Ucla 101911


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Slides from Christine Borgman's graduate class at UCLA, October 19 2011.

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Ucla 101911

  1. 1. “some years ago word reached me concerning yourproficiency, of which everybody constantly spoke. At that timeI began to have a very high regard for you... For I had learnedthat you had not merely mastered the discoveries of theancient astronomers uncommonly well but had alsoformulated a new cosmology. In it you maintain that the earthmoves; that the sun occupies the lowest, and thus the central,place in the universe... Therefore with the utmost earnestnessI entreat you, most learned sir, unless I inconvenience you, tocommunicate this discovery of yours to scholars, and at theearliest possible moment to send me your writings on thesphere of the universe together with the tables and whateverelse you have that is relevant to this subject ...”
  2. 2. research needs to be communicated to be powerful.
  3. 3. 1. the unexpected power of thelaw to defeat unexpected uses of technology.
  4. 4. Licensed under CC BY SA by Ed Uthman, http://www.flickr.com/photos/78147607@N00
  5. 5. Textunexpected development:hypertext and browsers.
  6. 6. unexpected development:content industry disruption.
  7. 7. nothing in the architecture to prevent people from building…
  8. 8. something in the architecture to prevent people from sharing…
  9. 9. no: copying,distribution,display, etc.(unless licensed)
  10. 10. not:
  11. 11. built for this… (so what’s this?)
  12. 12. (or this?)
  13. 13. the scholarly content industry reaction.
  14. 14. (we are subsidizing the dig, sadly)
  15. 15. @ $20 per article $10, 940(why I do what I do)
  16. 16. the unexpected power of the law toenable unexpected uses of technology.
  17. 17. 2. the network fragments content that used to be integrated by its medium.
  18. 18. we need rights (legal or normative) to createnetworks with knowledge.
  19. 19. assembly
  20. 20. research
  21. 21. credit
  22. 22. attribution (does not) = citation
  23. 23. annotation
  24. 24. not always connectable to the law.
  25. 25. publication is step 1.
  26. 26. changes in access
  27. 27. changes in metrics
  28. 28. changes in peer review style
  29. 29. changes in publishable objects
  30. 30. changes in collaboration
  31. 31. changes in hardware
  32. 32. changes in participation
  33. 33. 3.first principles.
  34. 34. when we try to solve all theproblems at once, we overdo it.
  35. 35. “Taking the "forklift upgrade" approach tonetworking, it specified eliminating all existingprotocols and replacing them with new ones atall layers of the stack. This madeimplementation difficult, and was resisted bymany vendors and users with significantinvestments in other network technologies. Inaddition, the protocols included so manyoptional features that many vendorsimplementations were not interoperable.”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Systems_Interconnection
  36. 36. let the critics fix the problems.
  37. 37. avoid unintendedconsequences of control.
  38. 38. practice separation of concerns
  39. 39. Edsger Wybe Dijkstra
  40. 40. We know that a program must be correct and we can study it from that viewpoint only; we also know that it should be efficient and we can study its efficiency on another day, so to speak. In another mood we may ask ourselves whether, and if so: why, the program is desirable. But nothing is gained --on the contrary!-- bytackling these various aspects simultaneously. It is what I sometimes have called "the separation of concerns", which, even if not perfectly possible, is yet the only available technique for effective ordering of ones thoughts, that I know of. This is what I mean by "focusing ones attention upon some aspect": it does not mean ignoring the other aspects, it is just doing justice to the fact that from this aspects point of view,the other is irrelevant. It is being one- and multiple-track minded simultaneously.
  41. 41. treat content, data, software, and privacy inseparate bins, but with an eye towards forming a stack.
  42. 42. Creative Commons works at year end500,000,000 100.0%450,000,000 90.0%400,000,000 80.0%350,000,000 70.0%300,000,000 60.0% Total Free %250,000,000 50.0% Ported %200,000,000 40.0%150,000,000 30.0%100,000,000 20.0% 50,000,000 10.0% 0 0.0% 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011-09
  43. 43. aggregation. tagging. non-linearity. flow. reuse. adaptation.Wikimedia globe is… © & ™ All rights reserved, Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.
  44. 44. “open core” / variety of apps
  45. 45. sage bionetworks“public genomic records” requires “informed consent” to share. “static” “dynamic” “observational” genomic genomic data data data
  46. 46. taxpayers waking up…
  47. 47. nothing beats a funder mandate. % of author compliance with NIH deposit80706050403020100 before mandate after mandate
  48. 48. in a world of abundance, quality is economically valuable.
  49. 49. simple. weak. standardized. open.
  50. 50. simple. weak. standardized. open.
  51. 51. simple. weak. standardized. open.
  52. 52. simple. weak. standardized. open.
  53. 53. p.s.we have no idea how weird it’s going to get.
  54. 54. how does your library react in the world that is racing right at us?
  55. 55. in a world of constant change, opensystems can out-evolve closed ones.
  56. 56. thank you.