EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFECambrian ExplosionEvolution’s “big bang”lasted about 10 million yearsAll principal animal phyla except...
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEBy the Ordovician, global biodiversity tripledIncluded trilobites, brachiopods, bivalve molluscs,gastr...
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEForaminiferaFirst appeared in the CambrianSurvive to presentUnicellular Organisms (Protistans)Platysol...
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFERadiolariaFirst appeared in the Cambrian, more abundant inmid-PaleozoicSurvive to presentHave a silice...
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEArcheocyathids (“ancient cup”)Early Cambrian phylumHave similarities to both corals and spongesAssocia...
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEArcheocyathids (“ancient cup”)Metazoan Invertebrates
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEPhylum Porifera (sponges)Early Cambrian phylumEvolved from colonial flagellated, unicellular organisms...
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEPhylum Porifera (sponges)Metazoan Invertebrates
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEPhylum Porifera (sponges) SPICULESMetazoan InvertebratesSpicules –Composed ofCalcium carbonate
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEPhylum Porifera (sponges) SPICULESMetazoan InvertebratesSpicules –Composed ofSilica
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEPhylum Porifera (sponges) SPICULESMetazoan InvertebratesSpicules –Composed ofSpongin
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesPhylum Porifera (sponges)CambrianProtospongia
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesPhylum Porifera (sponges)Ordovician
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesPhylum Porifera (sponges)SilurianAstylospongiaCaryospongia
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesPhylum Porifera (sponges)SilurianPalaeomanon
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesPhylum Porifera (sponges)SilurianAstraeospongiaStar-shaped spicules
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesStromatoporoidsCalcareous spongesGeologic range: Ordovician to PresentBuilt reef...
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesStromatoporoidsSide viewLaminae and Pillar Structure
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesStromatoporoidsTop view
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesCnidaria (Coelenterata or Corals)IncludesSea fansJellyfishAnemonesCoralsVery div...
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesCnidaria (Coelenterata or Corals)JellyfishFire coralSea fans, gorgonianHorn cora...
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesCnidaria (Coelenterata or Corals)Two forms:Polyps and MedusaPolyps – asexualMedu...
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesCnidaria (Coelenterata or Corals)Stinging cellsCnidocytes
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesCnidaria (Coelenterata or Corals)Stinging cells or Cnidocytes
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesRugosa (Rugose or Horn Corals)Ranged from Ordovician to PermianNot major reef fo...
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesRugosa (Rugose or Horn Corals)
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesRugosa (Rugose or Horn Corals)
EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesRugose growth
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Colenterata

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Colenterata

  1. 1. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFECambrian ExplosionEvolution’s “big bang”lasted about 10 million yearsAll principal animal phyla except Bryozoaappeared between 535 to 520 myBPThe Cambrian Explosion
  2. 2. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEBy the Ordovician, global biodiversity tripledIncluded trilobites, brachiopods, bivalve molluscs,gastropods and coralline animalsOrdovician mountain building may have creatednew habitatsThe number of infaunal organisms increasedContinuing Diversification
  3. 3. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEForaminiferaFirst appeared in the CambrianSurvive to presentUnicellular Organisms (Protistans)Platysolenites, a Cambrian foramAgglutinated formCalcareous skeleton
  4. 4. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFERadiolariaFirst appeared in the Cambrian, more abundant inmid-PaleozoicSurvive to presentHave a siliceous skeletonUnicellular Organisms (Protistans)
  5. 5. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEArcheocyathids (“ancient cup”)Early Cambrian phylumHave similarities to both corals and spongesAssociated with stromatolitesReef-builders of Early to Middle Cambrian60 m thick, 200 km longExtinct at end of CambrianMetazoan Invertebrates
  6. 6. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEArcheocyathids (“ancient cup”)Metazoan Invertebrates
  7. 7. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEPhylum Porifera (sponges)Early Cambrian phylumEvolved from colonial flagellated, unicellular organismsConservative evolutionary historyAll but one modern class of sponges were present inCambrianExist to presentMetazoan Invertebrates
  8. 8. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEPhylum Porifera (sponges)Metazoan Invertebrates
  9. 9. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEPhylum Porifera (sponges) SPICULESMetazoan InvertebratesSpicules –Composed ofCalcium carbonate
  10. 10. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEPhylum Porifera (sponges) SPICULESMetazoan InvertebratesSpicules –Composed ofSilica
  11. 11. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEPhylum Porifera (sponges) SPICULESMetazoan InvertebratesSpicules –Composed ofSpongin
  12. 12. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesPhylum Porifera (sponges)CambrianProtospongia
  13. 13. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesPhylum Porifera (sponges)Ordovician
  14. 14. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesPhylum Porifera (sponges)SilurianAstylospongiaCaryospongia
  15. 15. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesPhylum Porifera (sponges)SilurianPalaeomanon
  16. 16. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesPhylum Porifera (sponges)SilurianAstraeospongiaStar-shaped spicules
  17. 17. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesStromatoporoidsCalcareous spongesGeologic range: Ordovician to PresentBuilt reefs in the Silurian (Michigan Basin)Found in Caribbean Sea, Mediterranean Seaand Pacific Ocean
  18. 18. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesStromatoporoidsSide viewLaminae and Pillar Structure
  19. 19. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesStromatoporoidsTop view
  20. 20. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesCnidaria (Coelenterata or Corals)IncludesSea fansJellyfishAnemonesCoralsVery diverse groupStinging cells – cnidocytesRadially symmetrical
  21. 21. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesCnidaria (Coelenterata or Corals)JellyfishFire coralSea fans, gorgonianHorn coralsTabulate coralsModern corals
  22. 22. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesCnidaria (Coelenterata or Corals)Two forms:Polyps and MedusaPolyps – asexualMedusa - sexual
  23. 23. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesCnidaria (Coelenterata or Corals)Stinging cellsCnidocytes
  24. 24. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesCnidaria (Coelenterata or Corals)Stinging cells or Cnidocytes
  25. 25. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesRugosa (Rugose or Horn Corals)Ranged from Ordovician to PermianNot major reef formers, colonizersUsually solitaryAbundant in Silurian and Devonian reefs
  26. 26. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesRugosa (Rugose or Horn Corals)
  27. 27. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesRugosa (Rugose or Horn Corals)
  28. 28. EARLY PALEOZOIC LIFEMetazoan InvertebratesRugose growth

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