THE HISTORY OF CAMERAS AND PHOTORGAPHY See http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photographers/photography-timeline.html forinteractive slideshow on the history of photography THE HISTORY OF CAMERAS AND PHOTORGAPHY
TIMELINE OF CAMERAS <ul><li>5th-4th Centuries B.C.
Chinese and Greek philosophers describe the basic principles of optics and the camera.
Polaroid introduces one-step instant photography with the SX-70 camera. </li></ul>
History of Photography Pinhole Cameras to The Colour photograph <ul><li>"Photography" is derived from the Greek words photos ("light") and graphein ("to draw") The word was first used by the scientist Sir John F.W. Herschel in 1839. It is a method of recording images by the action of light, or related radiation, on a sensitive material. </li></ul><ul><li>Pinhole Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Alhazen (Ibn Al-Haytham), a great authority on optics in the Middle Ages who lived around 1000AD, invented the first pinhole camera, (also called the Camera Obscura} and was able to explain why the images were upside down. The first casual reference to the optic laws that made pinhole cameras possible, was observed and noted by Aristotle around 330 BC, who questioned why the sun could make a circular image when it shined through a square hole. </li></ul><ul><li>The First Photograph </li></ul><ul><li>On a summer day in 1827, Joseph Nicephore Niepce made the first photographic image with a camera obscura. Prior to Niepce people just used the camera obscura for viewing or drawing purposes not for making photographs. Joseph Nicephore Niepce's heliographs or sun prints as they were called were the prototype for the modern photograph, by letting light draw the picture.
Niepce placed an engraving onto a metal plate coated in bitumen, and then exposed it to light. The shadowy areas of the engraving blocked light, but the whiter areas permitted light to react with the chemicals on the plate. When Niepce placed the metal plate in a solvent, gradually an image, until then invisible, appeared. However, Niepce's photograph required eight hours of light exposure to create and after appearing would soon fade away. </li></ul>
History of Photography Pinhole Cameras to The Colour photograph <ul><li>Louis Daguerre
Fellow Frenchman, Louis Daguerre was also experimenting to find a way to capture an image, but it would take him another dozen years before Daguerre was able to reduce exposure time to less than 30 minutes and keep the image from disappearing afterwards. </li></ul><ul><li>The Birth of Modern Photography </li></ul><ul><li>Louis Daguerre was the inventor of the first practical process of photography. In 1829, he formed a partnership with Joseph Nicephore Niepce to improve the process Niepce had developed.
In 1839 after several years of experimentation and Niepce's death, Daguerre developed a more convenient and effective method of photography, naming it after himself - the daguerreotype.
Daguerre's process 'fixed' the images onto a sheet of silver-plated copper. He polished the silver and coated it in iodine, creating a surface that was sensitive to light. Then, he put the plate in a camera and exposed it for a few minutes. After the image was painted by light, Daguerre bathed the plate in a solution of silver chloride. This process created a lasting image, one that would not change if exposed to light.
In 1839, Daguerre and Niepce's son sold the rights for the daguerreotype to the French government and published a booklet describing the process. The daguerreotype gained popularity quickly; by 1850, there were over seventy daguerreotype studios in New York City alone. </li></ul>
History of Photography Pinhole Cameras to The Colour photograph <ul><li>Negative to Postive Process </li></ul><ul><li>The inventor of the first negative from which multiple postive prints were made was Henry Fox Talbot, an English botanist and mathematician and a contemporary of Daguerre.
Talbot sensitized paper to light with a silver salt solution. He then exposed the paper to light. The background became black, and the subject was rendered in gradations of grey. This was a negative image, and from the paper negative, Talbot made contact prints, reversing the light and shadows to create a detailed picture. In 1841, he perfected this paper-negative process and called it a calotype, Greek for beautiful picture </li></ul><ul><li>Tintypes </li></ul><ul><li>Tintypes, patented in 1856 by Hamilton Smith, were another medium that heralded the birth of photography. A thin sheet of iron was used to provide a base for light-sensitive material, yielding a positive image. </li></ul><ul><li>Wet Plate Negatives </li></ul><ul><li>In 1851, Frederick Scoff Archer, an English sculptor, invented the wet plate negative. Using a viscous solution of collodion, he coated glass with light-sensitive silver salts. Because it was glass and not paper, this wet plate created a more stable and detailed negative.
Photography advanced considerably when sensitized materials could be coated on plate glass. However, wet plates had to be developed quickly before the emulsion dried. In the field this meant carrying along a portable darkroom. </li></ul>
History of Photography Pinhole Cameras to The Colour Photograph <ul><li>Dry Plate Negatives & Hand-held Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>In 1879, the dry plate was invented, a glass negative plate with a dried gelatin emulsion. Dry plates could be stored for a period of time. Photographers no longer needed portable darkrooms and could now hire technicians to develop their photographs. Dry processes absorbed light quickly so rapidly that the hand-held camera was now possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible Roll Film </li></ul><ul><li>In 1889, George Eastman invented film with a base that was flexible, unbreakable, and could be rolled. Emulsions coated on a cellulose nitrate film base, such as Eastman's, made the mass-produced box camera a reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Colour Photographs </li></ul><ul><li>In the early 1940s, commercially viable colour films (except Kodachrome, introduced in 1935) were brought to the market. These films used the modern technology of dye-coupled colours in which a chemical process connects the three dye layers together to create an apparent color image.. </li></ul>
History of Photography Advancements in Photographic Films & Photographic Prints <ul><li>Photographic Films
The first flexible roll films, dating to 1889, were made of cellulose nitrate, which is chemically similar to guncotton. A nitrate-based film will deteriorate over time, releasing oxidants and acidic gasses. It is also highly flammable. Special storage for this film is required.
Nitrate film is historically important because it allowed for the development of roll films. The first flexible movie films measured 35-mm wide and came in long rolls on a spool. In the mid-1920s, using this technology, 35-mm roll film was developed for the camera. By the late 1920s, medium-format roll film was created. It measured six centimeters wide and had a paper backing making it easy to handle in daylight. This led to the development of the twin-lens-reflex camera in 1929. Nitrate film was produced in sheets (4 x 5-inches) ending the need for fragile glass plates
Triacetate film came later and was more stable, flexible, and fireproof. Most films produced up to the 1970s were based on this technology. Since the 1960s, polyester polymers have been used for gelatin base films. The plastic film base is far more stable than cellulose and is not a fire hazard.
Today, technology has produced film with T-grain emulsions. These films use light-sensitive silver halides (grains) that are T-shaped, thus rendering a much finer grain pattern. Films like this offer greater detail and higher resolution, meaning sharper images.
Film Speed (ISO) — An arbitrary number placed on film that tells how much light is needed to expose the film to the correct density. Generally, the lower the ISO number, the finer grained and slower a film. ISO means International Standards Organization. This term replaces the old ASA speed indicator. The slower the film, the more light is needed to expose it.. </li></ul>
History of Photography Advancements in Photographic Films & Photographic Prints <ul><li>Photographic Prints
Traditionally, linen rag papers were used as the base for making photographic prints. Prints on this fiber-base paper coated with a gelatin emulsion are quite stable when properly processed. Their stability is enhanced if the print is toned with either sepia (brown tone) or selenium (light, silvery tone).
Paper will dry out and crack under poor archival conditions. Loss of the image can also be due to high humidity, but the real enemy of paper is chemical residue left by photographic fixer. In addition, contaminants in the water used for processing and washing can cause damage. If a print is not fully washed to remove all traces of fixer, the result will be discoloration and image loss.
Fixer (Hypo)—A chemical, sodium thiosulfate, used to remove residual silver halides (grain) from films and prints when processing them. Fixer "fixes" the remaining silver halides in place on either film or prints. Fixer is also called hypo.
The next innovation in photographic papers was resin-coating, or water-resistant paper. The idea is to use normal linen fiber-base paper and coat it with a plastic (polyethylene) material, making the paper water-resistant. The emulsion is placed on a plastic covered base paper. The problem with resin-coated papers is that the image rides on the plastic coating, and is susceptible to fading.
At first colour prints were not stable because organic dyes were used to make the colour image. The image would literally disappear from the film or paper base as the dyes deteriorate. Kodachrome, dating to the first third of the 20th century, was the first colour film to produce prints that could last half a century. Now, new techniques are creating permanent colour prints lasting 200 years or more. New printing methods using computer-generated digital images and highly stable pigments, offer permanency for colour photographs. </li></ul>
History of Photography Advancement of the Camera <ul><li>By definition a camera is a lightproof object, with a lens, that captures incoming light and directs the light and resulting image towards film (optical camera) or the imaging device (digital camera).
All camera technology is based on the law of optics first discovered by Aristotle. By the mid-1500s a sketching device for artists, the camera obscura (dark chamber) was common. The camera obscura was a lightproof box with a pinhole (later lens were used) on one side and a translucent screen on the other. This screen was used for tracing by the artists of the inverted image transmitted through the pinhole.
Around 1600, Della Porta reinvented the pinhole camera. Apparently he was the first European to publish any information on the pinhole camera and is sometimes incorrectly credited with its invention.
Johannes Kepler was the first person to coin the phrase Camera Obscura in 1604, and in 1609, Kepler further suggested the use of a lens to improve the image projected by a Camera Obscura.
The earliest cameras used in the daguerreotype process were made by opticians and instrument makers, or sometimes even by the photographers themselves. The most popular cameras utilized a sliding-box design. The lens was placed in the front box. A second, slightly smaller box, slid into the back of the larger box. The focus was controlled by sliding the rear box forward or backwards. A laterally reversed image would be obtained unless the camera was fitted with a mirror or prism to correct this effect. When the sensitized plate was placed in the camera, the lens cap would be removed to start the exposure. </li></ul>
History of Photography Advancement of the Camera <ul><li>Box Camera </li></ul><ul><li>George Eastman. a dry plate manufacturer from Rochester, New York, invented the Kodak camera. For $22.00, an amateur could purchase a camera with enough film for 100 shots. After use, it was sent back to the company, which then processed the film. The ad slogan read, "You press the button, we do the rest." A year later, the delicate paper film was changed to a plastic base, so that photographers could do their own processing.
Eastman's first simple camera in 1888 was a wooden, light-tight box with a simple lens and shutter that was factory-filled with film. The photographer pushed a button to produce a negative. Once the film was used up, the photographer mailed the camera with the film still in it to the Kodak factory where the film was removed from the camera, processed, and printed. The camera was then reloaded with film and returned. </li></ul><ul><li>Flashlight Powder </li></ul><ul><li>Blitzlichtpulver or flashlight powder was invented in Germany in 1887 by Adolf Miethe and Johannes Gaedicke. Lycopodium powder (the waxy spores from club moss) was used in early flash powder. </li></ul><ul><li>Flashbulbs </li></ul><ul><li>The first modern photoflash bulb or flashbulb was invented by Austrian, Paul Vierkotter. Vierkotter used magnesium-coated wire in an evacuated glass globe. Magnesium-coated wire was soon replaced by aluminum foil in oxygen. On September 23, 1930, the first commercially available photoflash bulb was patented by German, Johannes Ostermeier. These flashbulbs were named the Vacublitz. General Electric made a flashbulb called the Sashalite . </li></ul>
History of Photography Advancement of the Camera <ul><li>Filters - Frederick Charles Luther Wratten (1840-1926) </li></ul><ul><li>English inventor and manufacturer, Frederick Wratten founded one of the first photographic supply businesses, Wratten and Wainwright in 1878. Wratten and Wainwright manufactured and sold collodion glass plates and gelatin dry plates.
In 1878, Wratten invented the "noodling process" of silver-bromide gelatin emulsions before washing. In 1906, Wratten with the assistance of Dr. C.E. Kenneth Mees (E.C.K Mees) invented and produced the first panchromatic plates in England. Wratten is best known for the photographic filters that he invented and are still named after him - Wratten Filters. Eastman Kodak purchased his company in 1912. </li></ul><ul><li>35mm Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>As early as 1905, Oskar Barnack had the idea of reducing the format of film negatives and then enlarging the photographs after they had been exposed. As development manager at Leica, he was able to put his theory into practice. He took an instrument for taking exposure samples for cinema film and turned it into the world's first 35 mm camera: the 'Ur-Leica'. </li></ul><ul><li>Polaroid or Instant Photos </li></ul><ul><li>Polaroid photography was invented by Edwin Herbert Land. Land was the American inventor and physicist whose one-step process for developing and printing photos created instant photography. The first Polaroid camera was sold to the public in November, 1948. </li></ul><ul><li>Disposable Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Fuji introduced the disposable camera in 1986. We call them disposables but the people who make these cameras want you to know that they're committed to recycling the parts, a message they've attempted to convey by calling their products "single-use cameras." </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Camera </li></ul><ul><li>In 1984, Canon demonstrated first digital electronic still camera. </li></ul>
History of Photography the impact of photography <ul><li>Photographs were used as visual documents of personal and public history. It changed peoples perceptions of history, time and themselves.
It also changed what was considered private as photographs were used to record most aspects of life.
Photography changed what was seen as suitable to veiw and was deemed as proof of events, experience or state of mind.
Photographers spread out over the world and recorded all natural and manufactured events they could.
This enabled households to have their own collections: photo albums, scrapbooks and stereoscope cards
They were used to document travels by various artist and this showed people things they hadn't seen before
Photographs were used to political and economical advantages and they document major historical events. </li></ul>
History of Photography impact of the development of new technology on photography <ul><li>New technology developed the quality of photography, the versatility and ease of use, the different things that photographers were able to do and the efficiency and affordability of cameras.
The development of the 35-mm or “candid” camera made documentarians infinitely more mobile and less conspicuous
the manufacture of faster black-and-white film enabled people to work without a flash in situations with a minimum amount of light.
Colour film for transparencies (slides) was introduced in 1935 and colour negative film in 1942.
Portable lighting equipment was perfected, and in 1947
Polaroid Land cameras, were developed which could produce a positive print in seconds.
Large-circulation picture magazines developed, creating an outlet and a vast outlet for documentary work
Photography was used to document historical conflicts and were used in archives, new technology made it easier </li></ul>
History of Photography modern photography <ul><li>Photography has been extremely influential in the visual arts
Photographers began to break free of the oppressive strictures of the straight aesthetic and documentary modes of expression after museums and art schools embraced photography as an art form
Documentarians started probing into the social landscape,mirroring in their images the anxiety and alienation of urban life
The usage and types of personal forms of documantary photography increased
Photography has been merged with other forms of expression
More traditional forms of photography have been used to photograph non- traditional subjects.
In the 1990s the first fully integrated photographic system was developed, aimed at the amateur photographer, the Advanced Photo System (APS). The new system had a magnetic coating that enabled the camera, film, and photofinishing equipment to communicate. The were self-loading, could be switched among three different formats (classic, or 4 by 6 in.; hi vision, or 4 by 7 in.; and panoramic, or 4 by 11.5 in.), and are fully automatic (auto-focus, auto-exposure—“point-and-shoot”). The film had a smaller size (24 mm) and had an improved polyester plastic base,two magnetic strips that record the exposure and framing parameters for each picture and allow the user to add a brief notation to each frame. The photofinishing equipment could read the magnetic data on the film and adjust the developing of each negative to compensate for the conditions. After being processed, the negatives are returned along with the photographs and an index sheet of thumbnail-size contact prints from which reprints and enlargements can be selected </li></ul>
History of Photography how photography has been used over time and what for <ul><li>Traditionally photographs were not used to show emotion but merely as a means of recording likeness or events formally
Between 1850 and 1930 people used them to record events such as family occasions, historical events and points of interest for publications
Between 1940 and 1950 they began to be used for advertisement and propaganda due to world war two and it was used to make people join
1960- photography became linked with the modelling industry
Photography is now used more widely and for various different reasons </li></ul>
History of Photography how photography has been used over time in art and documentary <ul><li>The fight to certify photography as a fine art has been among the medium's dominant philosophical preoccupations since its inception. Photography's legitimacy as an art form was challenged by artists and critics, who seized upon the mechanical and chemical aspects of the photographic process as proof that photography was, at best, a craft. Perhaps because so many painters came to rely so heavily on the photograph as a source of imagery, they insisted that photography could only be a handmaiden to the arts.
To prove that photography was indeed an art, photographers at first imitated the painting of the time. Enormous popularity was achieved by such photographers as O. J. Rejlander and Henry Peach Robinson, who created sentimental genre scenes by printing from multiple negatives. Julia Margaret Cameron blurred her images to achieve a painterly softness of line, creating a series of remarkably powerful soft-focus portraits of her celebrated friends.
In opposition to the painterly aesthetic in photography was P. H. Emerson and other early advocates of what has since become known as “straight” photography. According to this approach the photographic image should not be tampered with or subjected to handwork or other affectations lest it lose its integrity. Emerson proposed this philosophy in his controversial and influential book, Naturalistic Photography (1889). Appropriately, Emerson was the first to recognize the importance of the work of Alfred Stieglitz, who battled for photography's place among the arts during the first part of the 20th cent.
in revolt against the entrenched imitation of genre painting known as “salon” photography, Stieglitz founded a movement which he called the Photo-Secession, related to the radical secession movements in painting. He initiated publication of a magazine, Camera Work (1903–17), which was a forum for the Photo-Secession and for enlightened opinion and critical thought in all the arts. It remains the most sumptuously and meticulously produced photographic quarterly in the history of the medium. In New York City, Stieglitz opened three galleries, the first (1908–17) called “291” (from its address at 291 Fifth Ave.), then the Intimate Gallery (1925–30), and An American Place (1930–46), where photographic work was hung beside contemporary, often controversial, work in other media. </li></ul>
History of Photography how photography has been used over time in art and documentary <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>Stieglitz's own photographs and those of several other Photo-Secessionists—Edward Steichen, one of his early protégés; Frederick Evans, the British architectural photographer; and the portraitist Alvin L. Coburn—adhered with relative strictness to a “straight” aesthetic. The quality of their works, despite a pervasive self-consciousness, was consistently of the highest craftsmanship. Stieglitz's overriding concern with the concept “art for art's sake” kept him, and the audience he built for the medium, from an appreciation of an equally important branch of photography: the documentary.
The power of the photograph as record was demonstrated in the 19th cent., as when William H. Jackson's photographs of the Yellowstone area persuaded the U.S. Congress to set that territory aside as a national park. In the early 20th cent. photographers and journalists were beginning to use the medium to inform the public on crucial issues in order to generate social change.
Taking as their precedents the work of such men as Jackson and reporter Jacob Riis (whose photographs of New York City slums resulted in much-needed legislation), documentarians like Lewis Hine and James Van DerZee began to build a photographic tradition whose central concerns had little to do with the concept of art. The photojournalist sought to build, strengthen, or change public opinion by means of novel, often shocking images. The finished form of the documentary image was the inexpensive multiple, the magazine or newspaper reproduction. For a time the two traditions, art photography and documentary photography, appeared to be merged within the work of one man, Paul Strand. Strand's works combined a documentary concern with a lean, modernist vision related to the avant-garde art of Europe. </li></ul>
History of Photography other aspects of photography <ul><li>photography is an important tool in education, medicine, commerce, criminology, and the military.
It has scientific applications which include aerial mapping and surveying, geology, reconnaissance, meteorology, archaeology, and anthropology.
New techniques such as holography,continue to expand the medium's technological and creative horizons.
In astronomy the charge coupled device (CCD) can detect and register even a single photon of light. </li></ul>
History of Photography digital technology <ul><li>The end of the 20 th century brought about digital imaging and processing and computer-based techniques which made it possible to manipulate images in many ways
this created revolutionary changes in photography.
Digital technology allowed for a fundamental change in the nature of photographic technique.
Instead of light passing through a lens and striking emulsion on film, digital photography uses sensors and color filters. In one technique three filters are arranged in a mosaic pattern on top of the photosensitive layer. Each filter allows only one color (red, green, or blue) to pass through to the pixel beneath it. In the other technique, three separate photosensitive layers are embedded in silicon. Since silicon absorbs different colors at different depths, each layer allows a different color to pass through. When stacked together, a full color pixel results. In both techniques the photosensitive material converts images into a series of numbers that are then translated back into tonal values and printed. Using computers, various numbers can easily be changed, thus altering colors, rearranging pictorial elements, or combining photographs with other kinds of images.
Some digital cameras record directly onto computer disks or into a computer, where the images can be manipulated at will </li></ul>
History of Photography photograms <ul><li>A photogram is a photographic image that is taken without the use of a camera. It works by you placing objects directly onto the surface of photo-sensitive material such as photographic paper, then exposing it to light, this results in a negative shadow image that has a varied ton which depends on the transparency of the objects you use. The areas of the paper that are expose to no light remain white, those that are exposed black and grey through transparent or semi-transparent objects.
Artistic cameraless photography, as the technique producing photograms is usually known, is perhaps most prominently associated with Man Ray and his exploration of what he called rayographs. His style included capitalizing on the stark and unexpected effects of negative imaging, unusual juxtapositions of identifiable objects (such as spoons and pearl necklaces), varying the exposure time given to different objects within a single image, and moving objects as they were exposed. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
History of Photography photograms <ul><li>Timeline history of photogram's (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>1802- The camera lens less process was used in the earliest days of photography. Thomas Wedgewood ans Sir Humphrey Davy of England made silhouettes of objects placed over sensitized surfaces and exposed to light
1842- The cyanotype process was discovered in 1842.
1843- Botanist Anna Atkins made use of cyanotype photogram's to document her scientific research. Was the first illustrated book. Anna Atkins Photogram's can be used in numerous ways on many different surfaces