Risk Reduction

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A slide show presentation geared to parents to raise awareness of drugs of abuse and patterns in teenage substance use, as well as preventive suggestions.

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Risk Reduction

  1. 1. Reducing Teen Risk for Substance Related Problems Presented by: Addiction Education Consultants and Teen Safe
  2. 2. Goals of the Seminar <ul><li>Discuss Risk Factors associated with teen substance abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Review common Drugs of Abuse for teens, risks related to the substance, and signs of use / abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss risk reducing strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Begin a dialogue with your teens regarding their knowledge of substance abuse. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Experimentation with alcohol and drugs during adolescence is common.  Unfortunately, teenagers often don't see the link between their actions today and the consequences tomorrow.  They also have a tendency to feel indestructible and immune to the problems that others experience. (1). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>In a study “80% of teenagers tried alcohol and 50% have tried marijuana while in high school” (Azmitia 2001). (2). </li></ul><ul><li>In this culture experimentation with alcohol and some substances is considered “normal.” </li></ul>
  5. 5. RISK FACTORS <ul><li>ADHD- Researchers found that these teens started using drugs, alcohol and nicotine earlier and more frequently than their focused peers. </li></ul><ul><li>SELF-IMAGE- Researchers looked at data on 872 boys collected over a span of nine years and concluded that those with very low self-esteem were 1.6 times more likely to be drug dependent at age 20 than their peers. (4). </li></ul><ul><li>Girls were 500% more likely to abuse alcohol and other drugs when exposed to mother’s cigarette smoke prior to birth” (Azmitia 2001 ). (2). </li></ul>
  6. 6. RISK FACTORS <ul><li>In general, girls were more likely to drink than boys and were more susceptible to peer pressure from friends encouraging them to drink, according to the study. &quot;This is consistent with other research suggesting that girls may be more susceptible than boys to peer influences to smoke or drink,&quot; noted Simons-Morton. </li></ul>
  7. 7. PARENTING RISKS <ul><li>Insufficient parental supervision and monitoring. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of communication and interaction between parents and kids. </li></ul><ul><li>Poorly defined and poorly communicated rules and expectations against drug use. </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistent and excessively severe discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>Family conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Favorable parental attitudes toward adolescent alcohol and drug use. </li></ul><ul><li>Parental alcoholism or drug use. (5). </li></ul>
  8. 8. INDIVIDUAL RISK FACTORS <ul><li>High sensation seeking. </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological distress. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty maintaining emotional stability. </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions of extensive use by peers. </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived low harmfulness of use. </li></ul><ul><li>Family history of substance dependence / abuse. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Alcohol <ul><li>Most abused substance by teens (illegal as well, as in underage drinking). </li></ul><ul><li>More than half of the 20 million adults who abuse alcohol in this country began when they were teens. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Alcohol <ul><li>All alcohol use by teens should be regarded as dangerous, not only because of the risk of alcoholism but because teen drinkers put themselves in harm’s way. Each year more that 10,000 young people in the United States are killed and 40,000 injured in alcohol-related automobile accidents. (6). </li></ul><ul><li>Males 12 to 20 years of age were more likely than females to report binge drinking, 22.3% compared to 16.0%. </li></ul><ul><li>59.4% of students who report thinking often or a lot about committing suicide use liquor. </li></ul><ul><li>61.4% of students who report getting into trouble with the police use liquor. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Marijuana <ul><li>Fourteen percent of adolescent and seven percent of adult marijuana users are dependent on the drug. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 45-50% of U.S. teenagers try marijuana before finishing high school. </li></ul><ul><li>A study of 129 college students found that, among those who smoked the drug at least 27 of the 30 days prior to being surveyed, critical skills related to attention, memory, and learning were significantly impaired. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Inhalants <ul><li>Inhalants are breathable chemical vapors that produce psychoactive (mind-altering) effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Initial use of inhalants often starts early, often in elementary school . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Solvents <ul><li>Industrial or household solvents or solvent-containing products, including paint thinners or solvents, degreasers (dry-cleaning fluids), gasoline, and glues </li></ul><ul><li>Art or office supply solvents, including correction fluids, felt-tip marker fluid, and electronic contact cleaners </li></ul>
  14. 14. Gases <ul><li>Gases used in household or commercial products, including butane lighters and propane tanks, whipping cream aerosols or dispensers (whippets), and refrigerant gases </li></ul><ul><li>Household aerosol propellants and associated solvents in items such as spray paints, hair or deodorant sprays, and fabric protector sprays </li></ul><ul><li>Medical anesthetic gases , such as ether, chloroform, halothane, and nitrous oxide (laughing gas) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Nitrates <ul><li>aliphatic nitrites , including cyclohexyl nitrite, which is available to the general public; amyl nitrite, which is available only by prescription; and butyl nitrite, which is now an illegal substance. </li></ul><ul><li>Street Names- Nitrites, Poppers, Rush, Amyl / Butyl Nitrite, Liquid Gold, Ram and Thrust </li></ul><ul><li>Amyl and butyl nitrite are generally inhaled. The effects of the drug start after about 15 seconds, and last for up to 3 minutes. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Effects of Inhalants <ul><li>Yellow in color, they are sweet smelling when fresh and otherwise can be likened in smell to rotten fruit or old socks. </li></ul><ul><li>Although different in makeup, nearly all abused inhalants produce effects similar to anesthetics, which act to slow down the body's functions. </li></ul><ul><li>With successive inhalations, they may feel less inhibited and less in control.  Finally, a user can lose consciousness. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Irreversible Effects <ul><li>Hearing loss - toluene (paint sprays, glues, dewaxers) and trichloroethylene (cleaning fluids, correction fluids). </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral neuropathies or limb spasms - hexane (glues, gasoline) and nitrous oxide (whipping cream, gas cylinders). </li></ul><ul><li>Central nervous system or brain damage - toluene (paint sprays, glues, dewaxers). </li></ul><ul><li>Bone marrow damage - benzene (gasoline). </li></ul>
  18. 18. Over the Counter (OTC) Substance Abuse <ul><li>Abuse of dextromethorphan (DXM or Dex) (found in over the counter cough medicine) increased tenfold over the 6-year period in California, with 74.5% of cases among 9- to 17-year-olds. </li></ul>
  19. 19. DXM <ul><li>Most of the kids abusing DXM were 15 and 16 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common drug of choice was Coricidin HBP Cough and Cold (the little red tablets also known by nicknames like &quot;Triple C&quot; and &quot;Skittles&quot;). (10). </li></ul>
  20. 20. The High <ul><li>Abusers report the following effects occurring in each plateau: </li></ul><ul><li>First plateau: mild inebriation. </li></ul><ul><li>Second plateau: an effect similar to alcohol intoxication and, occasionally, mild hallucinations. The abuser's speech can become slurred, and short-term memory may be temporarily impaired. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The High <ul><li>Third plateau: an altered state of consciousness. The abuser's senses, particularly vision, can become impaired. </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth plateau: mind and body dissociation or an &quot;out-of-body&quot; experience. The abuser can lose some or all contact with his or her senses. The effects at this plateau are comparable to the effects caused by ketamine or PCP (phencyclidine). (11). </li></ul>
  22. 22. Prescription Drug Abuse <ul><li>Three out of every four drugs that are used illegally in the United States are prescription medications. </li></ul><ul><li>In one study, 9.5 percent of 12th-graders reported using the painkiller Vicodin and 5.5 percent reported using OxyContin in the past year. Long-term trends show a significant increase in the abuse of OxyContin from 2002 to 2005 among 12th-graders. It has leveled off according to the most recent survey. (12). </li></ul>
  23. 23. Prescription Drug Abuse <ul><li>Also of concern is the significant increase in the use of sedatives and barbiturates among 12th-graders since 2001. This includes xanax or “bars” as they are called. (12). </li></ul><ul><li>National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that 4 million young adults aged 18 to 25 (12.4%) used prescription pain relievers (analgesics) such as OxyContin® non-medically within the year 2005. (13). </li></ul>
  24. 24. Statistics for OTC and Rx Abuse <ul><li>Abuse of Rx/OTC medicines is now so prevalent it is “normalized” among teens.  </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly one in five teens (19 percent, or 4.5 million) report abusing prescription medications to get high; and, </li></ul><ul><li>One in 10 (10 percent, or 2.4 million) report abusing cough medicine to get high. </li></ul>
  25. 25. False Sense of Security <ul><li>Two in five teens (40 percent, or 9.4 million) agree that Rx medicines, even if they are not prescribed by a doctor, are much safer to use than illegal drugs; </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly one-third of teens (31 percent, or 7.3 million) believe there’s “nothing wrong” with using Rx medicines without a prescription “once in a while;” </li></ul>
  26. 26. False Sense of Security <ul><li>Nearly three out of 10 teens (29 percent, or 6.8 million) believe prescription pain relievers – even if not prescribed by a doctor – are not addictive; and, </li></ul><ul><li>More than half of teens (55 percent, or 13 million) don’t agree strongly that using cough medicines to get high is risky. </li></ul>
  27. 27. False Sense of Security <ul><li>With the majority of teens (56 percent, or 13.4 million) agreeing that Rx medicines are easier to get than illegal drugs, teens see these substances as readily available highs. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Teens thoughts on OTC and Rx Highs <ul><li>More than three of five (62 percent, or 14.6 million) say prescription pain relievers are easy to get from parents’ medicine cabinets; </li></ul><ul><li>Half of teens (50 percent, or 11.9 million) say prescription pain relievers are easy to get through other people’s prescriptions; and. </li></ul><ul><li>More than half of teens (52 percent, or 12.3 million) say prescription pain relievers are “available everywhere.” </li></ul>
  29. 29. Club Drugs <ul><li>Probably the most widely known is Ecstasy, but this category also includes Ketamine and GHB </li></ul><ul><li>Ecstasy tablets may contain other substances in addition to MDMA, such as ephedrine (a stimulant); dextromethorphan (DXM, a cough suppressant that has PCP-like effects at high doses); ketamine (an anesthetic used mostly by veterinarians that also has PCP-like effects); caffeine; cocaine; and methamphetamine. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Club Drugs <ul><li>Past year use of Ecstasy was reported by 1.4 percent of 8th-graders, 2.8 percent of 10th-graders, and 4.1 percent of 12th-graders in 2006 (15). </li></ul><ul><li>In 2003 more than 2.1 million teens reported using ecstasy at least once. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Other Club Drugs <ul><li>GHB:   It is a clear odorless liquid or and can be undetected when added to drinks such as soda and juice. </li></ul><ul><li>Ketamine:   Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic.  It can distort sight and sound and give a feeling of being separated from one’s body.  Users stop feeling pain, but Ketamine can cause numbness, nausea, vomiting, delirium, and potentially fatal breathing problems. </li></ul><ul><li>It is available in liquid or powder form.  It is often smoked or injected, but is commonly snorted. </li></ul><ul><li>Both GHB and Ketamine can be used as “date-rape” drugs. </li></ul>
  32. 32. SALVI <ul><li>Diviner's sage. </li></ul><ul><li>This cultivated Mexican mint species has a long history of use by the Mazatecs. </li></ul><ul><li>Most users agree Salvia divinorum is quite unique, and some find its effects unsettling. Its active principle, salvinorin A, is structurally unique among psychoactive drugs, and receptor binding studies have revealed nothing, which could indicate a previously unknown pathway in the brain. (25). </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  33. 33. SALVI <ul><li>The plant is native to Mexico. It is known only in cultivation, and it rarely produces seed, suggesting a chance unstable hybrid, although the genetics have not yet been investigated. Salvia divinorum is traditionally used for, among other things, divination-- hence its scientific name. </li></ul><ul><li>The dosage required to obtain first effects from salvia varies widely. Some people report strong effects the first time they smoke the dried leaf in a pipe, others report no effects after smoking large quantities of concentrated extract. (25). </li></ul>
  34. 34. SALVI <ul><li>A common method is to smoke the dried leaf through a bong or waterpipe -- several bowls as quickly as possible. If this doesn't work, or the thought of it insults your lungs, standardized 5x (or stronger) extract can be used. Once a breakthrough is achieved, subsequent use may require less material. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoked salvia trips can be extremely intense -- comparable to DMT -- and it is wise to have a sober sitter present. This is not a &quot;recreational&quot; substance. (25). </li></ul>
  35. 35. SALVI <ul><li>If salvia is smoked the main effects are experienced quickly. The most intense ‘peak’ is reached within a minute or so and lasts for about 1-5 minutes, followed by a gradual tapering back. (24). </li></ul><ul><li>At 5-10 minutes, less intense yet still appreciable effects typically persist, but giving way to a returning sense of the everyday and familiar until back to recognizable baseline after about 15 to 20. (24). </li></ul>
  36. 36. SALVI <ul><li>Sublingual/Chewed </li></ul><ul><li>10-20 large leaves, or an equivalent quantity of extract. (25). </li></ul><ul><li>Chewing the leaf makes the effects come on more slowly, over a period of 10 to 20 minutes, the experience then lasting from another 30 minutes up to one and a half hours. (24). </li></ul>
  37. 37. Methamphetamine <ul><li>Methamphetamine is taken orally, intranasally (snorting the powder), by needle injection, or by smoking. Abusers may become addicted quickly, needing higher doses and more often. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Methamphetamine          Depending on the method of manufacturing, meth may range in color from white to brown; pink to red or in various shades of yellow or green.  Meth can come in pill form, powder or chunks.  Common street names for meth include: &quot;speed&quot;, &quot;chalk&quot;, &quot;ice&quot;, &quot;crystal&quot;, &quot;crank&quot; and &quot;glass&quot;.  Crystal meth resembles rock candy, or chunks of ice or crystal.
  39. 39. Access to Meth <ul><li>Nearly a quarter of teens say it would be &quot;very easy&quot; or &quot;somewhat easy&quot; to gain access to methamphetamine, a survey released as recently as 9/18/07 shows. </li></ul><ul><li>One in three teens also believes there is only a &quot;slight risk&quot; or &quot;no risk&quot; in trying meth once or twice, according to the study by The Meth Project, a nonprofit anti-drug group. (22). </li></ul>
  40. 40. Perception of Benefits of Meth <ul><li>about one in four teens said there are benefits to using meth. Twenty-four percent of teens agreed with the statement that meth &quot;makes you feel euphoric or very happy,&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>while 22 percent said meth &quot;helps you lose weight&quot; and 22 percent said it &quot;helps you deal with boredom.“. </li></ul><ul><li>Of the teens who have tried meth, 77 percent reported they used the drug when they were 15 or younger, the survey showed. (22). </li></ul>
  41. 41. Methamphetamine <ul><li>Long-term effects may include paranoia, aggressiveness, extreme anorexia, memory loss, visual and auditory hallucinations, delusions, and severe dental problems. (17). </li></ul>
  42. 42. Steroids <ul><li>Anabolic steroids are a group of powerful compounds closely related to the male sex hormone testosterone. They're also known as roids, juice, hype, or pump. </li></ul><ul><li>Many substances sold as anabolic steroids are diluted, contaminated, or simply fake. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Steroids <ul><li>Anabolic steroids are taken orally or injected, typically in cycles of weeks or months (referred to as “cycling”), rather than continuously. </li></ul><ul><li>Cycling involves taking multiple doses of steroids over a specific period of time, stopping for a period, and starting again. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, users often combine several different types of steroids to maximize their effectiveness while minimizing negative effects (referred to as “stacking”). </li></ul>
  44. 44. Signs of Steroid use <ul><li>Quick weight and muscle gains (when used in a weight training program) . </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressiveness and combativeness. </li></ul><ul><li>Jaundice. </li></ul><ul><li>Purple or red spots on the body. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Signs of Steroid use <ul><li>Swelling of feet and lower legs. </li></ul><ul><li>Trembling. </li></ul><ul><li>Unexplained darkening of the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent unpleasant breath odor. </li></ul><ul><li>Severe acne breakouts and oily skin (Bacne) ( 18). </li></ul>
  46. 46. Prevention <ul><li>Despite a study’s finding that parents are the most important influence in preventing substance abuse among their children, 35% of parents surveyed reported believing they have little influence over their teens decisions about substances. (23). </li></ul>
  47. 47. Prevention <ul><li>These researchers also found that 43% of parents, but only 16% of teens, thought illegal drug use by the teen in the future was likely. </li></ul><ul><li>50% of teens who had not tried marijuana credited parental influence in the decision. </li></ul><ul><li>This study also found that older sibling influence is a factor. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>67% believe an older sibling would be very angry if they found out the teen tried drugs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12% reported an older sibling had encouraged substance use. (23). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Prevention <ul><li>Educate yourself about medications that kids are abusing, and share this information with others who are in contact with your children – school administrators, coaches, counselors, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the subject with your teenagers. See what your kids know about peers using medications or other substances. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Prevention <ul><li>Preliminary research shows teens believe experimenting with medications are safer than street drugs. Abuse of medications can be lethal. Set clear expectations with your teenagers, letting them know that under no circumstances should they ever take medications without your knowledge. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Prevention <ul><li>Parents also appeared to influence teen smoking and drinking, the researchers found. &quot;Teens who perceived that their parents like them, respect them, take them seriously, listen to them and give reasons for rules and decisions that involve them were less likely to smoke and drink,&quot; said Simons-Morton. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Prevention <ul><li>Teens with parents who do not establish clear behavioral expectations, do not keep themselves informed about their teen's life and do not demonstrate their regard for their teen are more likely to experiment with substance use,&quot; the researcher added. (19). </li></ul><ul><li>Be alert for signs and symptoms of substance abuse. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Prevention <ul><li>It is best if parents are proactive about the challenges of this life cycle stage, particularly those that pertain to the possibility of experimenting with and using alcohol and drugs. Parents cannot be afraid to talk directly to their kids about drug use, even if they have had problems with drugs or alcohol themselves. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Prevention <ul><li>Parents are encouraged to give clear, no-use messages about smoking, drugs, and alcohol. It is important for kids and teens to understand that the rules and expectations set by parents are based on parental love and concern for their well being. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Prevention <ul><li>Parents should also be actively involved and demonstrate interest in their teen's friends and social activities. Spending quality time with teens and setting good examples are essential. (20). </li></ul>
  55. 55. Prevention <ul><li>As noted in the risk factors, the parental attitude toward substances, including alcohol, is important, as is how family conflict is handled, how any substance abuse issue in the family is handled, and how discipline is administered. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Prevention <ul><li>Educating parents is crucial to helping prevent/intervene with this problem </li></ul><ul><li>Kids who learn a lot about the risks of drugs from their parents are up to 50 percent less likely to use drugs, but, </li></ul>
  57. 57. Prevention <ul><li>Nine in 10 parents of teens (92 percent or 22 million) say they have talked to their teen about the dangers of drugs, yet fewer than one-third of teens (31 percent or 7.4 million) say they “learn a lot about the risks of drugs” from their parents. (14). </li></ul>

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