Poli330 Chap1


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Political Science 330
Chapter One - Introductions and US pt. 1

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Poli330 Chap1

  1. 1. Chapter One<br />
  2. 2. Globalization<br />Defined: global diffusion of investment, trade, production, and electronic communication technologies<br />“Global Factory” – global redistribution of workforce<br />Globalization represents dilemma for post-Cold War world – “global inequalities”<br />Split between “have” and “have not” nations<br />Promotes international terror networks?<br />
  3. 3. Globalization forged new forms of international governance – European Union (EU) and World Trade Organization (WTO)<br />Negative impact on poor, environment, labor rights<br />Globalization complicates politics<br />No State can secure well-being of citizens in isolation from rest of world<br />
  4. 4. Comparative Politics<br />Subfield of political science<br />One of four subfields: political theory, international relations, American politics the others<br />Studies domestic politics of countries or peoples<br />Uses in-depth case studies of cross-section of countries<br />
  5. 5. Countries: distinct, politically-defined territories that encompass political institutions, cultures, economies & ethnic identities<br />State: (within a country) – key political institutions making policies within a country<br /> State synonymous with “government”<br />
  6. 6. State Institutions<br />National Executive: President/Prime Minister and Cabinet<br />Military<br />Police<br />Legislature<br />Court System<br />Administrative bureaucracy<br />
  7. 7. For past 500 years, States have been primary actors in world – still basic building block<br />Rulers of States send armies to conquer other States & territories<br />Globalization threatens States<br />When State boundaries & national identity coincide – result is a Nation-State<br />Major political instability when they don’t coincide<br />Kurds (Turkey, Syria, Iraq) – want “Kurdistan”<br />
  8. 8. Political Economy<br />How governments affect economic performance & how economic performance in turn affects a country’s political processes<br />Relationship between democracy & economics:<br />Democratic nations often rank among world’s most stable, affluent, & cohesive countries<br />
  9. 9. Classifying Political Systems<br />Nearly 200 States in world today<br />Often classified according to a typology (larger # of cases into smaller # of types)<br />From end WWII to 1980s – Typology was<br />First World: Western industrialized democracies<br />Second World: Communist States<br />Third World: economically less developed countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America<br />
  10. 10. This typology less useful today since we have more democratic countries, not industrialized nor in N. Atlantic region<br />Still Third World useful to describe more than 130 countries U.N. classifies as “developing”<br />Least developed countries – constitute a “Fourth World” – four dozen countries: Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Haiti<br />Only Communist States left: China, Cuba, Vietnam, Laos, North Korea<br />
  11. 11. A New Typology?<br />Alternative to “three worlds” classification – what extent governments are democratic?<br />Keep in mind – no government has ever fully lived up to democratic standards<br />1. Consolidated democracies (long established)<br />2. Transitional democracies (newly established)<br />3. Authoritarian regimes<br />
  12. 12. Five conditions for a democracy<br />1. Free & fair elections to highest offices<br />2. Political parties free to organize, present candidates, compete in elections<br />3. Elected government provides for due process, accountability of elected executives<br />4. All citizens possess civil & political rights – civil liberties such as privacy, free expression, including right to criticize government<br />5. Judiciary with powers independent of executive & legislature – protects citizens<br />
  13. 13. Consolidated democracy<br />aka Durable – long established (over 50 yrs)<br />Most have parliamentary governments (Great Britain, Germany, Japan, France) <br />Chancellor, prime minister, premier<br />Chief executive & cabinet chosen from elected members of legislature – leaders of dominant party<br />U.S. unusual with President separate from legislature<br />Relatively consistent adherence to five democratic principles<br />
  14. 14. Transitional democracy<br />Newly established – less than 50 yrs<br />“Façade” of democratic institutions<br />Informal practices (corruption) violate basic features of democracy<br />Examples: Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Indonesia, Russia (controversy about whether Russia classified as authoritarian)<br />
  15. 15. Authoritarian regimes<br />Lacking democratic principles generally – although can be some democratic principles<br />Number of dictatorships outweigh democracies<br />Authoritarianism: political systems in which power (or authority) is highly concentrated in a single individual, small group of people, single political party<br />
  16. 16. Types of authoritarian regimes<br />Communist Party States (China, Cuba)<br />Theocracies – religious leaders (present-day Iran)<br />Military governments (Pakistan, Burma)<br />Absolute monarchies (Saudi Arabia)<br />Personalistic dictatorships (Iraq under Saddam Hussein, Iran under Shah)<br />**Totalitarian regimes: sub classification for most extreme forms – control every aspect of public & private life (N. Korea, USSR under Stalin, China under Mao)<br />