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Larsen (2000) defined that GTM is teachingmethod that is used for the purpose of helpingstudents read and appreciate foreign langugeliterature.GTM is one of eleven teaching methods which isa traditional foreign language teaching methodthat emphasized grammatical rules in readingand writing rather than listening and speaking.
The Principal CharacteristicsThe goal of foreign language study is to learn alanguage in order to read its literatureReading and writing are the major focus, little or nosystematic attention is paid to speaking or listeningVocabulary selection is based solely on the readingtext used and words are taught through bilingual wordlist, dictionary study and memorization.
The sentence is the basic unit of teaching and languagepractice.Accurancy is emphasized.Grammar is taught deductively – that is, by presentation andstudyof grammar rules, which are then practiced throughtranslation exercise.the roles of using GTM in the classroom are very traditional.The teacher is the authority in the classroom and the studentsdo as she/he says so they can learn what she/he knows.
Techniques• Translation of a Literary Passage • Fill in the blank• Reading Comprehension Questions • Memorization• Antonyms/Synonyms • Use Words in Sentences• Cognates •Composition i•Deductive Application of Rule•n gaps in
AdaptabilityA class working with the Grammar Translation Method.
Advantages • Translation is the easiest way of explaining meanings of words and phrases from one language into another. • Reduced teacher stres, teachers who are not fluent in English can teach English using this approach, as the emphasis is not on the spoken word but on translations. Structure and Word Meanings. •GTM focuses on the application of grammar and correct sentence structure. It helps the students to master the grammar at first
Disadvantages1.Learners learn about the language, rather thanhow to use the language.2.Learners do not get much, if any, opportunity todevelop listening and speaking skills.3.Vocabulary is made more difficult to use becauseit is usually taught in isolated lists.4.Using correct grammar is given more emphasisthan being able to communicate with someone.5.The attention given to grammatical accuracyand translation may be demotivating for somelearners.
6. The method does not require students toparticipate in any activities or communicate witheach other7. It seemed there was no need for students tomaster the four skills of English8. Unnatural and Inaccurate Pronunciation.Generally students learn how to speak before theylearn how to write and read. In the GTM, this natural learning method is reversed.