Page 12 in my manual – show on Elmo – have students find this page in their own manuals
Pages 26 - 30
Press F key on back of camera to get to this setting
Transcript of "Using your digital camera 2010 newer version"
By Karen Conley
Install battery Install memory Use the Quickstart guide for identification purposes Set Correct date and time
Find the page in your manual that shows you an example of the icons that will appear on your lcd display for different functions – VERY USEFUL!
Zoom feature – zoom out (w), zoom in (t) W stands for wide zoom and t stands for tele zoom Press shutter button halfway for perfect focus (camera will probably double beep) Press shutter button down fully to take picture Use Playback button to view picture ◦ You can zoom in and out while in playback ◦ Pres DISPLAY button to show different views – thumbnails, etc.
To delete a picture ◦ View the picture in playback and click on the garbage can To delete ALL pictures ◦ Go to playback menu and press the menu button – select erase – frame or ALL frames
Go into Playback menu ◦ Press your menu key ◦ Select ―protect‖
DSLR Mode DialPoint and Shoot Mode Dial Auto – The camera makes the settings. This is the easiest mode for creating crisp and clear shots.
Portrait – Use this mode to get beautiful skin tones and soft overall tone. ◦ DSLR & Point and Shoot Cameras
Natural Light – This mode produces beautiful images that retain the natural ambience when shots are taken in low-light conditions. This mode is also ideal for shooting indoor or situations where the flash cannot be used. Natural – This mode shoots 2 images continuously without flash and with flash. ◦ This is a feature of my point and shoot camera – your camera may or may not have this feature
Landscape – Use this mode for shooting scenery in daylight and to provide crisp, clear shots of scenery such as buildings and mountains – flash cannot be used in this mode. ◦ Used with both DSLR & Point and Shoot Cameras
Sport – Use this mode to take pictures of a moving subject. It gives priority to faster shooting speeds. ◦ Used with both DSLR & Point and Shoot Cameras
Night – Use this mode for shooting evening and night scenes. A picture is taken with a slow shutter of up to 3 seconds – should use a tripod to prevent camera shake/blurring. ◦ Used with both DSLR & Point and Shoot Cameras
Fireworks – Use this mode to shoot fireworks. It is effective for taking more vivid shots of fireworks with a slow shutter. ◦ This is an available shooting mode on point and shoot cameras ◦ DSLR‘s don‘t usually have a fireworks mode. On a DSLR camera – Shutter speeds of ―Bulb‖ and ―Time‖ can be used for long time-exposure photographs of moving lights, the stars, night scenery, or fireworks. To prevent blurring caused by camera shake, use a tripod or an optional Wireless Remote Control.
Sunset – Use this mode to shoot sunset or sunrise, making the colors more vivid.
Snow – Use this mode to prevent darkening images and provide crisp, clear shots, when shooting a snowy scene where the whole screen appears white. Beach – Use this mode to prevent darkening images and provide crisp, clear shots, when shooting at beach under strong sunlight.
Museum – Use this mode for taking pictures in places such as museums where the use of flash and making an operation sound and a shutter sound are restricted. Like a school concert? Make sure photography IS permitted – if it says ―no photos‖ in the Museum, it means ―no photos‖!! ◦ This is a setting available on my point and shoot camera, your camera may or may not have this mode. ◦ Not generally available on DSLR
Party – Use this mode for shooting at indoor weddings and parties. This mode produces beautiful images that retain the natural ambience when shots are taken in low-light conditions. ◦ Available on most point and shoot cameras ◦ Usually not available on DSLR camera
Flower – Use this mode to take clear close-up shots when zooming up a flower or plant. It is effective for taking more vivid shots of a flower petal. ◦ Available on Point and Shoot Cameras and DSLR (Use of a tripod is recommended to prevent blurring.)
Text – Use this mode to shoot documents and white board text. It is effective for taking clearer shots of letters. ◦ This is a mode available on my point and shoot camera – this may or may not be available on your camera.
Anti-Blur – Picture stabilization. Use this mode to select a fast shutter speed that reduces camera shake and moving-subject blurring.
Manual Mode – Lets the photographer choose all the settings!
Every photo is made up of dots. The more dots you have, the higher quality your photograph will be. Mega = million Pixel = Dots Megapixel = million dotsIf you multiply the number of pixels across the bottom bythe number of pixels up the side of a photo, you will havethe total number of pixels in the photograph, also known asresolution.2048 x 1536 Pixels = 3.1 Million Dots = 3.1 Megapixels
When shopping for cameras, you‘ll notice that the higher-priced cameras also tend to have more megapixels. The higher megapixel cameras allow you to PRINT much larger images. Professionals and artists need higher resolution cameras in order to print wall- sized images with good quality. Higher Resolution = More Dots = Higher Quality = Larger Prints
Digital cameras let the photographer change resolution settings. The resolution icon can be found in the menus. Use the arrow keys to change resolution/quality.
F or fx mode – best to set to 3:2 – you are still getting the 6 megapixels and this setting will print perfect 4 x 6 photos – Saves on the file size so you can fit more on your memory card (except nowadays since memory card capacities are so much higher, you usually don‘t have to worry about how much you can fit on a card!)
Quality Mode Sample uses Number of files (depending on memory card)12M – F(4000 x 3000) Printing at up to 10R 373 to 596 (10 x 12 inches)/ A3 Size3:2 (4224 x 2816) Printing at up to 10R 596 (10 x 12 inches)/A3 Size6M (2848 x 2136) Printing at up to 10R 1167 (10 x 12 inches)/A4 Size3M (2048 x 1536) Printing at up to 6R (6 2194 x 8 inches)/A5 size2M (1600 x 1200) Print at up to 4R (4 x 6 2743 inches/A6 size03M (640 x 480) To use for e-mail or 13719 web site
You can always reduce the quality level of a picture but you can NEVER increase it!! When in doubt, use a higher resolution!
When in Auto Mode – use red eye when taking pictures of people and animals Use Force Flash – for things that cause shadows – trees, hats, etc. Use Suppressed Flash – for kids – this washes out people‘s features when flash can‘t be used.
Red eye is caused by the light reflecting off of the inner surface of your eye. The red eye flash setting gives an extra flash before it takes the picture. This causes your iris to close down and minimizes the reflection.
Bend down on one knee to take a picture and the red eye reflection will travel above the camera‘s lens and minimize the problem. Use a Hot Shoe Flash attachment. This separates the flash from the lens and lessens the reflection. Higher end cameras have Hot Shoe capabilities.*TIP: When taking animportant shot, take one withflash and one without. Look atthem on your computer anddecide which one is best
Most digital cameras have both digital zoom and optical zoom. Multiply together the strength of both types of zoom to determine the total range of the zoom of your camera. http://www.photoxel s.com/digital- photography- tutorials/optical- digital-zoom/
Most cameras offer at least 3X optical zoom— and some boast an optical zoom as high as 15X. But sometimes salesmen tout a high total zoom that includes digital zoom, which you should disregard. Digital zoom produces photos that are inferior to those produced with an optical zoom.
Click on the timer (probably looks like a clock) Press halfway to focus Press all the way to art the self-timer Seconds will vary (mine has 2 settings)
Change to Movie mode – Hold down the shutter to record (can‘t zoom DURING recording) hold shutter halfway down to stop.
Go into menu Setup LCD brightness (Mine was under Power Management – Display)
Composing a great photograph involves seeing the subject with your eye as well as your mind. Some basic composition rules will follow
Perspective – Bend your knees or even lay on the ground to make the subject look larger.
Leading Lines – Add depth to your photographs by capturing hard lines that travel off into the distance.
Turn the Camera Sideways – If your subject is vertical, turn the camera sideways so the aspect ratios match.
Rule of Thirds – Cut your photo into thirds and place your subject on one of the intersections of these lines. Place horizon lines on the ―thirds‖ instead of straight across the middle.
Foreground Interest – When shooting scenes, capturi ng something very close to the camera can add depth.
Change Position – Move closer to your subjects so they fill the screen.
You can activate your menus by pressing the OK or Menu button. Your camera‘s menus will appear on the monitor on the back of the camera. Use arrows to navigate directionally through the menus.
IMPORTANT – There are different menus for picture taking and playback. Some cameras have different menus for EVERY setting on the MODE DIAL!!!
Compression is how much the digital camera compresses an image. When a digital camera takes a picture, a very large file is created that holds the image. In fact, a picture produced from a 2-megapixel camera will produce a file size around 6MB - which is a very large file indeed. In order to fit more images on a memory card, digital cameras compress these image files. The amount of compression a digital camera does to an image can usually be set by the user. Standard compression modes on digital cameras usually include either: ◦ Normal, Fine, Superfine OR Good, Better, Best
For most digital cameras, the default will be either "better" or "fine". While the amount of compression a camera does will vary from camera to camera, generally a "good/normal" compression setting will compress an image at a ratio of 16:1. A "better/fine" setting will compress an image at a ratio of 8:1. A "best/superfine" setting will compress an image at a ratio of 4:1. The higher the compression ratio is, the more images may be fit onto the memory card.
Using these generalized numbers, you can see that having a "good/normal" compression setting allows you fit many more images on a memory card. However, when an image is compressed, detail is lost of the image. The more compression you do to an image, the less detail will be found on the image. Highly compressed images can also come out looking fuzzy and blocky at times, too.
For this reason, most digital cameras come with a default setting of "better/fine". It has been my experience with my Canon A40 that unless you plan on printing out images or need very high definition photographs, the "better/fine" setting works extremely well while still allowing you to put lots of images on the memory card.
This is the sensitivity setting of your camera. Use this to specify required sensitivity of the ambient light around the subject. What ISO denotes is how sensitive the image sensor is to the amount of light present. The higher the ISO, the more sensitive the image sensor and therefore the possibility to take pictures in low-light situations. (higher iso for low-light! Lower iso for bright-light) And, where you would have needed to physically change to a different roll of film if you wanted a different ISO speed, digital technology allows you to simply dial one in. In this way, you can record images taken at different ISO speeds on the same memory card. If you want to take pictures indoors where light may not be sufficient and in other low-light situations, then you would need to supplement existing light with flash or studio lights. Either that, or select a higher ISO. Of course, depending on your digital camera, a higher ISO may mean a noisy image.
The most common ISO speed settings are: 100, 200, 400 and 800. Depending on your digital camera model you may also have them in the range of 64, 100, 160, 200, 400, 640, 800, 1600. Use an ISO of 100 or 200 when taking photographs outside in sunny conditions. If the sky is overcast or it is evening time, then use an ISO within the range of 400 to 800. Night time or in cases of low light you might need to set your digital camera ISO to 1600. If you dont then your photo will appear too dark if at all.
If you set your digital camera to a low ISO, for example 100, the resulting photograph will be better quality than one set at 1600. The higher the ISO the more grainy the photo will look. Therefore go for a low ISO number whenever possible.
A manual mode some use quite often is called Program AE. With Program AE you can choose the ISO you wish to photograph in and the digital camera then sets the shutter speed and aperture (exposure) automatically to suit. Think of it as being similar to an ISO priority option. To use Program AE change your mode dial to P (or look up for your camera.)
If you want to ensure the highest quality photograph possible. The lower the ISO the better the quality. An ISO of 100 or 200 will give you a better quality photograph than one set at 1600. If the image is destined for website display, then this may not matter. However, if you wish to print the photograph, then youll want to keep the ISO low. Otherwise it will look grainy or noisy (as its also referred to).
If you want to take a photograph in dark situations and not use a tripod. For example, if you were on a tour through a mountain cave or at an aquarium, a tripod may not be feasible. In these cases you could up your ISO to at least 800. This way, your camera will automatically keep to a fast enough shutter speed for you to hand hold your camera. Yet still allow enough light in to your cameras sensor for a reasonable night shot. This will cause a grainy photograph. However, in some circumstances any photo is better than none.
If you want to take photographs in darker situations other than outdoors, without the use of a flash. For example, if you were taking images in a museum or theatre, camera flash could be prohibited. Or if you were photographing a child blowing out their birthday cake candles. A bright flash could ruin the atmosphere. In this case you would keep the ISO at around 800.
If you want to take a photograph indoors of a moving subject. For example, if you were taking photographs of a basketball game at an indoors sports center. In these circumstances there isnt always enough natural light to take a good photo, while at the same time the players arent going to stand still long enough for you to shoot at a slower shutter speed either. Therefore, you could up your ISO to around 800. Again, this would allow enough light in to your cameras sensor for a reasonable shot.
http://www.photoxels.com/tutorial_iso.html Find more information on ISO at the above web site
The main function of a camera lens is to collect light. The aperture of a lens is the diameter of the lens opening and is usually controlled by an iris.The larger the diameter of the aperture, the more light reaches the film / image sensor. For more information on aperture, see the web site below: http://www.photoxels.com/tutorial_aperture. html
The ratio of the focal length to the aperture http://www.brighthub.com/multimedia/phot ography/articles/1462.aspx
DOF is the zone of acceptable sharpness, the area in front of, and behind, a focused subject that appears in focus. http://www.photoxels.com/tutorial_dof.html
The speed at which a digital cameras shutter exposes the imagesensor to light. A shutter speed of 1/60 means that the sensor isexposed to light for 1/60th of a second. Faster shutter speeds aregood for "freezing" fast-moving action; slow ones allow you tointentionally blur the movement of your subject to emphasizemotion, such as water traveling over a set of falls (these types of shotsmay require a tripod, since the human hand cannot hold a camerasteady for very long). Simple digital cameras may have very littleshutter speed adjustment; more sophisticated cams often havebetween 9 and 15 shutter speeds. http://www.ephotozine.com/article/Camera- Shutter-Speeds-explained http://www.digicamhelp.com/taking- photos/advanced-techniques/shutter-speed- chart.php
http://www.slrphotographyguide.com/camer a/settings/shutter-speed.shtml the amount of time a digital cameras shutter is held open for when taking a photograph. Shutter speed allows light to reach the cameras image sensor.
ISO, shutter speed and aperture affect what your photos look like A change in one of the three elements affects the others Resource: http://digital- photography- school.com/learning- exposure-in-digital- photography
You can set up your shortcut key to fit your needs. For example, if you always want your camera set up for a particular situation, you can use your shortcut key for those settings. On the other hand, maybe there is a setting ―you always forget‖, you can use your shortcut key for that setting. http://photography-on- the.net/forum/showthread.php?t=986130
Adjust white balance to get the colors in your images as accurate as possible. Different sources of light have a different ‗color‘ (or temperature) to them. Fluorescent lighting adds a bluish cast to photos whereas tungsten (incandescent/bulbs) lights add a yellowish tinge to photos Read more: @ http://digital-photography- school.com/introduction-to-white- balance#ixzz2Ja9lwgNj
Examples of how lightingaffects your shotsCool Bluish Tint Mid-Range Tint Warm Yellowish Tint
This usually means Exposure Bracketing You may want to change your exposure settings and take a number of shots to determine which photo turns out the best. Some cameras have a setting to do this automatically: http://www.hdr- photography.com/aeb.html Good example of exposure bracketing in Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bracketing
Single-lens Reflex - An SLR, or single-lens reflex, camera is named for its picture-taking mechanism. In a film SLR, the viewfinder uses a 45°- angled mirror to see through the lens; that mirror snaps out of sight quickly when you press the shutter button, to let light enter and expose the film. A digital SLR (DSLR) works the same way, except that the shutter is opening to let the CCD record the image. SLRs are revered by serious photographers because they permit the use of many different specialized lenses and flashes, and provide faster response time and higher continuous shooting speed than most point-and-shoot cameras. P&S – Point & Shoot Cameras – usually smaller than DSLR‘s with pre-set modes and not as much control over setting manual options.
Scale your copies down Use your operating system ◦ Directions on this web site: http://graphicssoft.about.com/cs/digitalimaging/q t/emailpictures.htm
Continuous shot mode, also known as burst mode, is a digital camera feature where the unit captures a set number of photos in a short amount of time. For example, in one type of burst mode, a digital camera might capture 10 photos in three seconds.http://cameras.about.com/od/digitalcameraglossary/g/continuous_shot.htm
Most compact digital cameras have a burst mode to take a series of shots in rapid succession. http://www.digicamhelp.com/camera- features/shooting-modes/burst-mode/
Attach or insert the image into the e-mail ◦ Some people will not open attachments due to computer viruses being spread by opening e-mail attachments ◦ To insert a photo into an e-mail so it just ―appears‖, the e- mail needs to use html format ◦ Some photo editing programs have this e-mail feature ―built-in‖ to simplify this process ◦ Be sure to send images in a format, such as JPEG, that most e-mail programs support. ◦ To share a large collection of photos by e-mail you can Zip them using programs such as WinZIP or Stuffit. This puts all of the images into a single file that can then be ―unzipped‖ by the recipient.
SLR – camera that uses film Point & Shoot – also called SLR (but is digital) – don‘t have interchangeable lenses DSLR – Digital Cameras – have interchangeable lenses http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qi d=20080112142036AAybARO
Performs basic operations – a general knowledge of these settings is needed before moving on to more advanced operations.
The shooting information display will show how many exposures you have left.
At default settings, image quality is set to jpeg normal and image size is set to Large (L) These settings can be set differently to free up more room on the memory card.
When the camera is turned on, the shooting information display will be shown as below:
Press to switch from shooting info. display to quick settings display to monitor off (will always do in this order)
Highlight desired setting (use multi selector) Display options for highlighted setting Highlight desired setting Select option
Select Image Size from the Quick settings display to adjust the setting. Choose an image size depending on the size at which the photos will be printed.
White balance ensures that colors are unaffected by the color of the light source. Auto is recommended for most light settings If necessary, other values can be selected when using P, S, A, or M Modes.
Choose from black and white, sepia and cyanotype.
ND60 - Skylight, warm filter, red intensifier, green intensifier, blue intensifier, cross screen, and color balance.
Combines two existing RAW photographs into one image.
Pictures taken with slow shutter settings are prone to blurring. If ISO is raised above the default 100 setting, the same pictures can be achieved at faster shutter speeds, diminishing blur. ISO sensitivity can be set between ISO 100 & ISO 1600 in steps of 1 EV with a further higher setting of Hi 1(ISO 3200)
Digital Vari-program modes also offer an Auto setting that allows the camera to automatically raise sensitivity when lighting is poor or lower sensitivity when lighting is bright.
ISO sensitivity is the digital equivalent of film speed. The higher the ISO, the less light needed to make an exposure, allowing higher shutter speeds and smaller apertures. Just as higher speed films tend to produce grainy pictures, photos taken at high ISO settings can produce grainy pictures
Select Release Mode from the quick settings display Single frame (default setting) Continuous (burst mode) – camera records photos at 3 frames per second while the shutter button is pressed. Self Timer Delayed Remote Quick Response Remote
Select Focus Mode from quick settings Choose how the camera focuses AF-S and AF-C are only available in P,S,A or M modes
Select from quick settings display D60 has three of these settings: ◦ closest subject (this is default for P,S, A, & M modes and automatic for Auto mode) ◦ dynamic area (user sets focus point manually; good for erratically moving subjects – this is the default AF-Area setting for ―Sport‖.) ◦ single point (user selects focus point with multi selector – camera focuses on subject in selected focus point only – used with stationary subjects – this is the default AF-Area setting for ―Close up‖)
Select metering from the quick settings display The metering method determines how the camera sets exposure Can only adjust in the P, S, A, and M modes Matrix (default setting) This is recommended in most settings. The camera meters a wide area of the frame and instantly sets exposure according to distribution of brightness, color, distance, and composition for natural results.
Center-weighted (Camera meters entire frame but assigns greatest weight to center area. Classic meter for portraits!) Spot (Camera meters exposure in active focus point only. Ensures that subject will be correctly exposed, even when the background is much brighter or darker.)
ND60 use the built-in flash for: Built-in flash cannot be used, nor can flash mode be changed in sport, no-flash or landscape modes. To use the built-in flash in P, S, A, and M modes, you must press to raise.
Using the Command Dial ◦ The flash mode can also be selected by rotating the command dial while pressing
Select from quick settings display Exposure compensation is used to alter exposure from the value suggested by the camera, making photographs brighter or darker. On ND60, it is available in P, S, and A modes and is most effective when used with center- weighted or spot metering.
Can also be adjusted using the command dial while pressing only in P, S, and A modes.
Select Flash Compensation from the Quick Settings Display Flash Compensation is only available in P, S, A, and M modes. Used to alter flash output changing the brightness of the subject relative to the background. Flash output can be increased to make the main subject appear brighter or reduced to prevent unwanted highlights or reflections.
Select from Quick Settings Display When Active D-Lighting is enable before shooting, the camera automatically applies Active D-Lighting Compensation. This preserves details in highlights and shading which creates photos with natural contrast. Use for high contrast scenes – for example, when shooting brightly lit outdoor scenery through a door or window or shooting of shaded subjects on a sunny day.
Flexible Program and the camera settings in the Quick Settings Display can be restored to defaults by pressing and together for more than two seconds.
In this mode, the camera automatically adjusts shutter speed and aperture for optimal exposure in most situations. This mode is recommended for snapshots and other situations in which you want to leave the camera in charge of shutter speed and aperture.
In P mode, different combinations of shutter speed and aperture can be selected by rotating the command dial aka ―flexible program‖. While flexible program is in effect, indicators are shown in the viewfinder and Shooting information display.
Rotate the command dial to the right for large apertures (small f-numbers) that blur background details or fast shutter speeds that freeze motion. Rotate the command dial to the left for small apertures (large f-numbers) that increase depth of field or slow shutter speeds that blur motion.
To restore default shutter speed and aperture settings, rotate the command dial until the indicators are no longer displayed, choose another mode, or turn the camera off.
In aperture-priority auto mode, YOU choose the aperture while the camera automatically selects the shutter speed that will produce the optimal exposure. Small apertures (high f-numbers) increase depth of field, bringing both the main subject and background into focus. Large apertures (low f-numbers) soften background details.
Rotate mode dial to A. Rotate the command dial to choose the desired aperture. ◦ Aperture displayed in the viewfinder will change. Set aperture to the desired value. ◦ The minimum and maximum apertures available depend upon the lens. ◦ Aperture can also be displayed in the Shooting information display by pressing.
In shutter-priority auto mode, YOU choose the shutter speed while the camera automatically chooses the aperture that will produce the optimal exposure. Use slow shutter speeds to suggest motion by blurring moving objects. Use high shutter speeds to freeze motion.
Turn the mode dial to S Rotate the command dial to choose the desired shutter speed. ◦ Shutter speed displayed in viewfinder will change. ◦ Set shutter speed to desired setting between 1/4000 s and 30 s. ◦ Shutter speed can also be displayed in the shooting information display by pressing
In manual exposure mode, YOU control BOTH shutter speed and aperture. This mode can also be used for longer exposures, with which the shutter can be held open indefinitely necessary for shooting fireworks and stars.
Long Time-Exposures ◦ Shutter speeds of bulb and time can be used for long time-exposure photographs of moving lights, the stars, night scenery, or fireworks. ◦ To prevent blurring caused by camera shake, use a tripod or an optional Wireless Remote Control ML- L3
Bulb ◦ Shutter remains open while the shutter-release button is held down, and closes when the shutter- release button is released. ◦ Shutter speed is set to ―bulb‖. You will see this displayed in the viewfinder:
Watch the electronic analog exposure display while rotating the command dial to set shutter speed and aperture.
Aperture displayed in the viewfinder will change as the command dial is rotated while is pressed. Set aperture to the desired value. Shutter speed and aperture can be displayed in the shooting information display by pressing
CPU Lens have CPU chips in them – all newer dslr cameras have them. The CPU will tell the camera what aperture its set at, focusing distance, what lens is attached. The CPU lenses have a row of little metal bumps to make contact with the camera body Non-CPU Lens have manual focus (so if you bought a used lens from someone it could be a Non-CPU lens.)
Photographs are framed in the viewfinder. Before shooting make sure the display in the viewfinder is in clear focus. The viewfinder can be focused by removing the lens cap and sliding the diopter control up and down until the focus points are in sharp focus.
While is held down, information on current shooting conditions, and help for menus, are displayed on the monitor (lcd screen). To scroll the display, press the multi selector up or down A blinking icon on the monitor or a blinking icon in the viewfinder indicates that help on an error or other problem can be viewed in the monitor by pressing
Not all lenses have a VR (VibrationReduction) switch. The image abovedoes not have one.
Be sure the camera is OFF when exchanging or removing lenses. To remove the lens, press and hold down the lens-release button (1) while turning the lens clockwise (2)
Before inserting or removing memory cards, make sure your camera is off. When you format a memory card in the camera, it will delete all files (pictures) off of the card. It is better to format the memory card in the camera instead of in your computer. Performance can be affected if you format it in the computer.
Memory cards are equipped with a write- protect switch to prevent accidental loss of data. When the switch is in the ―lock‖ position, photos cannot be recorded or deleted and the memory card cannot be formatted.