1Welcome to the WebinarTraining courses
2AGENDAEthernet Webinar Courses1. Ethernet Intro Part A2. Ethernet Intro Part B3. Carrier Ethernet Intro4. Carrier Etherne...
3AGENDAEthernet Webinar Courses1. Ethernet Intro Part A2. Ethernet Intro Part B3. Carrier Ethernet Intro4. Carrier Etherne...
4Agenda Introduction Ethernet IEEE 802.3 ISO/OSI Reference Model Layer 1 - The physical layer Ports Power over Ether...
5History of Data Networks1973 Robert Metcalfe deploys Ethernet (3Mb/s) for the company XEROX1979 Metcalfe founded 3com (Co...
6IEEE 802.3 International Association of Electrical Engineering and computer science Engineers Since 1963 Forms committ...
7ISO due to different applications the type of data carried is varying it is very imprtant to standardize the way of com...
8The ISO/OSI 7-Layer Reference Model7654321ApplicationPresentationSessionTansportNetworkData LinkPhysicalNetwork process t...
9The physical Layer: L17654321ApplicationPresentationSessionTansportNetworkData LinkPhysicalNetwork process to application...
10PortsCopper RJ-45 8 PINs Pin assignment (Fast) Ethernet: 1+2 Transmit (Tx)3+6 Receive (Rx) Pin assignment Gigabit Eth...
11PortsOptical - SFP Small Form-Factor Pluggable Having Tx & Rx two ports with LC Connectors Rate from 100Mb/s to 10Gb/...
12PortsOptical - Connectors LC: Lucent Connector is the most common optical connector dueto its small form factor. It the...
13Power over Ethernet PoEPoE Defined by the standard IEEE 802.1af Enddevices are feeded via the Data Cable and doesnt ne...
14Power over Ethernet PoEPoE+ / PoE PLUS The standard IEEE 802.1at defines a higher powerconsumption up to 25 Watts.PoE /...
15Port PropertiesHalfduplex HD The port can only work unidirectional at a time meaning either transmit data (Tx) or recei...
16Port PropertiesHalfduplex HalfduplexHalfduplex FullduplexFullduplex FullduplexCollisionCollisionCorrect TransmissionCo...
17Port PropertiesAutonegotiation / Autoneg Is taking place after the link establishment A handshake to determine the bes...
18Port PropertiesAutonegotiation / Autoneg Missing Autoneg Configurations will cause Network errors Both stations need t...
19Port PropertiesTester SwitchAuto Auto1000 FD Auto1000 FD 1000 FD100 FD 1000 FD100 FD AutoAuto 100 FD100 FD 100 FD100 HD ...
20Summary We have choosen now the right cable We decided to choose the right connector We decided if we need PoE or not...
21The Data Link Layer: L27654321ApplicationPresentationSessionTansportNetworkData LinkPhysicalNetwork process to applicati...
22Traffic DistributionHUBNode BNode DNode CNode AHow can we send Data from A to Station B in that Local Area Network (LAN)...
23Traffic DistributionSWITCHNode BNode DNode CNode AHow can we send Data from A to Station B in that Local Area Network (L...
24Traffic Distribution As we heard now that addressing is required this is the first time where we have to think about th...
25Ethernet Frame (IEEE 802.3)The principal design of the Ethernet FrameData Structure: Thousands of alligned Bits7 bytes 4...
26Ethernet Frame (IEEE 802.3)Data Structure: Thousands of alligned Bits7 bytes 4 bytesPreamble SFD FCSDestination Source D...
27MAC Address Every Device is having a unique Hardware-Address Every Medium can then be accessed in a controlled way It...
28MAC AddressEthernet Frames are on Layer 2 and can therefore only be transmittedlocally. They can not be transmitted in f...
29SummaryLayer1We have choosen now the right cable We decided to choose the right connector We decided if we need PoE o...
30The Network Layer: L37654321ApplicationPresentationSessionTansportNetworkData LinkPhysicalNetwork process to application...
317 b y t e s 4 b y t e sP r e a m b l e S F D F C SD e s t i n a t i o n S o u r c e D A T AL e n g t h /t y p e1 b y t e...
32 Since the early 80s the Internet Protocol has already been defined in its fourth Version► IPv4 The plan was, that eve...
33 Format: four blocks written in decimal: e.g. 192.168.0.1 Written in binary numbers: 11000000.10101000.00000000.000000...
34IP Packets are routed on Layer 3Since the traffic is now routed on Layer 3 the communication can work worldwideSenderAnw...
35L3: Internet Protocol version 4 - IPv4LAN WANDSL ModemWLAN-RouterNetwork Address translationNATWAN Port1 PublicIP Addres...
36 Since the early 90s it turned out that the reccources of IPv4 addresses are coming to its end► IPv6 128 bit are reser...
37LAN WANDSL ModemWLAN-RouterFaster due to a lower latency as NAT is not required anymoreL3: Internet Protocol version 6 -...
38SummaryLayer1We have choosen now the right cable We decided to choose the right connector We decided if we need PoE o...
39The Transport Layer: L47654321ApplicationPresentationSessionTansportNetworkData LinkPhysicalNetwork process to applicati...
40L4: Transport The Transport layer is basically to ensure that everything is transmitted completely But Some applicatio...
41L4: Transport The protocols of the Transport layer are furthermore responsible that the arrived data is directed tothe ...
42L4: UDP When Realtime Transmission doesntrequire and end-to-end error correction,then The User Datagram Protocol (UDP)...
43L4: TCP For DATA Tranmission an end-to-end errorcorrection is essential. The Transmission Control Protocol(TCP) is det...
44SummaryLayer1 We have choosen now the right cable We decided to choose the right connector We decided if we need PoE ...
45The ISO/OSI 7-Layer Reference Model7654321ApplicationPresentationSessionTansportNetworkData LinkPhysicalNetwork process ...
46Questions andAnswers
47Thanks for attendingEthernet series webinartraining coursesModule IEthernet IntroductionPart A
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Webinar ethernet basics part a v1.3

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  • Ethernet is just a name - not a function. Robert Metcalfe has been advised to find something that enables his company XEROX to connect some stations so that they can communicate to each other. He followed a former idea of the University of Hawaii. In the early seventies they deployed a radio link to transmit data through the ether. Metcalfe did that in a similar way and "replaced" the ether by a copper cable. The name Ethernet was born. He convinced DEC, Intel and Xerox to fund a consortium which deployed the first transmissin standard: DIX-Frame v1.0 (10 Mb/s) Later on a very big organisation (IEEE) covered the deployment of further transmission standards.
  • The IEEE is a worldwide organisation which is taking care about standardisations. As there are many vendors of network components around the world it is neccesary to have a common transmission standard. Otherwise the worldwide communication would not be possible. They formed a transmission standard which we know as IEEE 802.3 Ethernet.
  • It is not enough to have a common transmission standard as IEEE is suggesting. Today we use thousands of different applications within our datanetworks. The International Standards Organisation ISO defined a sort of reference book which contains 7 chapters. It describes how the communication has to take place worldwide. The traget of the 7 chapters is that all systems open to be able to interconnect to each other. That's why the ISO called it the Open Systems Interconnection Model. It should be a Reference for everybody. It is therefore called: ISO /OSI 7-Layer-Reference-Model
  • Layer 1 - Physical That is the chapter where the ISO defined the physical properties of our networks. It's about the Media like copper or fiber and its properties; The way of transmitting the signals across the medias. Ports and its physical properties, Cables and its Categories.
  • This is one of the common problems appearing in the field peope using 100Base cable for 1000 Base T cable.
  • SFP is widely used in today‘s network equipment such as switches and routers to carry Ethernet signal over the fibres. This is mainly to overcome the short distance coverage of the copper cable (<100m typically). Using fibre technology, the link length can reach as far as 120Km under single mode fibre. Today, there are lot of different type of SFPs (standard or non standard) developed by manufactures to meet different appliction demand. There are two operation mode of fibre optics used for SFP. One is call Multi Mode (MM) and the other called Single Mode (SM). In Multi Mode fiber, there are two types of core diameters 50um and 62.5um used in multi mode fibre. The most commonly used is diameter 50um fiber. The single mode fibre has only one diameter 9um. The common structure of SFP is having Tx and Rx port with LC connectors. The rate covers from 100Mb/s up to 10Gb/s. Today, two of the most commonly used SFP types are 1000 Base SX and 1000 Base LX. The 1000 Base SX is 850nm Multimode LED source and mainly used in LAN application for short distance (500m max). The 1000 Base LX is 1310nm Singlemode laser source mainly used for WAN application for the long distance up to 40Km. There are other type of SFPs to cover even longer distance such as 1000 Base ZX using 1550nm singlemode laster source for up to 70Km. For limited fiber access restriction and PON (Passive Optical Network) application, a bi-directional type SFP has been developed to support Tx and Rx over one fiber instead of two fibers on traditional SFPs. A typical example is 1000 Base BX10 (or sometime called Bi -Di SFP). It use 1490nm or 1550nm wavelength as one direction and 1310nm for other direction over just one fiber. The distance can reach 10Km or more depending the vendor specification. Recent network is demanding 10Gb/s rate with small form factor in SFP. Hence the SFP+ is developed to overcome the big form factor of XFP which can support up to 120km. It has the same SFP form factor supporting the bit rate up to 10Gb/s instead of SFP‘s 1Gb/s with relative short distance of XFP in general.
  • Connector surfaces of PC UPC APC Usually we hear about descriptions like" LC/UPC multi mode duplex fiber optic patch cord 3 meters", or "FC/APC single mode fiber optic pigtails"," ST/PC multi mode duplex fiber optic jumper", what do these words PC, UPC, APC mean? Here we give the explanations.  As we know, fiber optic cable assemblies are mainly with connectors and cables, so the fiber cable assembly names is related to the connector names, we call it LC fiber patch cord, because it is with LC fiber connector, here the words PC, UPC, APC also are related only to the fiber optic connectors and has nothing to do with fiber optic cables.  We have known that PC, UPC, APC is standard of the fiber optic connectors, PC, UPC, APC are short for: Physical Contact (PC), Ultra Physical Contact (UPC), and Angled Physical Contact (APC), they are actually the polish style of fiber optic ferrules. Unlike copper cables with copper thread in the connectors as connection media, fiber optic connectors are with these ceramic ferrules for connection, and different fiber optic connectors the ferrule size and length and polish styles are different. Such ferrules are inside the fiber optic connectors and with fiber glass from the fiber optic cable to plug into the ferrule for linking.  The different polish of the fiber optic connector ferrules result in different performance of them, mainly on the back reflection (return loss),.Generally, PC type is required at least 40dB return loss or higher, UPC is 50dB or higher, APC is 60dB or higher. (As we know, the higher the return loss the better the performance). Insertion loss of them all should be less than at least 0.3dB, the lower the insertion loss the better the performance. Single mode fiber optic cables can be with PC, UPC or APC polished connectors, while multimode there is no APC ones.  When you are using fiber optical cable, please make sure you are using the same type of surface connectors (same colour) to connect each other. APC is normally green and PC/UPC is blue. Mismatch connectors (colour) will cause extra loss of the fiber link and poor return loss.
  • The main advandage of PoE is the reduction of installation costs, as no installation of electricity is required anymore. It is already very common for CCTV cameras and IP-Phones. PoE can feed devices with a low power consumtipon. It can also increase the resiliance of the devices as these ones are secured via the switch and its untinterrrupted power supply unit. In Ethernet / Fast Ethernet Networks the feeding normally takes place via the unused Pairs 4-5 and 7-8, but can also be done via the data carrying pairs 1-2 3-6. The feeded Power is not disturbing the Data carried on the Pairs. PoE can therefore be used in GbE Networks as well. The typically feeding Voltage is 48 V, while the delivered Power may vary due to different end user devices. The maximum Power consumption is 15 Watts as per defined in the standard IEEE 802.1af. It defines also a secure-mechanism to protect non PoE devices which are connected to a PoE feeding unit. Modern devices myy need more than 15 Watts. The newer standard is IEEE 802.1at which defines a maximum power consumtpion up to 25 Watts. We call it easily PoE Plus or PoE+
  • We clearly can say: Only when the Duplexconfigurations are matching to each other, a correct tranmission can take place. The example in the middle shows an incorrect transmission due to a duplex mismatch The left computer can only work halfduplex, the computer on the right firced to speak fullduplex. While the Computer on the left is transmitting it has a blocked Rx-Port. We see in the example that the computer on right is sending back to the station on the left. Due to the currently blocked Rx Port of the left device, all traffic coming from the right station is lost there. Furthermor a network tester will discover the network error "Collisions"
  • Interfaces are sending a link pulse every 16 ms. As soon the interfaces are connected to each other, they are detecting the Link Pulse from each other. The link is becoming active. As soon this has happened the Autonegotiation handshake will begin to determine the Duplex.
  • Autonegotioation is very comfortable as it automatically detects the Duplex-Mode. Attention: Only when both Interfaces are configured to "AUTONEG ON " it may work correctly. If one station is set to "AUTONEG OFF" one interface is only working on halfduplex . We determine then Trafficloss and Collisions again.
  • While we were talking about a transmission of signals in Layer 1 we are now talking for the first time about transmitting Data: Layer 2
  • The easiest way to build a network in terms of distributing the traffic is simply to use a Hub. The Hub is distributing the incoming traffic to every port. Although we may get a fullduplex connection to the Hub it can only work in halfduplex mode. A Hub is therefore causing Traffic loss and Collisions. Furthermore as it is directing the incoming traffic into every span it is causing a high network load. That's why IT-Administrators are removing Hubs from the network.
  • The Hubs are replaced by switches as these are intelligent devices. They are directing the incoming Traffic to a destination. Addressing is therefore required. That method of "switching" is reducing the network load. Switches are able to operate in Fullduplex mode. They are eliminating the collisions which occured by the usage of Hubs. Nowadays we only see switches in modern Multimedia environments
  • Ethernet frames can look much more complicated. That slide should simply illustrate the priciple of the Data structure
  • Against a very common opinion the Ethernet transmission is always synchronized. Every single frame is containing a special Bitstructure wich is used for synchronisation ( Preamble ) A sort of "Alert Message" indicates that now the important Data is beginning ( Start Frame Delimiter SFD ) The Ethernet Frame begins after the SFD
  • A Swith is normally a pure Layer 2 device, meaning it can only handle MAC Addresses. Switches are not interested in the content of the User Data of a frame. They are disregarding the DATA and are only using the layer 2 informations, such as Destination MAC and Source MAC. Therefore Switches can only handle local traffic. They can not direct the traffic from locally into the outer world or in foreign networks. A new functionality is required: Routing on Layer 3. There are switches available on the market which can do Routing. These are called "L3-Switch"
  • IP Packets are generated by the devices. These IP packets are transmitted between the local devices by mapping them into an Ethernet Frame. Comparable with the Frame, a IP Packet is having an header as well. Within that header there are Addreses of a new format. I P-Adresses
  • While the switch is transmitting the Ethernet Frame locally, the Router is working on layer 3. It is removing the Ethernet Frame and uses only the IP Packet. Due to configured Routing Tables the Router can couple now different networks.
  • Example Internet Access via DSL: The service provider has assigned one single public IP-Address to his customer. That public IP-Address is configured on the WAN-Port of the DSL Router. On the LAN side the Router is assigning private IP-Addresses to every client via DHCP. As soon a client wants to communicate with the outer world, the Router is translating the internal private IP-Address to the public IP-Address on the WAN side. That scenario is called Network Address Translation NAT
  • One of the main advantages of IPv6 is that there is no NAT required anymore. This makes the transmission faster which is good for latency sensitive services.
  • The UDP is mainly addressing the user data to the right application. It is transmitting the data without any error correction. Meaning if data is lost within the network it is never retransmitted. UDP is therefore the right choice for Realtime Transmissions.
  • The TCP is addressing the user data to the right application and is doing an error correction if some data is lost. The sender is marking every single packet with a number, the TCP Sequence Number. The principle is quite simple: it is simply an ascending numbering of the packets. The destination is now able to detect, if a packet is missing. If that is the case, a messeage is sent back to the sender, who is then retransmitting the lost packet. TCP is therefore the right choice for DATA Transmissions.
  • As summary, the OSI model gives us a clear job description in different layers in the network to make sure the communication between two parties is error free. It is the base of the troubleshooting of the network problem in different layers and associated devices from instrument point of view. So how these different layers working together to make the network for use in today‘s IP world? Next session will give you more detailed looking on this.
  • Webinar ethernet basics part a v1.3

    1. 1. 1Welcome to the WebinarTraining courses
    2. 2. 2AGENDAEthernet Webinar Courses1. Ethernet Intro Part A2. Ethernet Intro Part B3. Carrier Ethernet Intro4. Carrier Ethernet Test5. New GbE Testers Intro
    3. 3. 3AGENDAEthernet Webinar Courses1. Ethernet Intro Part A2. Ethernet Intro Part B3. Carrier Ethernet Intro4. Carrier Ethernet Test5. New GbE Testers Intro
    4. 4. 4Agenda Introduction Ethernet IEEE 802.3 ISO/OSI Reference Model Layer 1 - The physical layer Ports Power over Ethernet PoE Duplex Autonegotiation Layer 2 - The Data Link Layer Traffic Distribution Ethernet Frame IEEE 802.3 MAC Adress Layer 3 - The network layer Internet Protocol IP IPv4 IPv6 Addresstypes Layer 4 - The Transport Layer UDP TCP
    5. 5. 5History of Data Networks1973 Robert Metcalfe deploys Ethernet (3Mb/s) for the company XEROX1979 Metcalfe founded 3com (Computers, Communication and Compatibility) and convincedDEC, Intel and Xerox (DIX Consortium)1980 Ethernet - DIX v1.0 (10Mb/s)1982 Ethernet - DIX v2.01983 IEEE 802.3 - Ethernet 10Mb/s1995 IEEE 802.3u - Fast Ethernet 100 Mb/s1998 IEEE 802.3z - Gigabit Ethernet 1000 Mb/s2002 IEEE 802.3ae - 10 Gigabit Ethernet
    6. 6. 6IEEE 802.3 International Association of Electrical Engineering and computer science Engineers Since 1963 Forms committees on standardization of technology, hardware and software 400000 Members worldwide Design standards for Data Transmission within the Project number 802 (deducted from February 1980 ) The wrokgroup No. 3 is taking care about Ethernet Networks can now carry Data due to a common standard► Transmission standard IEEE 802.3
    7. 7. 7ISO due to different applications the type of data carried is varying it is very imprtant to standardize the way of communication through the Data Networks all stations across the world must be able to communicate to each other This will then be the basis for the Internet as well all systems must be open and interconnectable Therefore the ISO created a model how the interaction can work International Standards OrganizationISO / OSI The Open System Interconnection Model This is comparable with a book containing 7 chapters. The 7-Layers-Reference-Model
    8. 8. 8The ISO/OSI 7-Layer Reference Model7654321ApplicationPresentationSessionTansportNetworkData LinkPhysicalNetwork process to applicationData Representation, encryption anddecryption, convert user dependent data intomachine dependent dataInterhost communication, managingsessions between applicationsEnd-to-end connections, reliability andflow controlPath determination and logical addressingPhysical addressingMedia, signal and binary transmissionEthernet Frame: Transport of IP-Packets through local networksSession Packets: To carry thedigital User Data (between theApplications)TCP/UDP-Packets: To carry theSession Packets (between theDevices)IP Packet: To carry the TCP-UDP Packets through differentNetworksAnalogue SignalDigital SignalBit streamUser dataUser dataUser datalayer 2headerlayer 3headerlayer 4headerlayer 2trailerUser datalayer 5header
    9. 9. 9The physical Layer: L17654321ApplicationPresentationSessionTansportNetworkData LinkPhysicalNetwork process to applicationData Representation, encryption anddecryption, convert user dependent data intomachine dependent dataInterhost communication, managingsessions between applicationsEnd-to-end connections, reliability andflow controlPath determination and logical addressingPhysical addressingMedia, signal and binary transmissionUser dataUser dataUser datalayer 2headerlayer 3headerlayer 4headerlayer 2trailerBit streamEthernetHTTP, FTP, HTTPS, SMTP,LDAP, NCP, SIP, H.323, RTPTCP, UDP, SCTP, SPX,ICMP, IGMP, IP, IPXSoftphone, Email…G.729, G.723, G.711,..
    10. 10. 10PortsCopper RJ-45 8 PINs Pin assignment (Fast) Ethernet: 1+2 Transmit (Tx)3+6 Receive (Rx) Pin assignment Gigabit Ethernet: all 8 Pins Two Port types: MDI (Medium Dependent Interface) 1-2 Tx / 3-6 RxMDI-X (crossover) 1-2 Rx / 3-6 TxEthernet Pinout RJ45  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 810-Base T Tx+ Tx- Rx+     Rx-    100-Base T Tx+ Tx- Rx+     Rx-    1000-Base T D1+ D1- D2+ D3+ D3- D2- D4+ D4-
    11. 11. 11PortsOptical - SFP Small Form-Factor Pluggable Having Tx & Rx two ports with LC Connectors Rate from 100Mb/s to 10Gb/s. 1000 Base SX (850 nm, Multimode)Multimode SFPs can reach a distance of 500 m. A LED isenough to couple the light into the broader core of aMultimode Fiber. They are therefore much cheaper andonly seen in LANs 1000 Base LX (1310 nm, Singlemode)Singlemode SFPs can reach a distance up to 40 km. Theyare using Laser-Diodes which are required to couple thelight into the thin core of a singlemode Fiber. They aretherefore expensive and mostly used for long distance inWANs Other type of SFPs1000 Base ZX (1550nm, Singlemode) for up to 70 km.1000 Base BX10 (1490nm Tx, 1310nm Rx) or Bi-Di SFPfor up to 10Km over a single fiber. SFP+ supports up to10Gb/s at 850nm MM or 1310nm SM.
    12. 12. 12PortsOptical - Connectors LC: Lucent Connector is the most common optical connector dueto its small form factor. It therefore displaced the SC connectoras the standard in the LAN. MM and SM SC: In 2002 the Subscriber Connector diplaced the ST-Connector asthe standard in the LAN. Easier to use as and requires lessspace as ST. ST: The Straight Tip connector is still very common in the LAN. It ismainly used in Multimode. Secure connection due to a bajonetmechnaism. FC: Due to its robustness the Fiber Connector is still very commonin WAN. Mainly SM E2000: A mechanical Laser Protection flap is automaitcally closing toprotect the Fiber. Mainly used for Singlemode in MAN and WANNetworks
    13. 13. 13Power over Ethernet PoEPoE Defined by the standard IEEE 802.1af Enddevices are feeded via the Data Cable and doesnt need an external power supply anymore Typically used for IP-Phones, Cameras and Wireless access points Reduction of Installation costs Devices are feeded by a PoE-Switch, a PoE Patch Panel or a supsequently installed PoE-Injector Typical Values: 48V at a maximum consumption of 15 Watts
    14. 14. 14Power over Ethernet PoEPoE+ / PoE PLUS The standard IEEE 802.1at defines a higher powerconsumption up to 25 Watts.PoE / PoE+ power range Depending on the type of devices there are typical power ranges These Ranges are defined by 5 PoE-Classes as followsClass Available Power in Watt0 0.44–12.961 0.44–3.842 3.84–6.493 6.49–12.954 (Poe+) 12.95-25.50 (only 802.3at)
    15. 15. 15Port PropertiesHalfduplex HD The port can only work unidirectional at a time meaning either transmit data (Tx) or receive data (RX) The port never can send and receive Data at the same time A typical Halfduplex device is a Hub. A typical Example for halfduplex: Phonecall - one person is listening while the other person is talkingFullduplex FD Ports are working bidirectional Rx and Tx can be done simultaneusly Typical Fullduplexdevice: Switch Example:Videoconferencing - your picture is transmitted while you are receiving the picture of others.
    16. 16. 16Port PropertiesHalfduplex HalfduplexHalfduplex FullduplexFullduplex FullduplexCollisionCollisionCorrect TransmissionCorrect Transmission Errors and CollisionsLoss of Data
    17. 17. 17Port PropertiesAutonegotiation / Autoneg Is taking place after the link establishment A handshake to determine the best way of transmission between two Interfaces Automoatic detection if Transmission can be done on Fullduplex or must be done on Halfduplex It follows the simple Principle: Question A: Can you work on fullduplexAnswer B: Yes, I canCommitment: OK, lets then do fullduplex It is absolutely necessary, that both interfaces have enabled Autoneg!.Fullduplex FullduplexAutoneg ONAutoneg ON Can you do Fullduplex?Yes, I can
    18. 18. 18Port PropertiesAutonegotiation / Autoneg Missing Autoneg Configurations will cause Network errors Both stations need to set to Autoneg ON Otherwise the questioning Interface is going back to halfduplex once the answer is missing It follows a the simple Priciple: Question A: Can you work on fullduplexAnswer B: No Answer due to Autoneg is set to OFFInterface A: is going to Halfduplex while B is set to 100 Mb/s - FD! Gigbabit is always on Fullduplex!.Halfduplex FullduplexAutoneg OFFFixed to 100 Mb/s - FDAutoneg ON Can you do Fullduplex?No AnswerCollisionCollision
    19. 19. 19Port PropertiesTester SwitchAuto Auto1000 FD Auto1000 FD 1000 FD100 FD 1000 FD100 FD AutoAuto 100 FD100 FD 100 FD100 HD Auto10 HD Auto10 HD 100 HDAuto 100 HDAuto 10 HDResultTester ResultSwitch1000 FD 1000 FD1000 FD 1000 FD1000 FD 1000 FDno link no link100 FD 100 FD100 HD 100 FD100 FD 100 FD100 HD 100 HD10 HD 10 HDno link no link100 HD 100 HD10 HD 10 HDPractice Autoneg
    20. 20. 20Summary We have choosen now the right cable We decided to choose the right connector We decided if we need PoE or not We configured our Ports correctly. due to a working Autoneg Scenario the Link is now established without any issue► Lets start to transmit Data
    21. 21. 21The Data Link Layer: L27654321ApplicationPresentationSessionTansportNetworkData LinkPhysicalNetwork process to applicationData Representation, encryption anddecryption, convert user dependent data intomachine dependent dataInterhost communication, managingsessions between applicationsEnd-to-end connections, reliability andflow controlPath determination and logical addressingPhysical addressingMedia, signal and binary transmissionUser dataUser dataUser datalayer 2headerlayer 3headerlayer 4headerlayer 2trailerBit streamHTTP, FTP, HTTPS, SMTP,LDAP, NCP, SIP, H.323, RTPTCP, UDP, SCTP, SPX,ICMP, IGMP, IP, IPXSoftphone, Email…G.729, G.723, G.711,..The Core element of a Layer 2 - Network: SwitchEthernet Frame: Transport of IP-Packets through local networks
    22. 22. 22Traffic DistributionHUBNode BNode DNode CNode AHow can we send Data from A to Station B in that Local Area Network (LAN) ? A Hub can help here as it is spreading the traffic into every span Disadvantage: Every network element will receive the Traffic which is causing a high load in the LAN Hubs can only work in Halfduplex mode and are internally causing network errors and collisionsCollisionsCollisions
    23. 23. 23Traffic DistributionSWITCHNode BNode DNode CNode AHow can we send Data from A to Station B in that Local Area Network (LAN) ? A Switch is the perfect solution Advantage: Only the target element will receive the Traffic - the network load is drastically reduced A switch is a Fullduplexdevice - no errors or collisions anymore Addressing is required
    24. 24. 24Traffic Distribution As we heard now that addressing is required this is the first time where we have to think about thestructrue of our Data Somebody did that already for us: IEEE Within their Transmission standard they defined how the Data Structure must look like. They created a model and gave it the simple name: Frame► IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Frame
    25. 25. 25Ethernet Frame (IEEE 802.3)The principal design of the Ethernet FrameData Structure: Thousands of alligned Bits7 bytes 4 bytesPreamble SFD FCSDestination Source DATALength /type1 byte 6 bytes 6 bytes 2 bytes 46 - 1500 bytesDefinitions of frame size Smallest Ethernet Frame: 64 Byte biggest Ethernet Frame: 1518 Bytes Special Form: VLAN Frame 1522 bytes Special Form VLAN (Q-in-Q) Frame: 1526 Bytes Jumboframes up to 10000 BytesFrame size
    26. 26. 26Ethernet Frame (IEEE 802.3)Data Structure: Thousands of alligned Bits7 bytes 4 bytesPreamble SFD FCSDestination Source DATALength /type1 byte 6 bytes 6 bytes 2 bytes 46 - 1500 bytesPreamble: required to get every single packet synchronizedSFD: Start Frame Delimiter indicates the beginning of the relevant dataDestination: Contains the Destination Address (MAC)Source: Contains the source Address (MAC)Lenght: Indicates the Lenght of the Ethernet FrameType: Indicates the type of packets which are coming from higher LayersDATA: Contains the User Data / Packets of the higher LayersFCS: Frame Check Sequency determines incorrect transmission due to faults
    27. 27. 27MAC Address Every Device is having a unique Hardware-Address Every Medium can then be accessed in a controlled way It is therefore called Media Access Control MAC Its hexadecimal and looks like that: 00:16:06:88:01:6F The first part is the Vendor Code 00:16:06:xx:xx:xx = Ideal IndustriesDue to the MAC Addresses the Switches are nowable to determine where the Frame needs to got to withinthe local network
    28. 28. 28MAC AddressEthernet Frames are on Layer 2 and can therefore only be transmittedlocally. They can not be transmitted in foreign networks!!SenderAnwendung / PrüfmusterIP - Layer 3Ethernet - Layer 2Physikal. - Layer 1IP - Layer 3L 2L1RouterL 2L 1L 1 L 1Ethernet - Layer 2SwitchL3L3L2 L3L2 L3L2LAN WANLayer 3Layer 2
    29. 29. 29SummaryLayer1We have choosen now the right cable We decided to choose the right connector We decided if we need PoE or not We configured our Ports correctly. due to a working Autoneg Scenario the Link is now established without any issueLayer 2The data structure is framed by IEEE 802.3 can can be trasmitted locally► Whats to do if we need to leave the local network (Internet)?
    30. 30. 30The Network Layer: L37654321ApplicationPresentationSessionTansportNetworkData LinkPhysicalNetwork process to applicationData Representation, encryption anddecryption, convert user dependent data intomachine dependent dataInterhost communication, managingsessions between applicationsEnd-to-end connections, reliability andflow controlPath determination and logical addressingPhysical addressingMedia, signal and binary transmissionUser dataUser dataUser datalayer 2headerlayer 3headerlayer 4headerlayer 2trailerBit streamHTTP, FTP, HTTPS, SMTP,LDAP, NCP, SIP, H.323, RTPTCP, UDP, SCTP, SPX,Softphone, Email…G.729, G.723, G.711,..The Core element of a Layer 3 - Network: RouterEthernet Frame: Transport of IP-Packets through local networksIP Packet: To carry the TCP-UDP Packets through differentNetworks
    31. 31. 317 b y t e s 4 b y t e sP r e a m b l e S F D F C SD e s t i n a t i o n S o u r c e D A T AL e n g t h /t y p e1 b y t e 6 b y t e s 6 b y t e s 2 b y t e s 4 6 - 1 5 0 0 b y t e sE t h e r n e t F r a m eIPHeaderTCP, UDP, ICMPDatenL3: Intenet Protocol IP As Ethernet Frames are not transmitted by Routers another Packet Type is used in Layer 3 IP Packet The IP Packed is embedded within a Ethernet Frame The IP header contains a new Address formatIP-PacketEthernet Frame
    32. 32. 32 Since the early 80s the Internet Protocol has already been defined in its fourth Version► IPv4 The plan was, that every device should have its unique IP-Address that the devices cancommunicate worldwide 32 bit are reserved in the header for an IPv4 Address, meaning 4.294.967.296 Addressesare available In the Local Networks there is no need of unique addresses. e.g. we can use 192.168.1.1 inChigaco locally as well as locally in London as long as those networks are not linked to eachother. Two Adress types are therefore defined: Private IP AddressesPublic IP AddressesL3: Internet Protocol version 4 - IPv4
    33. 33. 33 Format: four blocks written in decimal: e.g. 192.168.0.1 Written in binary numbers: 11000000.10101000.00000000.00000001 Private IPs can not be routed through the internet. They can only be used locally Public IPs are basically the remaining ones e.g. 212.67.56.187 the Public IPs are owned by the service providers. Every user gets one Public IP Adress assigned with the contract.Addressrange Number of hosts Netclass10.0.0.0–10.255.255.255 224= 16.777.216 Class A: 1 private Network172.16.0.0–172.31.255.255 220= 1.048.576 Class B: 16 private Networks192.168.0.0–192.168.255.255 216= 65.536 Class C: 256 private NetworksL3: Internet Protocol version 4 - IPv4
    34. 34. 34IP Packets are routed on Layer 3Since the traffic is now routed on Layer 3 the communication can work worldwideSenderAnwendung / PrüfmusterIP - Layer 3Ethernet - Layer 2Physikal. - Layer 1IP - Layer 3L 2L1RouterL 2L 1L 1 L 1Ethernet - Layer 2SwitchL3L3L2 L3L2 L3L2LAN WANLayer 3Layer 2L3L3L2L3: Internet Protocol version 4 - IPv4
    35. 35. 35L3: Internet Protocol version 4 - IPv4LAN WANDSL ModemWLAN-RouterNetwork Address translationNATWAN Port1 PublicIP AddressLAN PortCopper and WiFimultiple PrivateIP Addresses
    36. 36. 36 Since the early 90s it turned out that the reccources of IPv4 addresses are coming to its end► IPv6 128 bit are reserved in the header for an IPv6 Address, meaning 3,4 × 1038Addresses areavailable. 3,400,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 every device can now get a unique IP Address which is written hexadecimal Example 2001:0db8:0000:08d3:0000:8a2e:0070:7344 If one block consists of purely zeros then it can be replaced by a single zero:2001:db8:0:8d3:0:8a2e:70:7344 is therefore the same address as mentioned above If there are continous blocks of zeroes, they can be left out completely:2001:0db8:0:0:0:0:1428:57ab is the same as 2001:db8::1428:57abL3: Internet Protocol version 6 - IPv6
    37. 37. 37LAN WANDSL ModemWLAN-RouterFaster due to a lower latency as NAT is not required anymoreL3: Internet Protocol version 6 - IPv6
    38. 38. 38SummaryLayer1We have choosen now the right cable We decided to choose the right connector We decided if we need PoE or not We configured our Ports correctly. due to a working Autoneg Scenario the Link is now established without any issueLayer 2The data structure is framed by IEEE 802.3 can can be trasmitted locallyLayer 3Within the Ethernet frame there are now IP Packets why we now can leave the local network because IPPackets can be routed between different networks. ► What if some packets are lost during the transmission. Does it make sense to retransmit them?
    39. 39. 39The Transport Layer: L47654321ApplicationPresentationSessionTansportNetworkData LinkPhysicalNetwork process to applicationData Representation, encryption anddecryption, convert user dependent data intomachine dependent dataInterhost communication, managingsessions between applicationsEnd-to-end connections, reliability andflow controlPath determination and logical addressingPhysical addressingMedia, signal and binary transmissionUser dataUser dataUser datalayer 2headerlayer 3headerlayer 4headerlayer 2trailerBit streamHTTP, FTP, HTTPS, SMTP,LDAP, NCP, SIP, H.323, RTPTCP, UDP, SCTP, SPX,ICMP, IGMP, IP, IPXSoftphone, Email…G.729, G.723, G.711,..Ethernet Frame: Transport of IP-Packets through local networks
    40. 40. 40L4: Transport The Transport layer is basically to ensure that everything is transmitted completely But Some applications are allowing to loose some dataRealtime Applications such as Video or VoIP lost data doesnt need to be delivered subsequently. E.g. Video streaming. When you see a pixel error then it doesnt make sense to deliver the missinginformation later on. We dont need it to understand the core message.Data Transfer Missing informations are making the files looking like corrupted. The Data is not usable anymore Lost informations must be delivered subsequently E.g. backup of a laptop: such files are containig very important informations to recover the system.If the file is not complete then the restore cannot be done.
    41. 41. 41L4: Transport The protocols of the Transport layer are furthermore responsible that the arrived data is directed tothe right application The Transport Packets are therefore using Addresses again. No address to find a station (Like IPor MAC). These addresses are now used to find the right applications within the device. These addresses are now called Ports
    42. 42. 42L4: UDP When Realtime Transmission doesntrequire and end-to-end error correction,then The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) isonly addressing the data to the application UDP doesnt do an end-to-end errorcorrection UDP is the Transport Protocol forRealtime Transmission UDP could be used for: Video, IPTV,CCTV, VoIPBit streamUser dataUser dataUser datalayer 2headerlayer 3headerlayer 4headerlayer 2trailerEthernet Frame: Transport of IP-Packets through local networksRTP: Realtime TransportPorotocol (between theApplications)UDP-Packets To carry theSession Packets (between theDevices) No Error CorrectionIP Packet: To carry the UDPPackets through differentNetworksAnalogue SpeechDigital Speech SignalUser datalayer 5headerExample VoIP Call
    43. 43. 43L4: TCP For DATA Tranmission an end-to-end errorcorrection is essential. The Transmission Control Protocol(TCP) is detecting if some informations aremissing. Every single Packet gets its own number(TCP Sequence Number) from the Sender. A missing number can then be dected viaTCP at the destination device The destination is chasing the sender toretransmit the missing packet. PCs are basically transmitting DATA andtherefore using TCP Thats why most users are talking fromTCP/IP (TCP over IP)User dataUser dataUser datalayer 2headerlayer 3headerlayer 4headerlayer 2trailerBit streamEthernet Frame: Transport of IP-Packets through local networksSMTP: Simple Mesage TransferProtocol (between theApplications)TCP-Packets To carry theSession Packets (between theDevices) With Error CorrectionIP Packet: To carry the UDPPackets through differentNetworksTyping email on a keyboardConvert into digitalUser datalayer 5headerExample Email
    44. 44. 44SummaryLayer1 We have choosen now the right cable We decided to choose the right connector We decided if we need PoE or not We configured our Ports correctly. due to a working Autoneg Scenario the Link is now established without any issueLayer 2The data structure is framed by IEEE 802.3 can be trasmitted locallyLayer 3Within the Ethernet frame there are now IP Packets why we now can leave the local network because IPPackets can be routed between different networksLayer 4The assurance of end to end connection and flow control of specific application is made via sessions.
    45. 45. 45The ISO/OSI 7-Layer Reference Model7654321ApplicationPresentationSessionTansportNetworkData LinkPhysicalNetwork process to applicationData Representation, encryption anddecryption, convert user dependent data intomachine dependent dataInterhost communication, managingsessions between applicationsEnd-to-end connections, reliability andflow controlPath determination and logical addressingPhysical addressingMedia, signal and binary transmissionEthernet Frame: Transport of IP-Packets through local networksSession Packets: To carry thedigital User Data (between theApplications)TCP/UDP-Packets: To carry theSession Packets (between theDevices)IP Packet: To carry the TCP-UDP Packets through differentNetworksAnalogue SignalDigital SignalBit streamUser datalayer 3headerUser datalayer 2headerlayer 2trailerUser datalayer 5headerUser datalayer 4header
    46. 46. 46Questions andAnswers
    47. 47. 47Thanks for attendingEthernet series webinartraining coursesModule IEthernet IntroductionPart A

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