Class Activities• Introduction• Group discussion (Role play)• Evaluation (Brainstorming)
Instructional ObjectivesBy the end of class today, you will be able to:• Discuss the nature of job analysis• Use at least three methods of collecting job analysis information• Illustrate the sections of job descriptions• Write a competency-base job specification
HR Management and Jobs• Dividing Work into Jobs • Work • Effort directed toward producing or accomplishing results. • Job • A grouping of tasks, duties, and responsibilities that constitutes the total work assignment for an employee.• Approaches to Understanding Jobs • Workflow analysis • Re-engineering • Job design • Job analysis • Job descriptions and job specifications
Related Terms• Job Evaluation: Setting compensation rates for a job• Job Description: Written summary of job duties, activities, conditions, and requirements• Organization Analysis: Understanding the goals, strategies, structure, processes, and employees’ attitudes in an organization
An Integrative Approach of Job and Organization Analysis (Van de Ven & Ferry, 1980) Organization Position/Person Work Unit/Team Relationships
Charting the Organization• Organization chart • A chart that shows the organizationwide distribution of work, with titles of each position and interconnecting lines that show who reports to and communicates to whom.• Process chart • A work flow chart that shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from a particular job.
Workflow Analysis• Workflow Analysis • A study of the way work (inputs, activities, and outputs) moves through an organization. Inputs Activities Outputs People Tasks and Goods andMaterials Jobs ServicesEquipment Evaluation
Business Process Re-engineering• Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) • Measures for improving such activities as product development, customer service, and service delivery.• Phases of Reengineering • Rethink • Redesign • Retool
Importance Of Job Design• Job Design • Organizing tasks, duties, and responsibilities into a productive unit of work.• Person/job Fit • Matching characteristics of people with characteristics of jobs. Job Design Job Job Physical and Performance Satisfaction Mental Health
Nature of Job Design• Job Enlargement • Broadening the scope of a job by expanding the number of different tasks to be performed.• Job Enrichment • Increasing the depth of a job by adding the responsibility for planning, organizing , controlling, and evaluating the job.• Job Rotation • The process of shifting a person from job to job.
Using Teams in Jobs • Types of Teams • Special-Purpose Team • Organizational team formed to address specific problems, improve work processes, and enhance product and service quality. • Self-directed Work Team • A team composed of individuals assigned a cluster of tasks, duties, and responsibilities to be accomplished. • Virtual Team • Organizational team composed of individuals who are geographically separated but linked by communications technology.
Team Jobs • Disadvantages• Advantages • Requires employees to be • Improved productivity “group oriented” • Increased employee • Not appropriate for most involvement work in organizations • More widespread • Can be overused employee learning • Difficult to measure team • Greater employee performance ownership of problems • Individual compensation interferes with team concept
Work Schedules • Global Work Schedule Differences • The number of work hours in a week varies from country to country. • Work Schedule Alternatives • Longer daily hours (e.g., 4-day, 40 hours) • Shift Work • Shift differentials for evening or night shift work • Compressed Work Week • A work schedule in which a full week’s work is accomplished in fewer than five days.
Work Schedules • Flextime • A work scheduling arrangement in which employees work a set number of hours per day but vary their starting and ending times. • Job Sharing • A scheduling arrangement in which two employees perform the work of one full-time job. • Telecommuting • The process of going to work via electronic computing and telecommunications equipment.
Some Definitions• Task: Multiple elements of work performed to achieve an objective• Position: All duties or tasks assigned to an individual in an organization at a given time• Job: Collection of positions of highly similar content• Job Family: Collection of jobs that are different but related in that they require a similar set of KSAOs• Subject Matter Experts (SMEs): Experienced practitioners who are knowledgeable about a job
Uses of Job AnalysisInformation• Recruitment and Selection• Compensation• Performance Appraisal• Training• Discovering Unassigned Duties
The Basics of Job Analysis Job analysis The process for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it. Job description A list of a job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities-one product of a job analysis.
The Basics of Job Analysis Job specifications A list of a job’s human requirements, that is, the requisite education, skills, personality, and so on-another product of a job analysis.
Methods for Collecting Job Analysis Information2.2. Methods for collecting job analysis data Interviews Questionnaires Observations Diary/logs
Methods of Collecting JobAnalysis Information: TheInterview• Information sources • Individual employees • Groups of employees • Interview formats • Supervisors with knowledge • Structured (Checklist) of the job • Unstructured• Advantages • Quick, direct way to find overlooked information.• Disadvantages • Distorted information
Interview Guidelines • The job analyst and supervisor should work together to identify the workers who know the job best. • Quickly establish rapport with the interviewee. • Follow a structured guide or checklist, one that lists open- ended questions and provides space for answers. • Ask the worker to list his or her duties in order of importance and frequency of occurrence. • After completing the interview, review and verify the data.
Methods of Collecting JobAnalysis Information:Questionnaires • Advantages efficient way to • Quick and• Information source gather information from large numbers of • Have employees fill out employees questionnaires to describe their job-related duties and • Disadvantages responsibilities. • Expense and time• Questionnaire formats consumed in preparing and testing the • Structured checklists questionnaire • Opened-ended questions
Methods of Collecting JobAnalysis Information:Observation • Advantages • Provides first-hand information• Information source • Reduces distortion of • Observing and noting the information physical activities of • Disadvantages employees as they go • Time consuming about their jobs. • Difficulty in capturing entire job cycle • Of little use if job involves a high level of mental activity.
Methods of Collecting JobAnalysis Information:Participant Diary/Logs • Advantages• Information source • Produces a more complete • Workers keep a picture of the job chronological diary/ log of • Employee participation what they do and the time • Disadvantages spent in each activity. • Distortion of information • Depends upon employees to accurately recall their activities
Writing Job Descriptions • A job description • A written statement of what the worker actually does, how he or she does it, and what the job’s working conditions are.
Job DescriptionsJob description covers 7 sections:1.Job identification2. Job summary3. Responsibilities and duties4. Authority of incumbent5.Standards of performance6. Working conditions7. Job specifications
Job Specifications Job specification takes the job description Answer the question, “what human traits and experience are required to do this job well”
Job Specifications Specifications for trained VS untrained personnel For trained employees, is relatively straightforward For untrained people, specifications are more complex
4.Job SpecificationsSpecifications for untrained personnel The employer must specify qualities for performing the job, such as• Physical traits• Personality• Interests• Sensory skills
Competency-Based Job AnalysisDefinitions Means writing job descriptions based on competencies rather than job duties It emphasizes what the employee must be capable of doing, rather than on a list of duties he or she must perform
What is Common in the definitions? Job Competencies • superior performance in a• underlying characteristic of a given job, role or a situation person’s inputs. • individual’s ability to perform.• clusters of knowledge, attitudes and skills • linked to superior performance on the job.• generic knowledge motive, trait, social role or a skill • contribute to effective managerial performance• personal characteristics • successfully perform a task• set of skills, related or an activity within a knowledge and attributes specific function or job
KNOWLEDGE Relates to information Cognitive Domain Attribute Set of SKILLS Relates to qualitativeRelates to the aspectsability to do, personal Physical Characteristics domain COMPETENCY or traits Outstanding Performance of tasks or activities
Traditional Job Analysis Vs Competency Approach Job Analysis leads to Competency model leads to• long lists of tasks and the • A Distilled set of underlying skills / knowledge required personal characteristics to perform each of those • Data generation from tasks outstanding performers in• Data generation from addition to subject matter subject matter experts; job experts and other job incumbents incumbents• Effective Performance • Outstanding Performance
Competency Modeling: An Alternative?• General problems of any job analysis: • past-oriented (the job must be in place) • assumes continuity of the job• For today’s rapidly changing work environments, analyzing competencies needed across jobs instead of single jobs has been proposed as an alternative
Competency ModelingWhat is a “competency”?• Common elements : • Relevant KSAOs or sets of behaviours • Observable or measurable • Distinguish superior from other performers
Competency Architecture• Competency hierarchy broken down into: • Core competencies: needed by every member of the organization, regardless of job • Functional competencies: shared by positions with similar job content • Job-specific competencies: apply only to specific position
Competency Dictionary• List of all competencies required in an organization…• …accompanied by (job-specific) information on the proficiency level needed (
Competency Profile• Set of proficiency ratings related to a job or a person• Person and job profiles can be matched to assess the suitability of an employee for a certain position
Developing a Competency-Based HRManagement System1. Identifying competencies and proficiency levels• Data collection as in job analysis (observation, interviews)• Identify behavioural patterns that distinguish superior performance• Derive competencies from data and link them to performance
Developing a Competency-BasedHR Management System2. Assessment of level of competencies in internal or external applicants (by means of selection procedures)3. Validating the system
Evaluation of Competency Modeling• Currently little empirical evaluation at all• Expert task force rated traditional job analysis as more rigorous than competency modeling on 9 out of 10 dimensions• Competency modeling most seriously suffers from vague and ambiguous definitions and methods