“some years ago word reached me concerning yourproficiency, of which everybody constantly spoke. At that timeI began to have a very high regard for you... For I had learnedthat you had not merely mastered the discoveries of theancient astronomers uncommonly well but had alsoformulated a new cosmology. In it you maintain that the earthmoves; that the sun occupies the lowest, and thus the central,place in the universe... Therefore with the utmost earnestnessI entreat you, most learned sir, unless I inconvenience you, tocommunicate this discovery of yours to scholars, and at theearliest possible moment to send me your writings on thesphere of the universe together with the tables and whateverelse you have that is relevant to this subject ...”
research needs to be communicated to be powerful.
1. the unexpected power of thelaw to defeat unexpected uses of technology.
Licensed under CC BY SA by Ed Uthman, http://www.flickr.com/photos/78147607@N00
nothing in the architecture to prevent people from building…
something in the architecture to prevent people from sharing…
the unexpected power of the law toenable unexpected uses of technology.
2. we need rights (legal or normative) to createnetworks with knowledge.
attribution (does not) = citation
publication is step 1.
not always connectable to the law.
changes in metrics
changes in peer review style
changes in publishable objects
changes in collaboration
changes in hardware
changes in participation
when we try to solve all theproblems at once, we overdo it.
“Taking the "forklift upgrade" approach tonetworking, it specified eliminating all existingprotocols and replacing them with new ones atall layers of the stack. This madeimplementation difficult, and was resisted bymany vendors and users with significantinvestments in other network technologies. Inaddition, the protocols included so manyoptional features that many vendorsimplementations were not interoperable.”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Systems_Interconnection
let the critics fix the problems.
avoid unintendedconsequences of control.
practice separation of concerns
Edsger Wybe Dijkstra
We know that a program must be correct and we can study it from that viewpoint only; we also know that it should be efficient and we can study its efficiency on another day, so to speak. In another mood we may ask ourselves whether, and if so: why, the program is desirable. But nothing is gained --on the contrary!-- bytackling these various aspects simultaneously. It is what I sometimes have called "the separation of concerns", which, even if not perfectly possible, is yet the only available technique for effective ordering of ones thoughts, that I know of. This is what I mean by "focusing ones attention upon some aspect": it does not mean ignoring the other aspects, it is just doing justice to the fact that from this aspects point of view,the other is irrelevant. It is being one- and multiple-track minded simultaneously.
treat content, data, software, and privacy inseparate bins, but with an eye towards forming a stack.
Creative Commons works at year end500,000,000 100.0%450,000,000 90.0%400,000,000 80.0%350,000,000 70.0%300,000,000 60.0% Total Free %250,000,000 50.0% Ported %200,000,000 40.0%150,000,000 30.0%100,000,000 20.0% 50,000,000 10.0% 0 0.0% 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011-09
nothing beats a funder mandate. % of author compliance with NIH deposit80706050403020100 before mandate after mandate
open access publishers 116,883 articles /year(about 20% of global total)
14 “large” publishers25,267 of 36,096 under CC (80% + under BY)