DEVELOPINGDeveloping Mentoring Program PROGRAM www.humanikaconsulting.com www.humanikaconsulting.com
“In Greek mythology (TheOdyssey), Mentor was a man whobefriended and advisedTelemachus, the son of Odysseus.The goddess Athena would assumeMentor’s form when she visitedTelemachus.”
• A mentor is an individual with expertise who can help develop the career of a mentee. The mentor guides, trains, advises, and promotes the career development of the mentee.• A mentor is an experienced guide, trustworthy advisor, a personal champion, a constructive critic, a motivator, a listener. A mentor wants the protégé to succeed!
Mentoring schemes can support :• Specifically identified groups · Development and workbased• Learning programmes · Individuals or organisations through change or transition. · Improved effectiveness of organisations and individuals.
Facilitated mentoring schemes may be introduced for a variety of reasons • Identify potential more effectively • Induct new staff more quickly • Improve the retention of staff • Encourage and support high flyers • Encourage and support ethnic minority and disadvantaged groups • Encourage and support women to break through the glass ceiling • Support selfdevelopment and workbased • Encourage and support mentoring in community initiatives such as mentoring capable but disadvantaged • Support organisational change • Encourage personal development • Help individuals cope with transitions such as moving into a new job or role. (Jones & Jowett, 1997)
Mentoring Functions in CareerHelping the mentee learn the ropes and prepare forcareer advancement. – Coaching – Challenging assignments – Exposure and visibility – Protection
Mentoring Functions in Psychososial Helping the mentee develop a sense of competence and clarity of identity. – Role-Modeling – Acceptance and confirmation – Counseling – Friendship
Values And Principles of Mentoring• Recognising that people are okay (Hay, 1995)• Realising that people can change and want to grow (Hay, 1995)• Understanding how people learn• Recognising individual differences• Empowering through personal and professional development• Encouraging capability• Developing competence• Encouraging collaboration not competition• Encouraging scholarship and a sense of enquiry• Searching for new ideas, theories and knowledge• Equal opportunities in the organisation• Reflecting on past experiences as a key to understanding• Looking forward (Reflexion) and developing the ability to transfer learning and apply it in new situations• Realising that we can create our own meaning of mentoring (Hay, 1995 & Jowett, Shaw & Tarbitt, 1997)
Stages of Mentoring INITIATION STAGE CULTIVATION STAGE SEPERATION STAGE REDEFINITION STAGE Outcomes of Relationship Mentor Protege Institution
Initiation Stage • Initiation is the phase where the mentoring relationship is established. • Mentors and protégés introduce themselves, define goals, and begin sharing information. Two-way learning takes place in this phase. • It is a shorter phase of the mentoring relationship.
Mentoring Checklists • Why have I become a mentor/mentee? • What do I offer/ what do I want? • What significant issues might arise? • What do I feel strongly about? • Which are the areas where I prefer my mentor/mentee to ‘match’ me; over which I am neutral; which I would like us to be different? • What about issues of trust and respect? • What are my own psychological/ personal/ thinking/ working styles? • How do they affect the way I interact with others? • What mentoring skills do I want my mentor to have? • How much time will we have? • Where will we meet? • What mutual contacts are we likely to have? How might that affect the mentoring? • What is my attitude towards self development?Hay (1995) • Who has been mentor to me. What did I gain? • Who else is involved in this process (eg senior management, Human Resource Division,mentee’s manager)?
Cultivation Stage• Cultivation begins as the mentor provides advice and guidance to the protégé.• The protégé will develop skills and gain a broader understanding of his or her role, career path, and professional development.• The protégé works toward a goal and the mentor supports the protégé in their efforts.
Separation Stages • Goals will be reached. Knowledge will be shared. Priorities and availability may change. • The time will come for the mentoring relationship to come to an end. • It may be initiated by either the mentor or the protégé, or it could be by mutual decision. • During this phase, open and honest communication is critical and will help the individuals move through this transition stage. • Two-way communication and learning that was established during the initiation phase can help support the two-way communication that should occur during this phase.
Reasons for ending include• Scheme/project/placement completes its term• One or other partner moves away to another job or role• Inappropriate matching• Personality clash/lack of bonding• The relationship is not fulfilling the needs particularly of the mentee• Partners do not fulfil their commitment to turn up for meetings
Redifinition Stage • The mentor and protégé roles will not exist indefinitely. • Two professionals will become more like peers. • This last phase of the mentoring relationship aims to redefine the roles of the individuals into a new, professional relationship that may continue indefinitely.
Learning Process4 stages in the learning cycle (Lewis, 1996)The Activist who is comfortable at the experiencestage and enjoys getting involved in newexperiences and doing thingsThe Reflector who likes to take time and thinkthings through from various angles before actingThe Theorist who assimilates, integrates,synthesises information into rational schemes,systems, theories, principles, logic or concepts forexplanation.The Pragmatist who values new ideas, wants to seeif they work in practice and enjoys problem solving
A Mentor is ...teacher/ educator diagnostician expert translator and decoder critic energiser confidante organisational culture and values sponsor counsellor guide taskmaster interpreter sounding board motivator devil’s advocate time manager learning consultant protector process consultant planner facilitator · coach role model problemsolver friend catalyst adviser target setter
Good Mentoring:Set Specific, Realistic Goals and Deliverables• Many agencies manage by milestones• Setting specific goals, deliverables, and promotes concrete activity• Achieving modest, short term goals promotes sense of progress• Frequent review of goals and timeline is a valuable reality check; allows for adjustments and re-focusing
Building Contract Contracting can be viewed as having four components (Hay, 1995): • The procedural contract • The professional contract • The personal contract • The psychological contract
Mentee Needs• Guidance in a general or specific professional area• Series of questions or issues• Broad career development• Early career development• Ethical and moral guidance• Assistance in navigating professional seings, institutions, structures, and politics• Professional identity development guidance
Advice to Potential Mentees • Get mentors! Internal mentors help with current organizational issues. External mentors help with larger career issues and future organizational moves. • One mentor is unlikely to fulfill all developmental needs • Be proactive • Adopt a learning orientation • Set SMART developmental goals – Specific – Measurable – Attainable
Role of Mentees• Seek counsel and advice, not a supervisor who directs actions.• Be aware of potential pitfalls: Overbearing mentor, mentor exploitation of mentee’s work.• Be sensitive to the difference between asking for help/advice from your mentor and demanding favors from your mentor.• Synthesize lessons learned from all mentors – become your own person.• Recognize dynamics of relationship.
Advice to Potential Mentors• Recognize that mentee may be uncomfortable asking for help – break ice by sharing some of your career experiences• Stay in your zone of expertise/experience• Be clear that mentee sets pace of relationship• Advise, do not manage• Extend mentee’s developmental network – suggest additional mentors to address unique needs
Roles and Characteristics of Mentors• Acts as an experienced role model• Provides acceptance, encouragement, and moral support• Provides wisdom, advice, counsel, coaching• Acts as a sponsor in professional organizations, supports networking• efforts• Assists with the navigation of professional se ings, institutions, structures,• and politics• Facilitates professional development• Challenges and encourages appropriately to facilitate growth• Provides nourishment, caring, and protection• Integrates professional support with other areas such as faith,• family, and community• Accepts assistance from mentee in mentor’s professional• responsibilities within appropriate limits• Enjoys the opportunity to pass on their wisdom and knowledge• and collaboration with early career professionals
Mentor Attributes NegativePositive • Unavailable • Poor Feedback• Available • Willing to spend • Insensitive• Intelligent extra time with • Arrogant• Challenging students • Disorganized• Innovative • Offers opportunities • Not funded• Invites to Field for community • Fails to offer constructive outreach criticism• Personable • Similar political • Expects too much• Renowned views • Overworked• Enjoys Mentoring • Overly protective• Sets clear goals• Has necessary lab resources• Attends conferences with students
Relationship Types• Established career and early career• Professor to student• Professional to professional• Peer mentoring (same developmental level with specific• experiential differences)• Friendship• Parent-like features can be present• Task-focused versus relationship-based• Daily contact versus less frequent contact• Short- versus long-term mentorships• Collegial collaborations
Advice for New Mentors • Be a good listener • Build a relationship • Don’t abuse your authority • Foster independence • Provide introductions • Be constructive • Find your own mentors
Four Potential Dysfunctions in Mentoring Relationships Psychosocial Career-related Bad intent Negative Sabotage toward other Relations (bullies, (revenge, silent enemies) treatment, career damage) Good intent Difficulty Spoiling toward other (conflict, binds) (betrayal, regret, mentor off fast track)Scandura, T. A. (1998)
Emerson writes:“(A mentor) is a mind that startlesus, that elevates our feelings bysharing our views of life.”
Differences Between Coaching Mentoring Coaching MentoringGoals To correct To support and guideInitiative The coach The menteeFocus Immediate Long-term situationRoles Heavy on Heavy on listening telling
TRADITIONAL MENTORING VSDEVELOPMENTAL ALLIANCETraditional Developmental Alliance1. The mentor is more 1. The mentor is more influential and experienced in issues hierarchically senior relevant to mentee’s2. The mentor gives, the learning needs protégé receives, the 2. A process of mutual organization benefits growth
TRADITIONAL MENTORING VS DEVELOPMENTAL ALLIANCETraditional Developmental Alliance3. The mentor actively 3. The mentor helps the champions and promotes mentee to things for the cause of the protégé themselves4. The mentor gives the 4. The mentor helps the protégé the benefit of mentee develop their own their wisdom wisdom
TRADITIONAL MENTORING VSDEVELOPMENTAL ALLIANCETraditional Developmental Alliance5. The mentor steers the 5. The mentor helps the protégé through the mentee towards personal acquisition of experience insights from which they and resources can steer their own development6. The primary objective is career success 6. The primary objective is personal development
TRADITIONAL MENTORING VSDEVELOPMENTAL ALLIANCETraditional Developmental Alliance7. Good advice is central to 7. Good questions are the success of the central to the success of relationship the relationship8. Social exchange 8. The social exchange emphasizes loyalty emphasis learning
Formal Mentoring Programs• Program length is specified• Purpose of program is to help early career psychologists establish and develop their careers• Program participation is voluntary.• Matching of mentors and mentees uses input from participants : – Interest areas in psychology – Demographics – Experiences
Formal Mentoring Programs• Advocate developmental networks• Monitoring program: Relationships should end as soon as they become dysfunctional• Evaluation of program• Little research on formal mentoring programs. Available research supports informal mentoring as a stronger relationship with better outcomes. No current research examining quality of formal mentoring programs and their outcomes. (Wanberg, Welsh, Hezlett, 2003)
Developer Developer Developer Demo- Profess- Geograph- Matrix of Types of is org. is org. peer is org. graphic ional/ ical Developers and Development superior to to the subordinae match Interest location Functions in Organizational the mentee mentee to the area match Socialization mentee matchCareer-related: Coaching mentee 0 + 0with strategies for meeting job + - -expectations + 0Career-related: Challenging mentee 0 +with stretch assignments/goals - -Career-related: Enhancing the + + + + +mentee’s exposure and visibility - +Career-related: Protection of mentee + + + + +from potentially negative contactswith other org. members.Career-related: Sponsorship of + 0 0 0mentee’s career development - -Psychosocial: Role Modeling + + + + + + + - +Psychosocial: Counseling with work + + +relationships +Psychosocial: Counseling on + + 0 0developing work/career-related -competencies 0Psychosocial: Counseling with work- 0 0 + 0 +family balancePsychosocial: General acceptance + + + + + +and confirmation (Chao, in press) “+”= likely function for this type of developer, “0” = possible function for this type of developer, “-” = unlikely function for this type of developer
Meetings• Regular meeting schedule• Set agenda for meetings• Know what is expected of you• Actively inform what you are doing• Listen actively• Ask questions
Multiple Mentors: Necessity• Ways to make it work:– Clear roles and expectations– Good relationship amongmentors– Complementary experience• Potential problems– Unclear expectations– Disagreement orcompetition– Inefficient/overlap
Distance Mentoring • How to use e-mail – Use e-mail to set up meetings (face-to- face or phone), clarify plans/goals, pose non-time urgent questions, review plans, maintain contact. – Don’t use e-mail to give critical or complex feedback, provide impressions of other’s behavior, provide impressions of third parties, exchange sensitive information.
Distance Mentoring• Communication Challenges – Listen for nonverbal cues (e.g., pregnant pauses, voice tone, tempo, volume) – Push for specific information, clarify meanings – Summarize agreements
POTENTIAL PROBLEM AREASMismatch of mentor/mentee• Mismatch of expectations• Reluctant mentor/mentee• Over zealous mentee• Relationship not valued in the organisation Broken confidentiality Conflicting roles manager/• Gender mismatch assessor/mentor• Cultural mismatch Impact on others• Race mismatch Obstructions from/conflicts of others,• Emotional involvement eg mentees line manager, colleagues, partners Parameters/boundaries not agreed in advance
Other Problems (NBS, 1999) • Personal incompatibility of mentor and mentee • Frustration of time constraints/workload • Impact of shift pattern and difficulty with access between mentor/mentee• Difficulty in sustaining sufficient numbers of mentors• Danger that mentorship becomes a paper exercise• Lack of cooperation• from colleagues
Problems With Cross-Gender Mentoring • Most common form of business mentoring: male mentor and male mentee. • Other forms: – Male mentor and female mentee (most common) – Female mentor and male mentee – Female mentor and female mentee (rare)
Advice for Same-Gender and Cross-Gender Mentoring• Keep relationship professional• Be sensitive to other people’s reactions and potential rumors• Avoid perception of personal relationship – Meet in public venues – Transparency of relationship
After the Program Ends• Many relationships come to a natural end when a mentee learns enough to be independent from specific mentors.• New mentoring relationships with others may be more beneficial than continuing an exhausted relationship.• Program end may not mean the end of the relationship – informal mentoring can continue if both parties agree.• Pilot program will assess how mentoring met needs of both mentees and mentors.
The APA’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct : five general principles and 10 standards (APA, 2002).• Beneficence and Nonmaleficence• Fidelity and Responsibility• Integrity• Justice• Respect for People’s Rights and Dignity
Advantages of Mentoring• Advantages for the mentee: – Career advancement – Salary – Organizational/professional identification• Advantages for the mentor: – Career enhancement – “Passing the torch to a new generation” – Learning from mentee – new technologies, new developments, important features of next generation
Disadvantages of Mentoring• Disadvantages for the mentee: – Overdependence on the mentor – Micro-management from the mentor – Negative halo from mentor who fails• Disadvantages for the mentor: – Mentee dependence on mentor – Time, energy commitment to mentee – Negative halo from mentee who fails