a single bolt. The electrical connections for the control solenoid can be seen on the left hand side of this photo.
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  • February 4, 2013 The amount of abrasive debris in the source fuel varies widely with geographic location and operating environment. This abrasive debris is what causes premature wearout and replacement of fuel system components. The amount of filtration required to remove this debris is dependent on the amount of contaminants in the tank. The ability of the low-pressure systems to remove abrasive particles down to 1 micron size, as well as excess water, determines the life of the unit injector. These abrasive particles are much smaller than the human eye is capable of seeing. How big is a micron? Typically, the human eye can see a dust particle… about one thousandth of an inch. A micron is 25 times smaller than a ten thousandth of an inch. As is pictured, a micron is not detectible without intense magnification. Where and how a customer stores or receives fuel can greatly impact the fuel system performance. Storing fuel in a dirty storage tank or in a place that is unprotected from the weather can result in bad fuel. Water is present in all fuel. Free water is what separates into a layer at the bottom of a storage tank. Dissolved water is held in solution and needs to be stripped out. Amounts of water up to 0.1% by volume are acceptable. Storing a container outdoors subjects it to temperature fluctuations. This results in a build up of condensation/water in the storage container. In many parts of the world, fuel contains very large amounts of water due to poor handling and storage practices from the point where the fuel is refined to the end user. Abrasives are present in all diesel fuel. The amount of abrasives found in a particular volume of fuel varies dramatically when comparing fuel sourced from North America or Western Europe versus fuel found in the rest of the world. Abrasive particles may also be present in storage containers. The amount of water and highly abrasive microscopic particles found in fuels varies widely throughout the world… but the fueling and working environment itself introduces contamination into the fuel system. All of these contamination sources contribute to fuel system deterioration…
  • February 4, 2013 Where a machine operates is directly related to maintenance intervals and filter arrangements. If the machine operates in a dusty environment, the need for tank breathers is very critical. Operating 24 hours, 7 days a week in mines and quarries may require more complex, high efficiency filter systems. An on-highway truck may need a simple high efficiency filter system. There is no single perfect filtration arrangement for every application. Each fuel system solution must be optimized.
  • February 4, 2013 As previously discussed, not all water in the fuel is free water and not all abrasives settle to the bottom of the fuel tank as sediment. We must remove the excess water and abrasive particles that are in suspension. Otherwise, the unit injector will wear out pre-maturely. We start by using a fuel/water separator. Soot in the fuel is another concern. Designing a fuel system that better controls fuel temperature at the injector will reduce sticking and damage to the tip. Introduction of air into the fuel system can cause tip failure. Aeration is often the result of “starving” the fuel system and causing vacuum induced air pockets. To avoid damage, we must sustain an appropriate fuel supply pressure. We will now describe how components and system design can improve performance…
  • February 4, 2013 A fuel/water separator is designed to remove water that is suspended in the fuel. Emulsified water is sometimes visible in a fuel tank as a milky layer between the fuel and the water. This milky layer is a “water saturated” fuel. The water separator strips out the remaining free water in the fuel, as well as, up to 87% of the emulsified water. The filter in the fuel/water separator is designed to allow fuel to pass through, but not water. Water collects on the outside of the filter, beads up, and eventually travels down the length of the filter into the water collection bowl. Periodically, the water collection bowl at the bottom of the fuel/water separator should be visually inspected. If the bowl is half full, it must be drained before operating the engine. If the emulsified water is not stripped out of the fuel, the film strength of the fuel will break down. Metal to metal contact between the plunger and the barrel will result and the injector will fail prematurely. Injector plunger scuffing and seizure (as seen in the picture) is nearly always causes by excessive amounts of water in the fuel. Integral to the fuel/water separator is the primary fuel filter…
  • February 4, 2013 The purpose of the primary fuel filter is to remove larger abrasives from the supply fuel. In past years, 150 micron filters were installed as primary fuel filter. These are virtually useless. This is more evident with the advent of higher pressure fuel systems. Nearly all fuel system debris is smaller than 50 microns. The fact that these coarse filters rarely plugged is because nearly all of the damaging abrasives passed through them. The same filter media that strips out the emulsified water also retains the majority of debris that is 10 microns and larger. By removing the larger debris, the secondary fuel filter does not plug as quickly and less debris flows through the fuel pump. The primary fuel filter extends service intervals and prevents pump deterioration.
  • February 4, 2013 Higher injection pressures are required to meet emission standards. With the same amount of abrasives in the fuel, these higher pressures cause accelerated abrasive wear to injector components. In order to prevent abrasive wear, microscopic abrasive particles must be removed from the fuel. Critical wear components in unit injectors are already made of the hardest possible materials. Improving fuel filtration is the only way to reduce abrasive wear. The secondary fuel filter is designed to remove abrasive particles between two and ten microns. Caterpillar’s secondary fuel filter is better than 98% efficient in removing particles 2 microns and larger from the fuel stream. The 2 to 10 micron particles can erode metal quickly at today’s high fuel system pressures. By removing these particles, Caterpillar’s high efficiency fuel filter system can reduce wear on fuel injectors and pumps. High Efficiency 2 micron filters are required on all new Caterpillar high pressure fuel systems. Using the former 15 micron nominal will result in accelerated wear and shortened fuel system life.
  • February 4, 2013 In applications where there are extremely high concentrations of small abrasives in the fuel, one filter may not provide enough protection. Vibration of engine mounted filters, continuous spill pulses from unit injectors and excessive pressure drop across the filter of more than 10 psi can force debris through the filter. In cases where severe wear has occurred, two filters in series are recommended to provide a second filtering pass. Without exception, this has proven effective in doubling or tripling injector life where severe wear exists.
  • February 4, 2013 All diesel engines require a free supply of clean air to perform properly. The single largest contributor to premature engine wearout is dust ingestion through a poorly maintained air intake system. The amount of air filtration on an engine is determined by its intended application. As an example, engines in most mining applications require extensive filtration due to continuous operation in dusty environments.
  • February 4, 2013 Diesel engines require large amounts of air in order to completely burn the fuel and perform properly. The air intake and exhaust system performs 3 functions which are critical to proper engine performance. Provides adequate quantities of clean filtered intake air Compresses the intake air into the cylinders in order to produce more power Removes exhaust gases from the cylinders and reduce exhaust noise
  • February 4, 2013 This animation show the flow of air in an engine from the precleaner, through the air filters, through the turbo and aftercooler (if applicable), to the combustion chamber, then through the exhaust. It also explains what happens to the engine is there is a restriction in the air flow
  • February 4, 2013 The major components of the Air System are: Precleaner -- The precleaner removes large particles of dirt and debris. Air Filters -- Usually there are two air filters, a primary and secondary filter. They collect contaminants and prevent dirt from entering the engine. Air Filter Service Indicator -- The indicator monitors restriction through the air filters. It is the most accurate method for determining when to change air filters. Every engine should have one. An interesting fact is that changing filters too often can actually do more harm than good - because dirt can so easily enter the engine during a filter change. This makes the indicator a very useful and important maintenance tool. Turbocharger -- Exhaust gases drive the turbocharger which pumps additional air into the engine allowing more fuel to be burned, thereby increasing the horsepower output. Aftercooler -- The aftercooler cools the air after it leaves the turbocharger but before it enters the engine. This increases the air density, so more air can be packed into each cylinder. Air Intake & Exhaust Manifolds -- The manifolds connect directly to the cylinder head(s). The intake manifold distributes clean air from the air filter or turbocharger into each cylinder, while the exhaust manifold collects exhaust gases from each cylinder and directs them to the turbocharger and/or to the muffler. Muffler -- the muffler reduces the sound level and provides sufficient back pressure to the engine, so the engine “breathes” as designed.
  • February 4, 2013 1. Air first enters the system via the precleaner. Here large dirt particles are removed. 2. Then air moves through the primary and secondary air filters for further cleaning. On turbocharged engines the spinning of the turbocharger compressor wheel pulls air into the turbocharger. 3. The compressor wheel compresses the air (which also heats it) and sends it to the aftercooler. The aftercooler reduces the air temperature making it more dense so more air can be packed into the cylinders. 4. The dense compressed air moves from the aftercooler through the air intake manifold and cylinder head(s). 5. Past the intake valves into each cylinder combustion chamber. As the intake valves close, and the piston moves up in the cylinder, the air is compressed further. When the piston is near the top of its stroke, fuel is injected into the combustion chamber. The fuel mixes with the hot, compressed air and ignites. The force of the combustion pushes the piston down on the power stroke. 6. When the piston moves up again, it is on the exhaust stroke. The exhaust valves open allowing exhaust gases out through the exhaust manifold.
  • February 4, 2013 Defects or problems in the air inlet and exhaust systems can cause accelerated abrasive wear or catastrophic damage to the core engine components. With the exception of aftercooler leaks, these causes are directly related to maintenance practices, and are avoidable. Proper machine operation and high quality maintenance can eliminate most causes of accelerated wear and failure related to the air inlet and exhaust system.
  • February 4, 2013 We’ll start off talking about engine works and wears with internal components.
  • February 4, 2013 Engine electronics offer performance, power, serviceability, fuel economy, emissions control and durability not possible with most mechanically controlled engines. They also help control engine repair expenses. Sensors relay messages about these engine functions to the ECM, which analyzes engine operation to optimize power and economy. The results are increased fuel savings and productivity.
  • February 4, 2013 Electronic Engine Control The ECM serves as the engine’s governor. It determines when and how much fuel to deliver to the cylinders based on the actual and desired conditions at any given time. By sensing actual engine speed using the Speed/Timing sensor, the ECM then decides how much fuel to inject in order to achieve the desired engine speed. Injection timing depends on the engine rpm, load, and other operating conditions. It decides when injection should occur relative to top-center of the pistons and provides the signal to the injector at the desired time. The Personality Module (PM) in the ECM contains the software which controls how the ECM behaves. The personality module stores the operating maps that define horsepower and torque curves, and smoke and altitude derate maps. The two work together, along with the sensors to see and the injectors to act, to control the engine. Information Management An engine’s electronic system also accurately calculates, tracks, and stores its instantaneous operations, current job totals, histograms, (rpm, percent load), and maintenance information. Engine Monitoring From many sensor inputs, the ECM continuously monitors coolant temperature, coolant level, oil pressure, intake manifold temperature, fuel temperature, and fuel pressure. This information can then be inputted into EMS, an electronic monitoring system designed to display various engine parameters. The EMS is used to display the engine oil pressure, engine coolant temperature, fuel pressure, and battery voltage. Benefits Electronic engine governing serves to improve emissions, performance, and reliability. Electronic information management and engine monitoring improves diagnostic capabilities of Caterpillar engines. Together these features and benefits meet customer needs for new features and advanced technology.
  • February 4, 2013 During the past decade, advanced designs have played a major role in improving the operation of diesel engines. Customer needs for better performance along with new standards for lower emissions have required more sophisticated engine controls. Caterpillar has taken the challenge and has met and exceeded these demands with the development of electronic engines. Since 1986, more than 500,000 advanced Caterpillar electronic engines have been put in service in truck, marine, petroleum, industrial, and locomotive applications. The above controls show the advancement of Caterpillar electronic controls beginning with PEEC that was introduced in the on-highway truck market in 1987. ADEM III was introduced in trucks in 1998 and will be available for industrial in 2001.
  • February 4, 2013 What if an ECM Fails? (control failures are rare due to their reliability) Most machines provide different modes to “limp” a machine home There is a process for a mechanic making a repair in the field to download the correct machine specific flash file to the ECM (long term - will use SIS Web) ECM Replacement Options? If the group has questions regarding the availability of Reman ECM’s, apparently there is a limited selection. The best way to find the part number needed is through NPR or calling the Reman Hotline at 1-888-887-3626.
  • February 4, 2013 The wiring harness is like the “spinal cord” of the electrical system. It is made up of segments joined by connectors. The ideal would be to have one unit, but based on where the harness is located on the machine and other natural connector points, determines harness segments. Harness segments are serviceable. Harnesses are made of hundreds of wires. The repair solution depends on what is practical and cost effective. Many times it requires creativity on the part of the technician. Some locations are very hard to access because the harness is securely mounted to protect the unit. For instance, the main wiring harness on the frame is very hard to get to and may require one to two full days to replace. Typically, when sensors go bad, they are just replaced.
  • February 4, 2013 First, we will briefly discuss the Caterpillar engine families along with the features and strategies for each.
  • February 4, 2013 Design is a key differentiator for Caterpillar parts. First, all our parts are designed to operate as a total system and so must meet stringent specifications. For example, Caterpillar rings perfectly match piston ring grooves. Caterpillar bearings exactly fit the journals for long life and superior oil flow . Caterpillar design engineers match the right combination of dimensions, material, finish and manufacturing processes to each part so they work and wear effectively with neighboring and dependent parts. It is very important that you understand that many of the key product differences we will discuss are not apparent to the naked eye. When a parts competitor says their part is “the same as Caterpillar,” take a closer look. While competition has a strategy of low initial price, Caterpillar parts are built to keep engines running over the long term and provide the lowest cost per hour. Our strategy isn’t to sell more parts but to keep the equipment up and running and to help your customers make a profit. Caterpillar dealers provide fast, complete parts availability. If your dealership doesn't have a part in inventory, you know it’s quickly available through Caterpillar's worldwide parts distribution network. Caterpillar continually updates parts to reflect the latest technological advances. Many competitors simply attempt to copy Caterpillar and cannot keep up with the changes. Caterpillar parts are the top quality, built to exact tolerances and undergo rigid testing to meet the tough standards set by by Quality Assurance Program. Competitors may cut quality to lower their costs. Because Caterpillar parts are robustly designed, they often can be reused or remanufactured and have a second life built into the part. Each of these items tell the Caterpillar quality story –how we differentiate ourselves from the competition.
  • February 4, 2013 Cat head designs are updated often, so buying a Cat head means you get the latest improvements and advancements. These improvements are not available to our competitors unless they attempt to copy our product's dimensions. You are seeing here the inside of a CMM room where the technician is checking to make sure these cylinder heads meet our Rigid Tolerance specifications . Cat Heads are a precisely machined to ensure a tight seal and clean passages throughout. Our head designs are updated regularly and often. So buying a Cat head means you are getting the latest advancements in technology. These improvements are not available to our competitors, so to keep up they are usually forced to reverse engineer our design and try to copy our product's dimensions. We have often seen core sand deposits and holes that are not tapered properly on competitors heads. Just because 2 sets of heads look a like, doesn’t mean they will perform alike.
  • February 4, 2013 Let's get started with cylinder heads. There are significant differences between Caterpillar's and competitors' manufacturing processes, and they make noticeable and costly differences in quality and efficiency. Many will-fit water holes are often oversized, unthreaded or even completely missing. That leads to leaks and inadequate cooling. Caterpillar machines all water holes to ensure adequate cooling.
  • February 4, 2013 Blocked water passages in some will-fit heads can lead to hot spots and head cracking. Caterpillar's rigid cleaning process ensures internal water passages are free of core sand and metal shavings. You get proper cooling and a longer lasting cylinder head.
  • February 4, 2013 To summarize, these are the features we identified for Caterpillar cylinder heads. Properly machined water holes Right design as shown by having the correct (adequate) number of water holes Rigid cleaning Manufactured to rigid tolerances Up-to-date with design changes and improvements ASK - RECORD RESPONSES What are the Advantages to the customer of these features? Optimal cooling Less likelihood of cracks and leaks developing so less chance of problems related to leaking and/or overheating More durable Longer life More reliable operation Less downtime so ultimately lower cost ASK What problems can result if an engine overheats that is preventable by proper cooling? Spoiling the oil … i.e., excessive oxidation NOTE: When you’re in a real selling situation and explaining a series of Features about one Solution, you generally would NOT give make an Advantage statement for each and every feature statement. Doing so would make the sales presentation sound awkward and redundant to the customer. (Remember, there are only a few Task Motives …less down time, longer life, lower costs, more profit, etc.). Instead, you would use one or two statements to “sum up” the series of features and to “close” the deal. Example: ….”so to sum it all up Mr. Customer, wouldn’t you agree that all the Advantages I just mentioned would give you longer component life, less downtime, and ultimately lower cost?” When customer responds positively …CLOSE the deal …ask for the order. “ Good, I am glad you agree! Now when would be the best time to schedule this machine in for a repair, next week or the week after that? “ ASK - RECORD ON FLIPCHART What are possible Benefit statements you might create for this solution? Click to bring up next slide with Benefit examples to compare with group’s suggestions.
  • February 4, 2013 Will-fit valves have turning marks on the keeper grooves. This is a critical area that needs good fatigue strength. Turning marks can lead to valve cracking and failure. During manufacturing Cat valves are precisely ground to remove all rough notches and edges, leading to longer life. Possible question: Why are 2 materials used on the valve and stem? We require a stronger material in the valve area. The stem and valve are then inertia welded.
  • February 4, 2013 Competitive manufacturers sometimes don't use any facing material on their valves. If they do, it is, in many cases, inferior in quality and quantity. The result is an increase in strength which allows for reusability. Cat valves have up to 150% more facing material than the industry average. Because of this some exhaust valves can be reused.
  • February 4, 2013 Differentiating features of Caterpillar valves include: They are precisely ground to remove turning marks, rough notches and edges Manufactured from high strength material In addition, Caterpillar uses more facing material than industry average (up to 150% more) ASK Now, what is the so-what? What are the Advantages to your customer? Increased protection against valve lip cracking and stem breakage Increased strength that allows for reusability through 1 or 2 overhauls High strength material allows head and stem to flex for greater fatigue strength Longer wear life More durable More reliable operation Less downtime so ultimately lower cost ASK Now, give me a possible Benefit statement related to how using Caterpillar valves might give the customer more Recognition within his company. Example responses Recognition: People will want to know who made the decision to use Genuine Caterpillar valves when they see their repair and maintenance costs going down. It will give you added visibility within the company. Recognition: People will recognize you as a positive example for others in the company when they see your decisions result in saving the company money.
  • February 4, 2013 Most will-fit flanges are not roll burnished, so they are susceptible to flange cracking and breakage. Cat flanges are roll burnished in the radius to increase strength and eliminate cracking. Roll burnishing is a surface hardening method. It is a cold work method to achieve compressive residual stresses in the flange. Cat controls flange head thickness to guarantee a precise match to the block. Will-fit flanges can be over- or undersized, which can cause head gasket misfit and leakage. Sharp edges are reduced and seal life is extended because Caterpillar O-Ring seal grooves are chamfered. Non-chamfered will-fit seal grooves can nick or pinch a seal during liner installation, causing oil and coolant leaks. Many will-fit liners are not heat treated, which shortens wear life and increases the chance of flange cracks. Cat liners are heat treated for long life and reusability, and to eliminate flange cracking. Cat liners are heat treated all the way down the liner. Note: Because of some earlier manufacturing issues and for internal traceability, we now put a groove around the middle of the water jacket area. This denotes which machine manufactured the liner.
  • February 4, 2013 Many will-fit liners have a random cross hatch pattern, which results in poor oil control, irregular oil distribution and even increased oil consumption. Eventually this can lead to liner damage. The uniform cross hatch pattern on the Cat liners provides faster seating of the piston rings, proper ring seal and uniform oil distribution for longer life. Caterpillar’s computer controlled honing manufacturing process ensures proper honing on every cylinder.
  • February 4, 2013 The competitive liners were not machined to hone off the microscopic “sawtooth” peaks on the liner surface -- a process called plateauing. This lack will increase the break-in time, as the piston rings do the honing job. This increases wear on the rings and shortens their life and delays proper oil control. All Cat liners are prehoned to preserve life and disperse oil better beginning with hour one. Result: Longer liner and ring life.
  • February 4, 2013 HAVE TEAM ASSIGNED TO CYLINDER LINERS PRESENT THE LIST OF FEATURES THEY DEVELOPED.
  • February 4, 2013 HAVE TEAM ASSIGNED TO CYLINDER LINERS PRESENT THE ADVANTAGES THEY COMPILED. COMPARE TO LIST ON SLIDE. IF NOT IDENTIFIED BY TEAM, MAKE FOLLOWING ADDITIONAL POINT: Competitive cylinder liners are priced lower than Caterpillar liners so customer thinks he is saving money. Caterpillar cylinder liners designed to last through 2 wear cycles, meaning they last twice as long as competition – they are reusable at first overhaul – so more cost efficient. When calculated out, the double-life efficiency provided by the Caterpillar genuine liner more than compensates for the 30% higher initial cost. Caterpillar liners actually save the customer money over the longer term.
  • February 4, 2013 Flat-faced top rings can scrape too much oil off the cylinder wall, increasing liner and ring wear. The barrel faced ring used by Caterpillar reduces oil consumption and liner damage by maintaining the proper oil film on the cylinder liner.
  • February 4, 2013 The thick chrome or plasma plating on the Cat piston rings ensures longer wear life than the thin plating found on many will-fit rings. Correct chrome plating or plasma plating allows the ring to withstand the oscillating forces within an engine.
  • February 4, 2013 HAVE TEAM ASSIGNED TO PISTON RINGS PRESENT THE ADVANTAGES THEY COMPILED. COMPARE TO LIST ON SLIDE. ADDITIONAL POINTS TO MAKE IF NOT INCLUDED IN PARTICIPANT LISTS: Caterpillar designs and develops for exacting needs in engine model, family and application to ensure maximum productivity and life. Feature related to high-strength ductile iron use, rather than gray iron as used in competitive products, is true for all Caterpillar castings .
  • February 4, 2013 Will-fit manufacturers' ring bands can be partially disbonded. And, their individual ring grooves don't meet Cat flatness, size or location specs. That means they have the potential for blowby and damage to the cylinders. Caterpillar uses cast-in nickel ring bands for greater piston strength, longer wearing grooves, better sealing and piston reusability. Quality control differs between Cat and the competition. Cat uses a controlled casting process and 100% ultrasonic inspection to ensure proper bonding. Competitors' pistons show poor bonds between piston body and ring band, which can lead to piston failure. The nickel ring band pistons are used on older 3400 series engines on the top 2 rings. This 3406 IPD Piston (2W0865) was used in a 980C. It failed at 3400 hours due to the obvious ring band bond separation. The nickel band insert is used only for the top ring on the C7 engine and 3126 engines used in low HP applications. The pistons used in this applications are 1 piece aluminum. This design gets rid of a lot of the stresses of the previous designs and practically eliminates debonding failures. Older 3406, 3408 and 3412 engines still use the nickel ring bands on the top 2 rings. Engines using these pistons are still being built today.
  • February 4, 2013 HAVE TEAM ASSIGNED TO PISTONS PRESENT THE FEATURES AND ADVANTAGES THEY COMPILED. COMPARE TO LIST ON SLIDE. ADDITIONAL POINTS TO MAKE IF NOT INCLUDED IN PARTICIPANT LISTS: Pistons and liners need to mate precisely. Because of Caterpillar’s unique oval construction, will-fits cannot fit perfectly so result in less efficient operation and higher costs. COMPARE TO ADVANTAGES LISTED ON SLIDE. The nickel band insert is used only for the top ring on the C7 engine. 3400 series engines use the nickel band on the top 2 rings.
  • February 4, 2013 Here are a few more Features and Advantages related to Caterpillar pistons. A recent design improvement in Caterpillar pistons is a result of new technology. This is a one-piece piston for the 3408, 3412, 3500 and all ACERT engines. This new 1 piece piston is made from Forged Steel , it is much more durable and reliable than the previous aluminum 2 piece piston . There is no separate aluminum skirt, this eliminates the potential for a broken skirt and the possibility of debond on the ring groove . There are no bushings to replace or to fail – only for the 3408 and 3412 engines A new oil jet means higher, more control of oil flow. Have to get new oil jets; don’t reuse old jets, won’t get enough oil A bigger piston gallery means you will run cooler and consume less oil And a new ring pack means a 25% reduction in blowby or the amount of oil that is just blowing by the piston RING. Typical questions include: Does this piston have the same reciprocating mass as the old ones? Yes, can mix and match old vs. new during rebuild but dealers hesitate to do this. Do rings change? 3408 and 3412 engines have all new rings. All ACERT engines have new top rings only. The black coating on the One Piece Steel ACERT pistons is for 2 reasons. If the piston is bushingless, then the overall black coating (manganese phosphate) is for the pin bore seizure resistance and is a good binding agent for the graphite coating which is on the skirts. The graphite coating on the skirts is to help prevent skirt scuffing/seizure while the parts are wearing together. On bushed pin bore pistons, we have kept the black phosphate coating on to help the graphite to stick to the piston. As a side benefit, the black phosphate coating helps keep the piston from rusting before it is assembled. On the skirts, the graphite will wear in relation to the contact pattern between the skirt and the liner. In some places it will wear off. The reuse guidelines has pictures of what is acceptable and what is not acceptable on the loss of graphite.
  • February 4, 2013 Still another advancement in technology brought us is this new Fractured Split Rod for the 3114, 3116, 3126, C9, C11 & C13 engines. The new fractured split rod is forged for high strength and durability , which means the rod can accept higher loads . There has been a virtual elimination of fretting on the joint face which means perfectly matched surfaces. These rods are running about 25% less to manufacture because of reduced and controlled machining steps. In addition, the machining process Caterpillar uses ensures the cap and rod will stay together because the bearing fits correctly. The offset bearing cap design on the C9 allows the use of a 2 bolt rod design with a bigger pin journal. The alternate design would be a 4-bolt (smaller bolt diameter) non-angled split because of the small cross section that would be available at the joint.
  • February 4, 2013
  • February 4, 2013 As part of Caterpillar’s continuing development of leak free engines and drive train components, Caterpillar is changing from flat gaskets to ‘Integral seals’ for our tougher engine, hydraulic and drive train sealing applications. Integral seals provide a more robust fluid seal than flat gaskets, which are cut out of flat sheets of gasket material.   Integral seals are controlled compression seals, with O-Ring technology applied to gasket-type carriers. Integral seals are comprised of a rubber sealing element, or bead, bonded to a carrier. The carrier can be plastic or metal. The carrier transfers the load through the bolted joint. The rubber bead material is chosen based on the fluids, temperatures and pressures to be sealed. Integral seal gaskets have rubber beads made from Cat formulas of Nitrile, HNBR, EPDM, FKM and Silicone rubber.   Two types of Integral Seals are now being used: an Edge-Bonded (metal carrier) seal and a Void-Volume (plastic carrier) seal with integrated metal load limiters. Today these seals are used in many applications across our product line. For example, the edge bonded seal is used as the front cover seal for the 3406E engine. The void volume seal is used on a lot of oil pan applications. 2 questions typically: 1. Reuse? No from engineering (extremely low hours and some will reuse) Not a direct replacement for old gaskets since stack up tolerances could cause some interference. Additional advantage is that these seals come off in one piece; no scrapping required and no chance of getting foreign material into the engine.
  • February 4, 2013 Caterpillar has also developed a new crankshaft seal that features a: Unitized Seal Flange Shaped Wear Sleeve Bonded Design Superior Dirt Exclusion ASK What might some Advantages be of this new design? Probe for responses Reduced Potential for Leakage Easier Installation Reduced Installation Damage Minimized Contamination Significantly Longer Seal Life Click to bring up Advantages box. In addition, the unitized seal group provides improved and more reliable performance: Up to two times improvement in on-highway truck application in field tests Up to three times improvement in earth-moving application in field tests
  • February 4, 2013 Used on all ACERT Engines from C7 thru C32
  • February 4, 2013 Used on all ACERT Engines from C7 thru C32
  • February 4, 2013 The new design is a drop-in replacement for the current regulator and is designed to have longer life improvement than the current design, which will lower operating costs and reduce unscheduled engine down-time. Two different temperature regulators have been cancelled and replaced by the new regulators with internal seals: 7C-3095 has been cancelled and replaced by 247-7133. The opening temperature is 87-90 deg C and fully open temperature is 98 deg C. 4W-4794 has been cancelled and replaced by 248-5513. The opening temperature is 81-84 deg C and fully open temperature is 92 deg C. The new regulators are identified by a part number that is stamped on the regulator. There is a “+” sign stamped before and after the part number which indicates the presence of the internal seal in the regulator. Retrofits The improved temperature regulator can be utilized into existing engines in applications on the field. No additional part or service is required to utilize the new regulators. 3126B (S/N: 8YL1-UP), 3196 (S/N: 2XR1-UP), 3406B (S/N: 4TB1-UP), 3406C (S/N: 3ER1-UP), 3406E (S/N: 6TS1-UP), C-10 (S/N: MBJ1-UP; Z2B1-UP; CFA1-UP; BCX1-UP; 2PN1-UP; 3CS1-UP; 8YS1-UP), C-11 (S/N: KCA0-UP; GLD0-UP; WCE0-UP; G2C0-UP), C-12 (S/N: CPD1-UP; 9SM1-UP; TME1-UP; GEP1-UP; 9HP1-UP; BEL1-UP; CEF1-UP; MBL1-UP; 1YN1-UP; 2KS1-UP; 9NS1-UP) C-13 (S/N: KCB0-UP; LGK0-UP; WCE0-UP; PRP0-UP; JAM0-UP), C-15 (S/N: 6NZ1-UP), C-16 (S/N: 7CZ1-UP)
  • February 4, 2013 Next we will discuss the offerings of Cat Reman Products. Reman is just one out of many repair options when it comes to the repair of engines.
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  • Engine systems diesel engine analyst - full

    1. 1. Engine SystemsDIESEL ENGINE ANALYST
    2. 2. Introductions:• Name:• Address:• College: ITM, Perú• Dealer Name: Ferreyros S.A.
    3. 3. Agenda• Engine Families• Engine Works & Wears  Engine Wear  Combustion Process  Internal Components  External Components  Cooling System  Lube System  Fuel System  Air System  Electronics• Parts Differentiation• REMAN• Resources
    4. 4. Engine Families C-15/C18/3400 M43 C-9/C-11/C-13 (186 - 1044 kW) (5400 - (227 - 492 kW) 16200 kW) 3116/3126/C-7 (86 - 313 kW) 3000 Series 3500 Family (507 - 2500 kW) 400 Series (3.7 - 45 kW) 4000 Series (322 - 1886 kW) M25 M32 3200 Family (1800 - 800 Series M20 (2880 - (93 - 336kW) 2700 kW) (39 - 60 kW) (1020 - 8000 kW) 3300 Family 1710 kW) 3600 Family 1100 Series (63 - 300 kW) (49 - 186 kW) (1350 - 7200 kW)This represents only a fraction of the engine offerings Caterpillar produces
    5. 5. Common Engine Terms• Bore• Stroke• Compression Ratio• Displacement• Horsepower
    6. 6. Bore Size • The diameter of the cylinder • Measured in inches or millimeters
    7. 7. Stroke • How far the piston moves from TDC to BDC • Equal to twice the crank radius
    8. 8. Compression Ratio • Ratio between the cylinder volume with the piston at BDC and the volume with the piston at TDC • Compression ratio of our engines are approximately a 16:1 (non-ACERT) and 18:1 (ACERT)
    9. 9. Displacement• Engine size is expressed in liters or cubic inches Displacement = (3.14 X B 2 ) X Stroke X No. of Cyls. 4
    10. 10. Horsepower• Horsepower is the rate of doing work (how quickly a force is applied through a distance)• Horsepower can be expressed in pound feet per second• 1 horsepower = 550 lb/ft per second = 33,000 lb/ft per minute
    11. 11. Engine Model Numbers• 3208 Engine:  3200 = Engine Family & Relative Size • (3000, 3200, 3300, 3400, 3500, 3600) • 08 = number of Cylinders • Depending on engine family, could be 04, 06, 08, 12, 16, 18, or 24
    12. 12. Engine Model Numbers• 3116 Engine  3100 = Engine Family • 11 = 1.1 liters per cylinder, so: • 3126 has 1.2 liters per cylinder • 3176 has 1.7 liters per cylinder • 6 = number of cylinders (4 or 6)
    13. 13. Engine Model Numbers• C-10, 10 liter truck engine  3176C is used in all other applications• C-12, 12 liter truck engine  3196C is used in all other applications• C7 replaced the 3126 engine• C-9 replaced the 3306 engine  On-Highway & D6
    14. 14. Engine Model Numbers3406 Engine• 3406E was a 14.6 liter engine until 1998• In 1998, 3406E was 14.6 or 15.8 liter for truck• 3456 was the 15.8 liter in any non-truck application• In 2000, 14.6 liter and 15.8 liter became C-15 and C-16 for truck, industrial applications• In 2003, 15.2 liter truck is ACERT C15
    15. 15. 3000/3100 Series Features• Dry Sleeve/Parent Bore  Parent Bore – 3116/26, C7,3208  Dry Sleeve - 3054 3054• One piece block assembly• Light weight with high horsepower to weight ratios 3126B
    16. 16. 3000 Series - Service Strategy• Current Serviceability  Components only - 3003, 3013, 3024, 3034  Piece Parts - 3046, 3054, 3056, 3066  Reman as volume/need dictates• Rebuild Strategy  3003 - 3034, expected engine life equals machine life  3046 - 3066, limited rebuild opportunity 3003 3013 3024 3034
    17. 17. C6.6 Series Features using ACERT™ TechnologyC6.6 Replaces the 3056E• 1.1 Liter per Cylinder, Inline 6• 4 valves per cylinder• Cross Flow heads• Fully Electronically Controlled• Common Rail Fuel system C6.6• Sculpted Block design reduced noise
    18. 18. Cross Flow Cylinder Heads • Cross flow design and refined port geometry  Improved breathing  Reduced pumping loss  Better combustion
    19. 19. C7 Series Features using ACERT™ TechnologyC7 Replaces the 3116, 3126• ADEM A4 Electronic Control Module• Cylinder block – increased tensile strength• HEUI fuel system• Cross Flow heads• Turbocharged and Air to Air aftercooling C7
    20. 20. 3100 & C7 Series - Service Strategy• Current Serviceability  Piece Parts For All• Rebuild Strategy  Cost effective rebuild for all models  Reman components and limited short blocks, bare blocks, and piston packs available 3100
    21. 21. 3300/3400 Series Features• One piece block• One piece cylinder head• Replaceable valve guides and seats• Caterpillar fuel system• Replaceable wet cylinder liners• Roller cam followers and steel camshaft• Totally hardened forged steel crankshaft 3400 HEUI
    22. 22. C9 Series Features using ACERT™ TechnologyC9 Replaces the 3300• ADEM A4 Electronic Control Module• 8.8 liter (537 cu in)• HEUI fuel system C9• Cross Flow heads ( 4 valves per cylinder)• Turbocharged and Air to Air aftercooling• Improved block and head material strength• Mid-supported liner• Integral oil cooler • Reduced weight, leaks and engine width
    23. 23. C11/C13 Series Features using ACERT™ TechnologyC11 Replaces the 3176, C-10C13 Replaces the 3196, C-12 C11• ADEM A4 Electronic Control Module• MEUI fuel system• Cross Flow heads• Turbocharged and Air to Air aftercooling C13
    24. 24. C15/C18 Series Features using ACERT™ TechnologyC15 Replaces the 3406E, C-15• ADEM A4 Electronic Control Module •Variable injection timing •Controls quantity of fuel •Optimizes fuel pressure •Transient control for both speeds and loads C15• MEUI fuel system• Cross Flow heads• Turbocharged and Air to Air aftercooling
    25. 25. C27 Series Features using ACERT™ Technology • C27 replaces 3412 • Two single overhead cams • Gear-train for cams moved to back  Reduces noise & vibration • Tight system tolerances - pistons & liners  More complete fuel combustion  Reduced blow-by  Fewer emissions • New block eliminates bends/turns to improve airflow • Proven MEUI fuel system • ADEM™A4 Controller • Engine oil & filter changes increased to 500 hours under most operating conditions Used on D10T, 773F, 775F
    26. 26. C32 Series Features using ACERT™ Technology• C32 replaces 3508B• Newly designed block adds structural strength• Cross flow cylinder head delivers improved air flow• Increased compression ratio of 16.5:1• Proven MEUI fuel system• ADEM™A4 Controller• Engine oil & filter changes increased to 500 hours under Used on 777F & D11T (fall 07) most operating conditions
    27. 27. 3300/3400 C7- C32 Series - ServiceStrategy• Current Serviceability  Piece parts and sub- components for all models.• Rebuild Strategy  Cost effective rebuild for all models  Reman components, short blocks, long blocks and engines available 3406
    28. 28. 3500 Series Features• One piece high strength cast engine block• Individual cylinder heads• Four valves per cylinder.• Self aligning roller cam followers.• Oil cooled pistons• Unit injectors at 20,000 psi 3500B• Caterpillar fuel system
    29. 29. 3500 Series - Service Strategy• Current Serviceability  Piece parts for all• Rebuild Strategy  Cost effective rebuild for all models  Reman components, short blocks, long blocks and engines available 3500 Machine
    30. 30. Engine/Machine Usage ChartSeries TTT TTL OHT HEX WL 3000 D3C III - D5C III -- 301.5 - 320B 906 - 939C C6.6 D5N 953, 963 924 - 938 3100 D5M - D6M -- 322B - 345B 924F - 962G C7 D6N 322, 325 950, 962 3300 D6R - D7R -- 330B - 350 L 966F - 980F C9 D6R 973 330D C11 725, 730 966 C13 345 972 3400 D8R - D10R 769 - 775 375 - 5080 980G - 990 II C15 D8T 735,740 980H C18 D9T 771 385C 988H C27 D10T 3500 D11R 777 - 797 5130 - 5230 992G - 994D
    31. 31. Engine Build Locations Build Location Engine ModelsPeterborough, England 3011 3013 3024 3034 3054 3056 C1.5 C2.2 C6.6Sagami, Japan 3044 3046 3064 3066 3304 3306Gosselies, Belgium 3116 3126 C7 C9Greenville, South Carolina 3126 C7 C9Griffen, Georgia 3408 3412 C27 C30 C32Mossville, Illinois 3406 3456 C-10 C11 C-12 C13 C15 C-16 C18Lafayette, Indiana 3508 3512 3516 3520 3524 C175-12 C175-16 C175-20 3606 3608 3612 3616Keil, Germany CM20 CM25 CM32 CM43 GCM34 M20 M25 M32 M43 All Gas engines Produced in Lafayette Indiana Electric Power Modules Packaged @ FG Wilson or Griffen Georgia
    32. 32. Agenda• Engine Families• Engine Works & Wears  Engine Wear  Combustion Process  Internal Components  External Components  Cooling System  Lube System  Fuel System  Air System  Electronics• Parts Differentiation• REMAN• Resources
    33. 33. Engine Wear• Definition of Wear  Contact  Pressure  Relative Motion• Normal & Abnormal wear• Major wear items  Cylinder liners  Seals & gaskets  Piston rings  Turbo bearings and seals  Valves, guides, and seats  Main and rod bearings
    34. 34. Engine Works & Wears• Engine Wear• Combustion Process• Internal Components• External Components• Cooling System• Lubrication System• Fuel System• Air System• Electronics
    35. 35. The Combustion Process – 4 Stroke Cycle Intake Compression
    36. 36. The Combustion Process – 4 Stroke Cycle Power Exhaust
    37. 37. The Combustion Process – 4 Stroke Cycle
    38. 38. Reciprocation & Rotation
    39. 39. Oil Consumption and Blow-by
    40. 40. Engine Works & Wears• Engine Wear• Combustion Process• Internal Components• External Components• Cooling System• Lubrication System• Fuel System• Air System• Electronics
    41. 41. Internal Components
    42. 42. 3126B/C7 Valve Train 5 41. Cam lobe 6 32. Lifter3. Pushrods4. Rocker arms 75. Bridge (intake)6. Valve spring 87. Exhaust valve 28. Intake valves 1
    43. 43. Pistons, Rings, & Liners• Cylinder liner• O-ring seals• Piston• Piston rings• Piston pin and retainer
    44. 44. C15 Piston Assembly •Piston is one piece design
    45. 45. Connecting Rod• A connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft
    46. 46. Cylinder Head & Cam Shaft C15• A cylinder head is installed on top of the block• The camshaft turns at ½ the speed of the crankshaft to control intake & exhaust operation
    47. 47. Cat Compression Brake•Intake Valve•Actuation is part of theCaterpillar compressionbrake.
    48. 48. Crankshaft Rod Bearing Journals Front Rear Web Main Bearing Journals CounterweightsThere are 2 rotations of the crankshaft for each 4 stroke cycle!
    49. 49. Cylinder Block• The cylinder block is the central component of any engine• It houses the components that make up the “Serious Nucleus” of the engine
    50. 50. Engine Works & Wears• Engine Wear• Combustion Process• Internal Components• External Components• Cooling System• Lubrication System• Fuel System• Air System• Electronics
    51. 51. Turbocharger• An exhaust driven air compressor• Impeller on the left• Turbine on the right• Connecting shaft, free floating bearings, oil lubricated center housingCauses of Premature Wear or Failure• Poor oil quality• Dirt ingestion• Hot engine shut down
    52. 52. Waste Gate Turbocharger • The wastegate is opened by the high pressure boost in the compressor side of the turbo. • Some of the exhaust gas then Wastegate bypasses the turbine and escapes or ‘wastes’ to the exhaust stack. Small turbo, No wastegate Boost Small turbo, with wastegateWastegate Actuator Large turbo No wastegate• Spins up quicker for good engine response• Regulates turbo speed & prevents over-speeding Engine Load
    53. 53. • Heat exchanger for inlet airAftercooling • Series of metal tubes through which hot inlet air flows • Heat from the air flowing from the tubes is absorbed through the tube walls and carried away • 2 types  Air to air (ATAAC)  Jacket water (JWAC)
    54. 54. Causes of Premature Wearout & Failure of Aftercoolers• Most common cause -- failure of theturbocharger compressor wheel  Damages aftercooler tubes  Coolant leakage into inlet air stream• Poor coolant maintenance may causepitting/corrosion of the aftercooler tubes  Results in water to air leakage  Hydraulic lock on the engine
    55. 55. Water Pump• Flow of the coolant begins at thewater pump• Pump impeller creates the flow• Water pumps are gear or beltdriven• Water pump seals Separates engine oil from coolant
    56. 56. Oil Cooler Engine coolant flows from the water pump directly into the oil cooler Oil carries heat away from critical engine parts Heat is transferred from the oil to the engine coolant
    57. 57. Oil Cooler Coolant flows through copper tubes in the oil cooler housing Oil flows around the outside of the tubes Scale build-up caused by improper cooling system maintenance can be cleaned out of tubes
    58. 58. Engine componentsAir compressor
    59. 59. Engine Works & Wears• Engine Wear• Combustion Process• Internal Components• External Components• Cooling System• Lubrication System• Fuel System• Air System• Electronics
    60. 60. Importance of Cooling System 40-60% Of All Engine Downtime Is Associated With Cooling System ProblemsImportant Customer Reminders:• Use proper start up procedures• Clean debris from the radiator and fan• Check radiator cap seal• Inspect the water pump for leaks• Select the right coolant
    61. 61. Function of Cooling System• Maintain proper engine temperature for optimum performance• Dissipates excess heat from other machine systems:  Engine  Transmission  Hydraulic• Cools compressed inlet air to optimize combustion
    62. 62. Cooling System Components1 Water Pump2 Oil Cooler3 Passages through block and head4 Temp. Regulator & Regulator Housing5 Radiator6 Pressure Cap7 Hoses & Pipes
    63. 63. Causes of Cooling System Wear & Failure• Single most common problem – poor coolant quality Due to…  Not maintaining adequate levels of coolant additives  Using coolant that does not meet Cat’s specifications  Not keeping the cooling system topped off  Using coolant past its useful life• Other problems include:  Coolant to air leaks in the aftercooler • Causes hydraulic lock  Radiator or hose failures • From reusing old radiators and hosing • Failure to service the coolant relief valve … most cooling system problems can be avoided with proper maintenance practices!
    64. 64. Cooling Systems Coolant flows around cylinder liners Absorbs heat from the combustion chamber Prevents breakdown of oil film between pistons and liners
    65. 65. Cooling Systems Coolant flows through passages in the cylinder block into the cylinder head Water seals between the head and block prevent coolant leaks Some engines have water ferrules to direct coolant to critical areas
    66. 66. Engine Works & Wears• Engine Wear• Combustion Process• Internal Components• External Components• Cooling System• Lubrication System• Fuel System• Air System• Electronics
    67. 67. Importance Lubrication System70-80% crank failures are due to oil contamination.
    68. 68. Function of Lubrication System• Cleans  Parts  Cylinder Walls• Cools• Seals & Lubricates  Support  Separate
    69. 69. Lubrication System Components1 Oil Pump2 Relief Valve3 Oil Cooler4 Oil Filter5 Bypass Valves6 Oil Level Gauge (Dipstick)7 Oil Pressure Gauge8 Oil Pan
    70. 70. Engine Lube System
    71. 71. Causes of Lube System Wear & Failure• Single largest problem is short engine life due to excessive soot in the oil• Poor quality/low performance engine oil• Extended oil change intervals• Poor maintenance practices• Fuel dilution• Wear (Lube System Caused)  Seals/Bearings • Turbo • Crank - Main/Rod • Valve, Guide
    72. 72. Methods to control soot levels in engine oil:• High quality engine oils contain effective soot dispersant additives• High performance, full flow, lube filter options  Standard, Advanced, & Ultra High• Bypass filtration devices: centrifugal or barrier filters Soot particles• Oil renewal systems (for large mining agglomerating together machines) Barrier Filter Centrifugal Filter
    73. 73. Engine Works & Wears• Engine Wear• Combustion Process• Internal Components• External Components• Cooling System• Lubrication System• Fuel System• Air System• Electronics Single Fuel System
    74. 74. Function of Fuel System• Meters the amount of fuel to achieve desired power• Regulates engine speed and timing sequence• Helps control emissions
    75. 75. Fuel System Operation
    76. 76. Types of Fuel Systems• Pump & Line • Unit Injection  Current Scroll Fuel System  MUI  New Scroll Fuel System  EUI  Sleeve Metering Fuel System (SMFS)  HEUI  Program Electronic Engine Controls (PEEC)  Common Rail (Single Fuel) 1973 1981 1983 1988E 1994 CSFS MUI NSFS UI HEUIPre 1970 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005Timeline 1974 1987 2004 SMFS PEEC Rail
    77. 77. Fuel Delivery - History • Pre-Combustion (PC) • Direct Injection (DI) Fuel Line Fuel Line Fuel InjectorElectrical Wire Fuel Injector Mechanically Glow Plug Nozzle Controlled Fuel Injector Unit Injector Housing Assembly Pre-Combustion Piston Piston Heat Plug Pre-Combustion Direct Injection Direct Injection Pencil Style Unit Injector
    78. 78. Sleeve Metering Fuel SystemBarrel Fill PortPlungerSleeveSpill Port Filling Begin Continue End Injection Injection Injection
    79. 79. Scroll Metering Fuel System• Pump & line governor• Few moving parts• Simple mechanical governor• Easy starting & service• More tolerant of dirt• Economical
    80. 80. MUI System • A unit injector is positioned above each cylinder • A mechanically actuated governor controls fuel rate (scroll metered) with flyweights and springs • Timing is fixed
    81. 81. EUI System • A unit injector is positioned above each cylinder • An Electronic Control Module (ECM) controls fuel rate and timing • Injectors are mechanically actuated by a camshaft
    82. 82. EUI - Injector Fill • Without pressure from the rocker arm, a spring keeps the plunger retracted • Fuel flows into the injector through the fill / spill port, past the solenoid valve and into the barrel
    83. 83. EUI - Injection • On a signal from the ECM, the solenoid closes the fuel valve • Pressure elevates at the tip to the 5,500 psi needed to unseat the valve • Injection begins
    84. 84. EUI - Injection • Fuel continues to inject until the ECM signals the solenoid to open the valve • Injection timing and duration is controlled by the ECM
    85. 85. HEUI System • A unit injector is positioned above each cylinder • An Electronic Control Module (ECM) controls fuel rate, timing, and injection pressure • The injector is hydraulically actuated
    86. 86. Cat Fuel System – Single Fuel Fuel Manifold Pump C6.6 Injector
    87. 87. Fuel System Wear & Failure Causes• Short unit injector life due to excessive abrasive particles in the fuel  Abrasive particles damage sealing surfaces causing leakage of high pressure fuel and low engine power  Abrasive particles are inherent in most fuels  Most particles can be removed by using High Efficiency filters• Injector seizure due to excess water in the fuel  Always small amounts of water in fuel, which is harmless  Excess water in fuel reduces the lubricating film strength of fuel and causes seizure of the injector plunger and barrel  Maximum amount of allowable water in fuel is 0.1%
    88. 88. Fuel System Wear & Failure Causes• Injector sticking or seizure due to fuel overheating  Fuel in the injector “cooks” and produces varnish which causes components to stick or seize  Viscosity of hot fuel is inadequate and the fuel film thickness will not provide adequate protection against scuffing or seizure of the plunger and barrel  Fuel overheating can be caused by operating in extreme ambient temperatures. An auxiliary fuel cooler installed in the fuel supply line to the cylinder heads may be required to limit fuel temperatures  Running fuel tank too low, or running out of fuel causes the fuel to cycle through the engine too frequently and becomes very hot. This can be avoided by keeping the fuel tank levels at ¼ full or above
    89. 89. Fuel System Wear & Failure Causes• Poor quality oil  Fuel may be low in viscosity or lubricity. Fuel which is old or oxidized often contains excessive gums or resins which promotes injector sticking or seizure.
    90. 90. Effect of Work Environment• Dust• Temperature/Climate• Hours of continuous operation• Terrain
    91. 91. System Improvement• Reduce system damage caused by fuel  Water Separator  Primary Fuel Filter  Bypass Flow• Minimize tip failure caused by aeration  Maintain fuel supply pressure
    92. 92. Stripping Out Water• Water Separator  Second line of defense • All free water • 87% emulsified water  Injector damage
    93. 93. Removing Larger Debris• Primary Fuel Filter  10+ micron particle retention • prevents premature secondary fuel filter plugging • protects fuel transfer pump
    94. 94. Remove Fine Abrasives• Secondary Fuel Filter  2 micron and larger • 98% efficient  Reduces wear on fuel injectors and pumps • Essential for higher pressure systems • Extends life of older systems as well
    95. 95. Double Filter/Double Life• Series filtration  Second filter “safety net” • Second filtering pass • Filter failure - Double injector wear life
    96. 96. Engine Works & Wears• Engine Wear• Combustion Process• Internal Components• External Components• Cooling System• Lubrication System• Fuel System• Air System• Electronics
    97. 97. Air Intake & Exhaust System Functions Boost air at 300 Inlet air from air º- 400º cleaners Inlet air from air cleaners Exhaust out Air manifold From exhaust ports at cylinder heads• Provide adequate quantities of clean • Compresses the filtered intake air intake air into the cylinders in order to • Removes exhaust gases from the product more power cylinders and reduces exhaust noise
    98. 98. Air System
    99. 99. Air System Components• Precleaner• Air Filters• Filter Service Indicator• Turbochargers• Aftercooler• Intake & Exhaust Manifolds• Muffler
    100. 100. Air System Operation• Flow 1. Precleaner 2. Air Filters 3. Turbocharger 4. Intake Manifold & Cylinder Head(s) 5. Combustion Chamber 6. Exhaust Manifold• Wear  Turbocharger • Bearings • Seals
    101. 101. Air System Wear & Failure Causes• Single most common problem – dust ingestion  Causes accelerated abrasive wear of piston rings & liners  Most often caused by inlet leaks around flexible joints in air inlet piping  May also be caused by defective/damaged air filters, or poor maintenance practices• Plugged air filters• Turbo failures• Coolant to air leaks in the aftercooler• Hydraulic lock
    102. 102. Engine Works & Wears• Engine Wear• Combustion Process• Internal Components• External Components• Cooling System• Lubrication System• Fuel System• Air System• Electronics
    103. 103. Electronic Control Module (ECM)Caterpillar’s Electronic Control Module (ECM) and sensors control and monitor key engine function, including:• Fuel temperature.• Engine oil temperature.• Oil pressure.• Atmospheric pressure.• Coolant temperature.• Injection actuation pressure• Throttle position• Injection timing & duration• Logged faults
    104. 104. Features & Benefits of ElectronicsFeatures Benefits•Electronic Engine Control •Improved Emissions Engine Speed Governing •Increased Performance & Torque Shaping Reliability Fuel-air Ratio Control •Improved Diagnostics Cold Mode Strategies •Meet customer needs for Altitude Derating New Features / Advanced Fuel Temperature Compensation Technology•Information Management Accurate Tracking Stored Results•Engine Monitoring Fluid Level Fluid Pressure Fluid Temperature
    105. 105. ADEM 4 Electronic Engine Control Generations of Experience 1987 1991 1993 1998 32-bit 2004 32-bit 8-bit Advanced Two 8-bit ADEM III 8-bit ADEM II ADEM 4PEEC II PEEC III Proven Reliability
    106. 106. Electronic Control ModuleWhat if an ECM Fails?• Troubleshooting guides help identify a component or harness problem• “Limp home” modes• Ability to flash files at repair siteECM Replacement Options?• No serviceable piece parts• Some Reman offerings exist
    107. 107. Electronic Control ModuleWhat if a Sensor or Wiring Harness Fails?• Decision to repair or replace depends on the problem• Sensors and harness segments are serviceable• Replacing an entire harness is a last resort
    108. 108. PEHJ0145
    109. 109. Agenda• Engine Families• Engine Works & Wears  Engine Wear  Combustion Process  Internal Components  External Components  Cooling System  Lube System  Fuel System  Air System  Electronics• Parts Differentiation• REMAN• Resources
    110. 110. Engine Parts Quality • Total System Design • "Same as Caterpillar" • Motives • Parts Availability • Design Modifications • Quality • Reusability • Repair Solutions  New, Reman, Classic, Kits
    111. 111. Cylinder HeadsCompetition Caterpillar• Cut corners to lower costs • Rigid tolerances• Dont meet Cat specs • Design updates
    112. 112. Cylinder Heads Competition Caterpillar• Oversized, unthreaded, • Properly machined missing water holes
    113. 113. Cylinder HeadsCompetition Caterpillar• Blocked passages • Rigid cleaning process
    114. 114. Cylinder HeadsFeatures• Properly machined parts• Rigid Cleaning Process• Rigid Tolerances• Design Updates• Right design for the systemAdvantages• Optimal cooling• Less likelihood of leaks developing and so less chance of problems related to leaking and/or overheating• More durable• Longer life• More reliable operation• Less downtime so ultimately lower cost
    115. 115. ValvesCompetition Caterpillar• Turning marks • Precisely ground
    116. 116. Exhaust ValvesCompetition Caterpillar• Inadequate facing • More facing material material than industry standard
    117. 117. Valves, Solution – AdvantageFeatures• Precisely ground• High strength material• More facing material than industry standardAdvantages Estimate Repairs• Increased protection against valve lip cracking and stem breakage• Increased strength that allows for reusability through 1 or 2 overhauls• Greater fatigue strength• Longer wear life• More durable• More reliable operation• Less downtime so ultimately lower cost Discussion
    118. 118. Cylinder LinersCompetition• Not roll burnished• Flange thickness out of spec• O-Ring grooves not chamfered• Increased chance of crackingCaterpillar• Roll burnished• Controlled flange head thickness• Chamfered O-Ring seal grooves• Heat treated
    119. 119. Cylinder LinersCompetition Caterpillar• Random cross hatch • Uniform cross hatch pattern pattern
    120. 120. Cylinder LinersCompetition Caterpillar• Not machined to hone off • Pre-honed to preserve life “saw-tooth” peaks and disperse oil better
    121. 121. Cylinder LinersFeatures• Uniform cross hatch pattern• Roll burnished• Controlled flange head thickness• Chamfered O-Ring seal grooves• Heat treated• High-grade gray iron• Perfect fit
    122. 122. Cylinder Liners Advantages • Proper oil distribution • Longer liner life • Increased strength; reduced susceptibility to cracking • Leakage prevention • Reusable at first overhaul • Lower repair / maintenance costs over time • Higher productivity • Less downtime
    123. 123. Piston RingsCompetition Caterpillar• Flat-faced top ring • Barrel-faced top ring
    124. 124. Piston RingsCompetition Caterpillar• Thin chrome or • Correct chrome or plasma plating plasma plating
    125. 125. Piston RingsFeatures Advantages • Reduced oil consumption•Barrel-faced top ring • Increased cylinder liner / ring life•Correct chrome or plasma plating • Less susceptible to breakage•High-strength ductile iron • Less downtime•Heat treated • Lower operating costs
    126. 126. Nickel Ring Band Pistons C7 PistonCompetition Caterpillar• Ring bands disbonded • Controlled casting process• Grooves do not meet flatness, • Ultrasonic inspection size, or location specifications • Improved reusability
    127. 127. Features Pistons• Nickel-band ring• Specially ground, tapered• Controlled casting process• Precise fitAdvantages• Better sealing• Proper bonding C7 Piston• Less blow-by• Less carbon deposit • Lowered chance of seizure• Delivers more power • Less downtime caused by part failure• Longer wear • Lower operating costs• Reusable
    128. 128. One Piece Steel PistonUsed on 3408, 3412, 3500 & all ACERT engines • Increased structural capability • Machined from a single steel forging • Eliminates need for a separate aluminum skirt & possible breakage • Eliminates possible debond of ring groove • Reduced thermal expansion allows piston fit to be tighter for a reduction in liner cavitation • Reduction in surface area provides less friction and helps fuel consumption • Higher Oil Flow • Bigger piston oil gallery & new oil jets • Runs cooler thus reducing piston carbon deposit and oil consumption • New ring pack • 25% reduction in blow-by • No bushings to replace in 3408 & 3412
    129. 129. Fractured Split Rod TechnologyModels 3114, 3116, 3126, C7, C9, C11 and C13 Features • Forged for high strength 213-3193 • Rod able to accept higher loads C7 • Eliminates fretting on joint face • Eliminates locating dowel C11 – 223-9133 C13 – 223-9150 160-8199 C9 IRM – PELJ0174
    130. 130. Crankshafts• Caterpillar • Competition  Proprietary hardening  Not Reusable process-tough core  Rough surface finish  Excellent reusability  Oversized journals  Polished surface finish  Increased bearing friction to <5 microns  Precise journal grinding
    131. 131. Integral SealsEdge Bonded (Metal Carrier) Void-Volume (Plastic Carrier) Benefits • Virtually eliminates gasket leaks. • Improved bolt torque retention vs. flat gaskets • Ease of assembly vs. flat gasket • Availability in gasket & seal kits
    132. 132. Unitized Design Crankshaft Seal For 3400 Series & C15 Engines Old Style Clamped PTFE New Style Elements Bonded Elastomeric Flanged Wear Sleeve Substrate PTFERadial PTFE Oil Lip Dirt Lip PTFE Oil Lip Wear Sleeve Flange Wear Sleeve Axial Dirt Lip Hydro-threads Hydro-threads• Reduced potential for leakage • Significantly longer seal life• Easier installation  Up to 2X improvement in on-highway truck• Reduced installation damage  Up to 3X improvement in earth-moving• Minimized contamination• Increased reliability
    133. 133. Valve Covers Composite Less noise Aluminum• Two piece composite/aluminum • Used on all ACERT engines• Fully isolated • C7 thru C32• Reduces noise up to 1dBA
    134. 134. Cylinder Head Gaskets Steel spacer core sandwichedbetween two layers of spring steel Improved sealing head/block • Multi layered steel  Improved durability • Sealing • Crush strength • Creep resistance • Joint stability  Used on all ACERT
    135. 135. Features Advantages Heavy Duty WaterTemperature Regulators Prevents contamination Lip Seal at the top of the from infiltrating into GuideFor Various Engine sensitive area Applications Piston Regulator is not stuck in Help retain grease which one position due to is used to reduce friction contamination or loss of in the guide area grease within guide area 247-7133 Open Temp Engine does not run cold or hot due to a stuck 87-90 deg C regulator 248-5513 Open Temp 81-84 deg C Lower maintenance costsNew Lip Seal Guide Improved engine life
    136. 136. Agenda• Engine Families• Engine Works & Wears  Engine Wear  Combustion Process  Internal Components  External Components  Cooling System  Lube System  Fuel System  Air System  Electronics• Differentiation• REMAN• Resources
    137. 137. Cat Remanufactured Products
    138. 138. What is Remanufacturing?Differences betweenRepairRebuildRemanufacture
    139. 139. Repair• Usually simple• Fixes only a specific problem• May not use genuine CAT parts depending on labor source.
    140. 140. Rebuild• Usually retains the component identity• More than a simple repair• Usually done by dealer, customer or re-builder• Restores to near original condition• May not use genuine Cat parts• Re-builder assumes the warranty liability• Requires investments in tools, equip., training, etc• Rebuild and return or exchange – turnaround time involved
    141. 141. Remanufacture• Consistent factory environment• Process and quality control• Upgrades to latest engineering changes• Harvest components (looses its original identity)• Uses 100% genuine Cat parts• Cat Reman carries standard parts warranty• Requires cores – exchange only
    142. 142. Reman Is An Exchange Business Reman Sale $40 $60 Core Deposit Core Deposit $60 Returned Price of New $100 Customer returns coreDealer sells Reman water pump = $100 No Core = No Reman Product
    143. 143. Cat Product Support Strategy – Reman’s Role New Cat Parts Cat Do It Myself Reman Parts Product Support Work With Me OPTIONS Dealer Exchange Strategy Do It For Me Classic Parts (One Voice) Used Parts • Support Cat Dealer repair option & exchange programs • Lower repair costs • Prime path for On-Highway Truck & lower volume dealers • Peak shaving for dealers with component rebuild centers (CRC’s) • Help Cat Dealers manage MARC & CSA contracts profitability • Expand product coverage through accelerated NPI • Expand global access to Reman products • Help alleviate technician shortages (Technician-in-a-Box)
    144. 144. Reman Engine Product Coverage  On-Highway Truck Engines  Long Blocks  Short Blocks  Cylinder Heads  Crankshafts  Camshafts & Kits Short and Long Blocks  Cylinder Kits Complete Engines  Fuel Nozzles & Injectors  Fuel Injection Pumps  Fuel Air Ratio Controls  Turbochargers Cylinder Heads Crankshafts  Water Pumps  Oil Pumps  Starters Connecting Rods  Alternators  Oil Coolers Camshafts  Air Compressors  Rocker Arms KitsWater pumps  Lifters  Rocker Arms Fuel Cylinder Packs  Pistons Packs Injection

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