Chapter 3 chemistry


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Chapter 3 chemistry

  1. 1. Chapter 3Matter
  2. 2. States of Matter Solid- It has its own definite shape and volume. The particles are tightly packed and may not conform to its container. Liquid- A form of matter that flows, has a constant volume, and takes the shape of its container. The particles are less tightly packed than a solid. Gas- It flows to conform to the shape of its container and fills the full volume. Particles are freely flowing. Gases are easily compressed.
  3. 3. Physical Property Extensiveproperties- It depends on the amount of substance present. Mass, length, and volume are examples. Intensive properties- It is independent of the amount of substance present. Density is an example.
  4. 4. Chemical Property The definition of a chemical property is the ability or inability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more new substances. Iron rusting and spoiled food are examples of a chemical property.
  5. 5. Physical and Phase Change A physical change is a change which alters a substance without changing its composition. The water cycle is an example of a physical change. A phase change is a transition of matter from one state to another. Substances usually undergo a phase change when temperature and pressure change. Melting, freezing, evaporation, and condensation are examples of phase changes.
  6. 6. Law of Conservation of Matter Thislaw states that mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction. However, the matter is conserved. The mass of the reactants will always equal the mass of the products with no exceptions. Equation- mass reactants = mass products
  7. 7. MixturesA mixture is a combination or two or more pure substances in which each pure substance retains its individual chemical properties. There are two types  Homogeneous  Heterogeneous
  8. 8. Heterogeneous MixturesA heterogeneous mixture is a mixture that does not blend smoothly throughout and in which the individual substances remain distinct. Its composition is not uniform. Examples of a heterogeneous mixture is salad dressing mixture and orange juice.
  9. 9. Homogeneous MixtureA homogeneous mixture is a mixture that has a constant composition throughout. It always has a single phase. Also known as solutions which they can be solid, liquid, or a gas. A solid-solid solution is known as an alloy. Examples of a homogeneous mixture are tea, lemonade, bronze, and pewter.
  10. 10. Separating Mixtures Filtration- A technique that uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid. Distillation- A separation technique that is based on differences in the boiling points of the substances involved. Crystallization- A technique that results in the formation of pure solid particles of a substance from a solution containing the dissolved substance.
  11. 11. Separating Mixtures cont. Sublimation-The process during which a solid changes directly to a gas without ever going through the liquid phase. Chromatography- A technique that separates the components of a mixture based on the ability of each component to travel or be drawn across the surface of another material.
  12. 12. Elements An element is a pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means. Each element has a unique chemical name and symbol. The symbol consists of one, two, or three letters.
  13. 13. The Periodic Table The periodic table organizes all of the elements into one chart. The horizontal rows are called periods. The vertical rows are called groups or families. Elements in the same group have similar chemical and physical properties. The table is called periodic because the pattern of similar properties repeats from period to period.
  14. 14. CompoundsA compound is made up of two or more different elements that are combined chemically. Most matter in the universe exists in the form of compounds. The chemical symbols of the periodic table make it easy to write the formulas for chemical compounds. Compounds cane be broken down. Example of a compound is table salt- NaCl
  15. 15. Law of Definite Proportions The Law of Definite Proportions states that a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass, no matter how large or small the sample. The mass of the compound is equal to the sum of the masses of the elements that make up the compound. The relative amounts of the elements in a compound can be expressed as percent by mass which is the ratio of the mass of each element to the total mass of the compound expressed as a percentage.
  16. 16. Law of Multiple Proportions The Law of Multiple Proportions states the when different compounds are formed by a combination of the same elements, different masses of one element combine with the same relative mass of the other element in a ratio of small whole numbers. Ratios compare the relative amounts of any items or substances.
  17. 17. Law of Multiple Proportionscont. The comparison can be expressed using numbers separated by a colon or a fraction. With regard to the law of multiple proportions, ratios express the relationship of elements in a compound. An example of the law of multiple proportions is water and hydrogen peroxide.