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  • Thought and behaviorApplied and researchPractice and science (practice refers to helping people with psychological problems; science refers to using a particular method for answering questions about thought and behavior)
  • Nature/nurtureDualism
  • Show textbook, and introduce authorsFeist and RosenbergBOTH matter, all the timeAlmost everything we know about psychology was discovered by someone through researchThe topics may seem disjointed, but there are themes running through all topicsAlmost everything we learn in psychology is relevant to our everyday livesEach chapter has a theme, with underlying processes being relevant all through it
  • Scientific study of thought and behaviorPsychologists use a particular approach (a scientific approach) to answer their questions
  • Clinical…the treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders and the promotion of psychological health
  • Cognitive-study of how people perceive, remember, think, speak, and solve problemsDevelopmental-study of how thought and behavior change and remain stable across the life spanBehavioral neuroscience-study of the links among brain, mind, and behaviorSocial-study of how living among others influences thought, feeling, and behaviorHealth-study of the role that psychological factors play in regard to physical health and illnessIndustrial/organizational-application of psychological concepts and questions to work settings
  • A long time (7,000-50,000) yearsThe pendulum has swung from considering psychological problems as due to supernatural, or natural, causesWe have evidence that in prehistoric times, people attempted to treat physical and/or mental problems by drilling a small hole in a person’s skull (correct in thinking that the brain is related to our physical and mental health)The ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Chinese (2600- 400 BCE) began to replace supernatural explanations (such as demonic spirits) with natural and biological ones (e.g., connections between a person’s body and his or her emotions)Then the pendulum swung the other way, unfortunately, again placing the blame for mental illnesses on supernatural phenomena
  • Psychotherapy (talking with a trained clinician)Drug therapyConsistent criteria for diagnosis (DSM), which we’ll talk about in the chapter on mental illness
  • Examine and test human functions and collect data (philosophers don’t do that)Wilhelm Wundt
  • G. Stanley HallFrancis Cecil SumnerMary Whiton Calkins (she completed coursework for PhD but Harvard wouldn’t give it to her)Now, more PhDs in psychology are awarded to women than to men
  • StructuralismFunctionalismBehavior
  • Watson and Skinner
  • Maslow and RogersMental processes include thinking, language, decision making, emotion
  • Genes; everything else, environment
  • Descartes, a French philosopher and mathematician (many important ideas, but this was an erroneous one)Many examples of mind and body being one, such as the relationship between Type A personality and heart disease
  • Natural selection
  • Cognitive-study mental processes, and would ask how drivers pay attention to driving information while talking on a cell phone (i.e., can they split their attention and perform both tasks well?)Developmental-study change and continuity over the life span, and would ask at what age kids should be online by themselves, or how our personality is shaped by online interactionsClinical-study psychological disorders, and would ask how we know when online activity is disruptive to one’s life (some would use the term “internet addiction”)
  • Science

Transcript

  • 1. Introduction to Psychology
    Chapter 1:
    Introduction to Psychology
  • 2. Frequently Asked Questions
    What is the purpose of these handouts?
    To structure your reading and help you take notes. For most students, the handouts are very useful when studying for exams
    What do the page numbers on the lower right-hand corner of each slide indicate?
    The page numbers in the Feist and Rosenberg textbook that correspond to the notes on the handout. Students should absolutely read those pages. Other pages in the textbook are optional
  • 3. Frequently Asked Questions(cont.)
    Which pages of the textbook should I read?
    ALL pages that appear on the PowerPoint handouts. Other pages are optional
    What will be on the exams?
    All objectives are “fair game” for the exams. Exam questions also come from any videos or activities for that unit
  • 4. Frequently Asked Questions(cont.)
    How should I use the audio lectures?
    Print the study guide for each chapter
    Read the chapter, taking notes on the study guide
    THEN, listen to the audio lecture as a review, filling in notes as needed
  • 5. Overview
    Psychology is the scientific study of _________________ and ________________
    Psychology has many subspecialties, and psychologists work in both _______________ and ________________ settings
    The history of psychology has two parts: clinical _______________ and ___________________
    Entire chapter
  • 6. Overview(cont.)
    To understand how psychologists think, we need to examine the ________________/ ________________debate, the concept of mind/body ________________, and the processes of evolution and natural selection
  • 7. Overview(cont.)
    Your textbook authors (________________ and __________________) have emphasized connections between
    Nature and nurture
    Psychologists and scientific discoveries
    Topics across psychology
    Psychology and the “real world”
    Topics within each chapter
  • 8. Objective 1
    Define psychology
    Psychology is the _________________ study of ________________ and ________________
    What does it mean to say that psychology is scientific?
    Another term for thought is mental processes, and includes emotion, language, consciousness, etc.
    p. 4-7
  • 9. Objective 1(cont.)
    Psychology is both a clinical practice and a science, meaning that psychologists help people improve their lives or functioning, AND conduct research in order to learn more about why we do the things we do
  • 10. Objective 2
    Identify and describe common subdisciplines in psychology
    The largest subfield (based on number of degrees awarded) is __________________, which focuses on…
    p. 8-11
  • 11. Objective 2(cont.)
    Other common subfields include (describe each)
    Cognitive
    Developmental
    Behavioral neuroscience
    Social
    Health
    Industrial/organizational
  • 12. Objective 3
    Describe the history of the clinical practice of psychology
    For how long have humans been suffering from, and attempting to treat, psychological disorders?
    Across human history, the pendulum has swung from considering psychological problems as being due to supernatural, or natural, causes
    Prehistoric times – trephination
    Ancient times – saw connections between mind and body
    p. 12-14
  • 13. Objective 3(cont.)
    Medieval to early modern times – attributed disorders to supernatural causes. Treatment ranged from brutal to humane
    Modern times – mental illnesses are disorders of the brain and are similar to any other illnesses
    By 1950s, we had the three main tools now used to help people with mental illness
  • 14. Objective 4
    Describe the early history of the science of psychology (4th century BCE to late 1800s)
    Originated from philosophy (asking questions such as, “What is the nature of knowledge?”) and became a science when it started to…
    The field grew in German universities, along with physiology, chemistry, and medicine
    In 1879, _____________ ____________ opened the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany
    p. 16-18
  • 15. Objective 4(cont.)
    An important early psychologist was G. _______________ ________________
    Opened the first psychology lab in the U.S.
    Founded the American Psychological Association
    History of psychology is mostly white and male, with a few exceptions
    First African American psychologist was _____________ ____________ ______________, who conducted research on equality and justice
    First female president of APA was _______________ ______________ ________________
  • 16. Objective 4(cont.)
    Two approaches in early psychology
    Edward Titchener believed that psychologists needed to study the elements of experience (also known as the parts or structures of the mind). This approach came to be known as __________________________
    William James and others believed that the functions of the mind, and their adaptive purpose, were more important. This approach was called ___________________________
    Eventually the focus of psychology turned to ____________________, and now, to behavior and mental processes
  • 17. Objective 5
    Describe the major schools of psychology popular in the 20th and 21st centuries (1900s-today)
    Behaviorism
    Approach is to forget about the mind and focus only on behavior, or what we can see
    Well-known advocates are John _________________ and B. F. ____________________
    p. 19-22
  • 18. Objective 5(cont.)
    Humanistic and positive psychology
    Focus on personal growth; proponents include Abraham ___________________ and Carl ___________________
    Cognitivism
    Mental processes (such as…) became interesting to psychologists again in the 1950s and 1960s, and remain so today
    Evolutionary psychology and behavioral neuroscience
    Lots of focus today on the role of natural selection and the brain in shaping/producing our thoughts and behavior
  • 19. Objective 6
    Summarize the three “ways of thinking” that help us to understand the approach of psychologists
    Nature-nurture debate
    “Nature” refers to ___________________; “nurture” refers to everything else, also known as _______________________
    Really not a debate any longer; both matter, all the time
    p. 23-28
  • 20. Objective 6(cont.)
    We can say that something is influenced more by genetics than by environment when it is universal (seen in all cultures) and seen in non-human species (example = attachment. Human infants all around the world bond with their main caregiver. So do non-human primates, such as chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys)
  • 21. Objective 6(cont.)
    Mind-body dualism
    This idea originated with the French philosopher and mathematician _______________________, and held that mind and body are separate
    Mind-body dualism is primarily a Western idea, and is incorrect (it matters because it’s been a problem for psychology). Mind and body (including brain) are one
  • 22. Objective 6(cont.)
    Evolution of behavior
    Darwin’s “big idea” was that changes in species over time were due to ___________________ ______________________, or a process by which traits that help an organism to reproduce are passed on to offspring
  • 23. Objective 6(cont.)
    Applications of natural selection to human thought and behavior
    We like fatty foods (may have helped our ancestors survive during periods of famine)
    We like babies (pushing adults to care for children until they are old enough to care for themselves and to reproduce)
    Men and women tend to differ in sexual feelings and behavior (the idea is that men’s best strategy to get their genes passed on - mate widely - would be different from women’s best strategy - mate with one guy and get him to stick around)
  • 24. Objective 7
    How might psychologists in various subfields approach the growth of electronic social interactions?
    What does each of these folks study in general, and what questions might they ask about online interactions?
    Cognitive psychologist
    Developmental psychologist
    Clinical psychologist
    p. 29-31
  • 25. Conclusion
    Psychology is a science
    Psychology has two historical paths; as a clinical practice and as a science. Which path has a shorter history/is more recent?
    Modern-day psychology emphasizes the brain and nervous system and the role of genes, environment, and natural selection in shaping our thought and behavior
  • 26. Useful Websites
    History of Psychology
    http://www.learner.org/discoveringpsychology/history/history_nonflash.html
    Textbook Website (free resources for students using our textbook)
    http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073531839/student_view0/