Ucla GSEIS

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  • 1. the knowledge web 13 november 2008 ucla graduate school of education and information sciences
  • 2. knowledge gaps process failures transaction costs lost opportunities
  • 3. knowledge gaps process failures transaction costs lost opportunities is the answer more information?
  • 4. many information products advance incrementally
  • 5. the discovery process:
  • 6. the discovery process:
  • 7. thanks to the products, we already know a lot...
  • 8. we need information innovations and process innovations to match product innovations.
  • 9. 1. the “digital commons” represents a methodology that lowers the cost and increases the volume of transactions at the “knowledge layer” of the net
  • 10. does the ability to ask more questions, faster, lead us to more knowledge or just more data?
  • 11. what’s different about communications and computers?
  • 12. 1. we know stuff.
  • 13. 1. we know stuff. 2. open networks.
  • 14. content code physical
  • 15. content code physical
  • 16. knowledge content code physical
  • 17. knowledge rights
  • 18. knowledge rights
  • 19. “the commons”
  • 20. “digital commons” interoperability low transaction costs law and technology
  • 21. user interface to copyright
  • 22. 140,000,000+ digital objects online under our licenses licenses “ported” to 50+ countries integrated with Google,Yahoo, Firefox, Microsoft Office...
  • 23. 2. the digital commons is a stable methodology to manage data, materials, and content for science.
  • 24. project development “do no harm” funding pro bono “running code” community “think market” early focus on life sciences exploring climate change, geospatial, elsewhere
  • 25. what would move via the science network?
  • 26. Open Access Content
  • 27. making knowledge legally and technically available for re-use and composition into new knowledge.
  • 28. we use digital tools to replicate paper technology
  • 29. © creative expression
  • 30. © ideas or facts
  • 31. e=mc2
  • 32. the container, not the facts.
  • 33. the container, not the facts. but © locks the container.
  • 34. IGFBP-5 plays a role in the regulation of cellular senescence via a p53-dependent pathway and in aging-associated vascular diseases
  • 35. IGFBP-5 plays a role in the regulation of cellular senescence via a p53-dependent pathway and in aging-associated vascular diseases
  • 36. indexing: disallowed. http://orpheus-1.ucsd.edu/acq/license/cdlelsevier2004.pdf
  • 37. c >1000 journals under CC image from the public library of science licensed to the public under CC-BY 3.0
  • 38. PubMedCentral ~ 1,000,000 articles permissions granted: 50,000 (6% of PMC legal for transformative use) (.003 of all PubMed records)
  • 39. what do these ideas mean in a world of integrated data?
  • 40. creative work?
  • 41. “So, out of all of this discussion my question is whether ChemSpider is Content or Data.” - Antony Williams
  • 42. “The motivation behind this memorandum is interoperability of scientific data.”
  • 43. + is it legal?
  • 44. + + + + is it legal? + + + +
  • 45. 1 Converge on the public domain by waiving all rights based on intellectual property 2 Converge on the public domain by waiving other statutory or intellectual property rights. 3 Converge on the public domain by imposing no contractual controls. 4 Provide for interoperation with databases not available under the Protocol through open metadata
  • 46. a protocol, not a license.
  • 47. conflicts with the protection instinct
  • 48. conflicts with the protection instinct the protection instinct is frequently an instinct to protect “freedom”
  • 49. 3. we have to build infrastructure for data into the web of documents that we have.
  • 50. solves the legal problem
  • 51. but not the container problem.
  • 52. web 2.0, science 3.0, what about making Google work better?
  • 53. over 200 years at one paper/day
  • 54. what you want is a list of genes. not a list of documents.
  • 55. building a web for data: the “semantic web”
  • 56. making computers understand links between documents links to Web page Web page
  • 57. making computers understand relationships between concepts causes drinking coffee feel awake
  • 58. causes drink coffee feel awake
  • 59. http://ontology.foo.org/causes causes drinking coffee feel awake http://ontology.foo.org/drinking coffee http://ontology.foo.org/feel awake h
  • 60. we need a Domain Name System for concepts: 192.168.1.1 http://sciencecommons.org coffee http://ontology.foo.org/coffee
  • 61. use the web to integrate information from different places and different names “coffee” “cafe” coffee http://ontology.foo.org/coffee “kopi”
  • 62. bed person located at get out of bed last subevent does not want wants get out of bed after causes drink coffee feel awake first subevent subevent causes feel jittery open eyes after after make coffee pour coffee pick up cup drink is a is for located in coffee cafe property of often near often near wet cup sugar
  • 63. (too much work for coffee)
  • 64. (distributed, networked approaches start to look pretty good)
  • 65. Open Source Data Integration
  • 66. formatting digital knowledge into modular building blocks for composition into new knowledge.
  • 67. e pluribus unum.
  • 68. we can transform complex queries into links prefix go: <http://purl.org/obo/owl/GO#> prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> Mesh: Pyramidal Neurons prefix owl: <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> prefix mesh: <http://purl.org/commons/record/mesh/> prefix sc: <http://purl.org/science/owl/sciencecommons/> prefix ro: <http://www.obofoundry.org/ro/ro.owl#> select ?genename ?processname where { graph <http://purl.org/commons/hcls/pubmesh> Pubmed: Journal Articles { ?paper ?p mesh:D017966 . ?article sc:identified_by_pmid ?paper. ?gene sc:describes_gene_or_gene_product_mentioned_by ?article. } graph <http://purl.org/commons/hcls/goa> Entrez Gene: Genes { ?protein rdfs:subClassOf ?res. ?res owl:onProperty ro:has_function. ?res owl:someValuesFrom ?res2. ?res2 owl:onProperty ro:realized_as. ?res2 owl:someValuesFrom ?process. graph <http://purl.org/commons/hcls/20070416/classrelations> {{?process <http://purl.org/obo/owl/obo#part_of> go:GO_0007166} union {?process rdfs:subClassOf go:GO_0007166 }} ?protein rdfs:subClassOf ?parent. ?parent owl:equivalentClass ?res3. GO: Signal Transduction ?res3 owl:hasValue ?gene. } graph <http://purl.org/commons/hcls/gene> { ?gene rdfs:label ?genename } graph <http://purl.org/commons/hcls/20070416> { ?process rdfs:label ?processname} }
  • 69. we can transform complex queries into links http://hcls1.csail.mit.edu:8890/sparql/?query=prefix%20go%3A%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fpurl.org%2Fobo%2Fowl%2FGO%23%3E%0Aprefix%20rdfs%3A %20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2F2000%2F01%2Frdf-schema%23%3E%0Aprefix%20owl%3A%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2F2002% 2F07%2Fowl%23%3E%0Aprefix%20mesh%3A%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fpurl.org%2Fcommons%2Frecord%2Fmesh%2F%3E%0Aprefix%20sc%3A%20% 3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fpurl.org%2Fscience%2Fowl%2Fsciencecommons%2F%3E%0Aprefix%20ro%3A%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.obofoundry.org%2Fro %2Fro.owl%23%3E%0A%0Aselect%20%3Fgenename%20%3Fprocessname%0Awhere%0A%7B%20%20graph%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fpurl.org% 2Fcommons%2Fhcls%2Fpubmesh%3E%0A%20%20%20%20%20%7B%20%3Fpaper%20%3Fp%20mesh%3AD017966%20.%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20% 20%3Farticle%20sc%3Aidentified_by_pmid%20%3Fpaper.%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%3Fgene%20sc% 3Adescribes_gene_or_gene_product_mentioned_by%20%3Farticle.%0A%20%20%20%20%20%7D%0A%20%20%20graph%20%3Chttp%3A%2F% 2Fpurl.org%2Fcommons%2Fhcls%2Fgoa%3E%0A%20%20%20%20%20%7B%20%3Fprotein%20rdfs%3AsubClassOf%20%3Fres.%0A%20%20%20%20% 20%20%20%3Fres%20owl%3AonProperty%20ro%3Ahas_function.%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%3Fres%20owl%3AsomeValuesFrom%20%3Fres2.% 0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%3Fres2%20owl%3AonProperty%20ro%3Arealized_as.%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%3Fres2%20owl% 3AsomeValuesFrom%20%3Fprocess.%0A%20%20%20graph%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fpurl.org%2Fcommons%2Fhcls%2F20070416%2Fclassrelations%3E %0A%20%20%20%20%20%7B%7B%3Fprocess%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fpurl.org%2Fobo%2Fowl%2Fobo%23part_of%3E%20go%3AGO_0007166%7D% 0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20union%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%7B%3Fprocess%20rdfs%3AsubClassOf%20go%3AGO_0007166%20%7D%7D%0A %20%20%20%20%20%20%20%3Fprotein%20rdfs%3AsubClassOf%20%3Fparent.%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%3Fparent%20owl% 3AequivalentClass%20%3Fres3.%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%3Fres3%20owl%3AhasValue%20%3Fgene.%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%7D%0A% 20%20%20graph%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fpurl.org%2Fcommons%2Fhcls%2Fgene%3E%0A%20%20%20%20%20%7B%20%3Fgene%20rdfs%3Alabel%20% 3Fgenename%20%7D%0A%20%20%20graph%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fpurl.org%2Fcommons%2Fhcls%2F20070416%3E%0A%20%20%20%20%20%7B% 20%3Fprocess%20rdfs%3Alabel%20%3Fprocessname%7D%0A%7D&format=&maxrows=50
  • 70. we can transform complex queries into links
  • 71. we can help scholars “remix” queries prefix go: <http://purl.org/obo/owl/GO#> prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> prefix owl: <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> prefix mesh: <http://purl.org/commons/record/mesh/> prefix sc: <http://purl.org/science/owl/sciencecommons/> prefix ro: <http://www.obofoundry.org/ro/ro.owl#> select ?genename ?processname where { graph <http://purl.org/commons/hcls/pubmesh> mesh:D009369 { ?paper ?p ?article sc:identified_by_pmid ?paper. . Mesh: Cancer ?gene sc:describes_gene_or_gene_product_mentioned_by ?article. } graph <http://purl.org/commons/hcls/goa> { ?protein rdfs:subClassOf ?res. ?res owl:onProperty ro:has_function. ?res owl:someValuesFrom ?res2. ?res2 owl:onProperty ro:realized_as. ?res2 owl:someValuesFrom ?process. graph <http://purl.org/commons/hcls/20070416/classrelations> {{?process <http://purl.org/obo/owl/obo#part_of> go:GO_0006610} union go:GO_0006610 }} {?process rdfs:subClassOf ?protein rdfs:subClassOf ?parent. GO: Ribosomal Protein ?parent owl:equivalentClass ?res3. ?res3 owl:hasValue ?gene. } graph <http://purl.org/commons/hcls/gene> { ?gene rdfs:label ?genename } graph <http://purl.org/commons/hcls/20070416> { ?process rdfs:label ?processname} }
  • 72. we can build a corpus of queries as links
  • 73. we can re-use cultural tools for scholarship
  • 74. we can make science user-driven.
  • 75. 4. institutions have to provide a stable foundation for the knowledge web.
  • 76. process revolutions: the network Huntington’s Parkinson’s ALS Multiple Sclerosis Autism
  • 77. institutional revolutions: the network Huntington’s Parkinson’s ALS Multiple Sclerosis Autism
  • 78. the library to me: location, structure, discovery, preservation
  • 79. the infrastructure for this is very, very shaky.
  • 80. prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> prefix skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#> prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> prefix owl: <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> prefix sc: <http://purl.org/science/owl/sciencecommons/> prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/>
  • 81. what are the odds that the organizations making the namespaces will be here in 50 years? 100 years?
  • 82. Huntington’s
  • 83. Huntington’s Parkinson’s ALS Multiple Sclerosis Autism
  • 84. Huntington’s Parkinson’s library ALS Multiple Sclerosis Autism
  • 85. “In any case, it is clear that a library containing all possible books, arranged at random, is equivalent (as a source of information) to a library containing zero books.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Library_of_Babel
  • 86. exponential content growth
  • 87. our brain capacity 5.00 3.75 2.50 1.25 0 1990 1994 1998 2002
  • 88. 1. Books are for use. 2. Every reader his [or her] book. 3. Every book its reader. 4. Save the time of the User. 5. The library is a growing organism.
  • 89. 1. Books are for use. 2. Every reader his [or her] book. 3. Every book its reader. 4. Save the time of the User. 5. The library is a growing organism. what’s the digital version of the five laws?
  • 90. call to action: 1. join up with the semantic people - support discipline-driven namespaces and ontologies 2. queries are the interface - average user doesn’t know how to ask complicated questions on the research web. 3. make the library the hub of the research web.
  • 91. thank you wilbanks@creativecommons.org http://sciencecommons.org