Innovation In Services And Business Models

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  • 1. john wilbanks creative commons / science commons Open Innovation, Institutional Policy, and the Digital Commons 10 november 2008 haas school of business
  • 2. knowledge gaps process failures transaction costs lost opportunities
  • 3. knowledge gaps process failures transaction costs lost opportunities is the answer more products?
  • 4. the discovery process:
  • 5. the discovery process:
  • 6. thanks to the products, we already know a lot...
  • 7. we need process innovations to match product innovations.
  • 8. collaborative workflows standard data formats collaboration software secure legal frameworks we need process innovations to match product innovations.
  • 9. most products advance incrementally
  • 10. business model: sell more, faster, cheaper
  • 11. business model: sell more, faster, cheaper
  • 12. does the ability to ask more questions, faster, lead us to more knowledge or just more data?
  • 13. what’s different about communications and computers?
  • 14. 1. we know stuff.
  • 15. 1. we know stuff. 2. open networks.
  • 16. content code physical
  • 17. 1. the “digital commons” represents a methodology to bring network externalities to the sciences
  • 18. “the commons”
  • 19. knowledge rights
  • 20. “digital commons” interoperability low transaction costs law and technology
  • 21. user interface to copyright
  • 22. 140,000,000+ digital objects online under our licenses licenses “ported” to 45+ countries integrated with Google,Yahoo, Firefox, Microsoft Office...
  • 23. content code physical
  • 24. innovation content code physical
  • 25. 2. the digital commons is a innovation- friendly way to manage data, materials, and content for science.
  • 26. project development “do no harm” funding pro bono “running code” community “think market” early focus on life sciences exploring climate change, geospatial, elsewhere
  • 27. what would move via the science network?
  • 28. Open Access Research Tools
  • 29. making the tacit knowledge encoded in materials and data available at high speed and low transaction costs.
  • 30. user interface to technology transfer core contract grants the right to do research
  • 31. “one-click” for DNA and materials
  • 32. ibridge
  • 33. build offer through simple set of choices (post-authentication)
  • 34. Scientist readable Lawyer readable Machine readable
  • 35. service opportunity: amazon, e-bay, paypal, shipping, materials prep
  • 36. “one-click” for clinical data
  • 37. service opportunity: data cleaning, data integration, data analytics, “virtual” clinical trials, storage, escrow, etc.
  • 38. Open Access Content
  • 39. making knowledge legally and technically available for re-use and composition into new knowledge.
  • 40. we use digital tools to replicate paper technology
  • 41. © creative expression
  • 42. © ideas or facts
  • 43. e=mc2
  • 44. the container, not the facts.
  • 45. the container, not the facts. but © locks the container.
  • 46. IGFBP-5 plays a role in the regulation of cellular senescence via a p53-dependent pathway and in aging-associated vascular diseases
  • 47. IGFBP-5 plays a role in the regulation of cellular senescence via a p53-dependent pathway and in aging-associated vascular diseases
  • 48. indexing: disallowed. http://orpheus-1.ucsd.edu/acq/license/cdlelsevier2004.pdf
  • 49. c >1000 journals under CC image from the public library of science licensed to the public under CC-BY 3.0
  • 50. service opportunity: enhanced publishing, document markup, literature-data integration, indexing and search
  • 51. 3. we have to build infrastructure for data into the web of documents that we have.
  • 52. solves the legal problem
  • 53. but not the container problem.
  • 54. web 2.0, science 3.0, what about making Google work better?
  • 55. over 200 years at one paper/day
  • 56. what you want is a list of genes. not a list of documents.
  • 57. building a web for data: the “semantic web”
  • 58. making computers understand links between documents links to Web page Web page
  • 59. making computers understand relationships between concepts causes drinking coffee feel awake
  • 60. causes drink coffee feel awake
  • 61. http://ontology.foo.org/causes causes drinking coffee feel awake http://ontology.foo.org/drinking coffee http://ontology.foo.org/feel awake h
  • 62. we need a Domain Name System for concepts: 192.168.1.1 http://sciencecommons.org coffee http://ontology.foo.org/coffee
  • 63. use the web to integrate information from different places and different names “coffee” “cafe” coffee http://ontology.foo.org/coffee “kopi”
  • 64. bed person located at get out of bed last subevent does not want wants get out of bed after causes drink coffee feel awake first subevent subevent causes feel jittery open eyes after after make coffee pour coffee pick up cup drink is a is for located in coffee cafe property of often near often near wet cup sugar
  • 65. (too much work for coffee)
  • 66. (distributed, networked approaches start to look pretty good)
  • 67. Open Source Data Integration
  • 68. formatting digital knowledge into modular building blocks for composition into new knowledge.
  • 69. e pluribus unum.
  • 70. 500,000,000+ RDF “triples” pre-formatted queries pathway analytic software donated by MLNM uses $5,000 of off-the-shelf hardware bundled with open source triple store download, mirror, fork. http://neurocommons.org
  • 71. uses: “DNS for life sciences” enhanced document markup modular data distributions
  • 72. get precise answers out of existing databases and resources prefix go: <http://purl.org/obo/owl/GO#> prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> Mesh: Pyramidal Neurons prefix owl: <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> prefix mesh: <http://purl.org/commons/record/mesh/> prefix sc: <http://purl.org/science/owl/sciencecommons/> prefix ro: <http://www.obofoundry.org/ro/ro.owl#> select ?genename ?processname where { graph <http://purl.org/commons/hcls/pubmesh> Pubmed: Journal Articles { ?paper ?p mesh:D017966 . ?article sc:identified_by_pmid ?paper. ?gene sc:describes_gene_or_gene_product_mentioned_by ?article. } graph <http://purl.org/commons/hcls/goa> Entrez Gene: Genes { ?protein rdfs:subClassOf ?res. ?res owl:onProperty ro:has_function. ?res owl:someValuesFrom ?res2. ?res2 owl:onProperty ro:realized_as. ?res2 owl:someValuesFrom ?process. graph <http://purl.org/commons/hcls/20070416/classrelations> {{?process <http://purl.org/obo/owl/obo#part_of> go:GO_0007166} union {?process rdfs:subClassOf go:GO_0007166 }} ?protein rdfs:subClassOf ?parent. ?parent owl:equivalentClass ?res3. GO: Signal Transduction ?res3 owl:hasValue ?gene. } graph <http://purl.org/commons/hcls/gene> { ?gene rdfs:label ?genename } graph <http://purl.org/commons/hcls/20070416> { ?process rdfs:label ?processname} }
  • 73. DRD1, 1812 adenylate cyclase activation ADRB2, 154 adenylate cyclase activation ADRB2, 154 arrestin mediated desensitization of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway DRD1IP, 50632 dopamine receptor signaling pathway DRD1, 1812 dopamine receptor, adenylate cyclase activating pathway DRD2, 1813 dopamine receptor, adenylate cyclase inhibiting pathway GRM7, 2917 G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway GNG3, 2785 G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway GNG12, 55970 G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway DRD2, 1813 G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway ADRB2, 154 G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway CALM3, 808 G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway HTR2A, 3356 G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway DRD1, 1812 G-protein signaling, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger SSTR5, 6755 G-protein signaling, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger MTNR1A, 4543 G-protein signaling, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger CNR2, 1269 G-protein signaling, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger HTR6, 3362 G-protein signaling, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger GRIK2, 2898 glutamate signaling pathway GRIN1, 2902 glutamate signaling pathway GRIN2A, 2903 glutamate signaling pathway GRIN2B, 2904 glutamate signaling pathway ADAM10, 102 integrin-mediated signaling pathway GRM7, 2917 negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity LRP1, 4035 negative regulation of Wnt receptor signaling pathway ADAM10, 102 Notch receptor processing ASCL1, 429 Notch signaling pathway HTR2A, 3356 serotonin receptor signaling pathway ADRB2, 154 transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activation (dimerization) PTPRG, 5793 transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway EPHA4, 2043 transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway NRTN, 4902 transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway CTNND1, 1500 Wnt receptor signaling pathway `
  • 74. transforms complex queries into links http://hcls1.csail.mit.edu:8890/sparql/?query=prefix%20go%3A%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fpurl.org%2Fobo%2Fowl%2FGO%23%3E%0Aprefix%20rdfs%3A %20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2F2000%2F01%2Frdf-schema%23%3E%0Aprefix%20owl%3A%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2F2002% 2F07%2Fowl%23%3E%0Aprefix%20mesh%3A%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fpurl.org%2Fcommons%2Frecord%2Fmesh%2F%3E%0Aprefix%20sc%3A%20% 3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fpurl.org%2Fscience%2Fowl%2Fsciencecommons%2F%3E%0Aprefix%20ro%3A%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.obofoundry.org%2Fro %2Fro.owl%23%3E%0A%0Aselect%20%3Fgenename%20%3Fprocessname%0Awhere%0A%7B%20%20graph%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fpurl.org% 2Fcommons%2Fhcls%2Fpubmesh%3E%0A%20%20%20%20%20%7B%20%3Fpaper%20%3Fp%20mesh%3AD017966%20.%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20% 20%3Farticle%20sc%3Aidentified_by_pmid%20%3Fpaper.%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%3Fgene%20sc% 3Adescribes_gene_or_gene_product_mentioned_by%20%3Farticle.%0A%20%20%20%20%20%7D%0A%20%20%20graph%20%3Chttp%3A%2F% 2Fpurl.org%2Fcommons%2Fhcls%2Fgoa%3E%0A%20%20%20%20%20%7B%20%3Fprotein%20rdfs%3AsubClassOf%20%3Fres.%0A%20%20%20%20% 20%20%20%3Fres%20owl%3AonProperty%20ro%3Ahas_function.%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%3Fres%20owl%3AsomeValuesFrom%20%3Fres2.% 0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%3Fres2%20owl%3AonProperty%20ro%3Arealized_as.%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%3Fres2%20owl% 3AsomeValuesFrom%20%3Fprocess.%0A%20%20%20graph%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fpurl.org%2Fcommons%2Fhcls%2F20070416%2Fclassrelations%3E %0A%20%20%20%20%20%7B%7B%3Fprocess%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fpurl.org%2Fobo%2Fowl%2Fobo%23part_of%3E%20go%3AGO_0007166%7D% 0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20union%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%7B%3Fprocess%20rdfs%3AsubClassOf%20go%3AGO_0007166%20%7D%7D%0A %20%20%20%20%20%20%20%3Fprotein%20rdfs%3AsubClassOf%20%3Fparent.%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%3Fparent%20owl% 3AequivalentClass%20%3Fres3.%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%3Fres3%20owl%3AhasValue%20%3Fgene.%0A%20%20%20%20%20%20%7D%0A% 20%20%20graph%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fpurl.org%2Fcommons%2Fhcls%2Fgene%3E%0A%20%20%20%20%20%7B%20%3Fgene%20rdfs%3Alabel%20% 3Fgenename%20%7D%0A%20%20%20graph%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fpurl.org%2Fcommons%2Fhcls%2F20070416%3E%0A%20%20%20%20%20%7B% 20%3Fprocess%20rdfs%3Alabel%20%3Fprocessname%7D%0A%7D&format=&maxrows=50
  • 75. transforms complex queries into links
  • 76. “mashups” in science “While brain maps until now have been similar to a traditional encyclopedia, the Allen Brain Atlas is more like Google Earth.”
  • 77. open systems do things you don’t expect, that are occasionally more valuable...
  • 78. service opportunity: distribution and services, database conversion, ontology creation, namespace servers, registries
  • 79. they’re coming.
  • 80. changes from a guild culture of knowledge
  • 81. knowledge content code physical
  • 82. wilbanks@creativecommons.org http://sciencecommons.org