Thank you for the introduction Robert! For my part of the team project, I researched current advancements in safety and regulations.
Uses large emergency water reservoir above the steel containment vessel that’s held back by valves. If cooling is lost these valves are designed to open and pour the reservoirs contents around the outside of the vessel. Convection allows for cooling and will generate steam which will condense on the roof of the containment structure. This proccess is designed to cool the reactor for up to 3 days, at which time diesel generators will need to be brought to supply power to pumps to pump water into the vessel. Currently being built in China and Georgia
Time 0: complete loss of power with a failed emergency diesel startTime 1-6 hours: cooling of containment vessel is done by natural convection of air circulation around the steel containment vesselTime ~6 hrs. automatic pressure sensors of the containment vessel hit trip setpoint and automatically open air operated valves that allow water from the passive containment cooling water tank to slowly flow over the containment vessel to cool it, air convection continues to help cool the containment vessel.>72 hours: if power still not restored, operators can refill the Passive containment cooling water storage tank from a designated ancillary tank using a backup diesel generator to power a pump.The ancillary tank can support this operation for up to 7 days then outside sources of water need to be used.
Thorium is much more common than Uranium and doesn’t generate weapons grade material after being used which can alleviate fears of proliferation.
Great idea for supplemental power for larger nuclear or for natural gas based localized power grids.
Team a part 2
THE PAST, PRESENT, AND POTENTIALFUTURE OF THE NUCLEAR INDUSTRYPART 3ADVANCEMENTS IN SAFETY AND REGULATIONSGroup A:Robert Astudillo, Timothy Ott, Whitney WardNuclear Energy Engineering Technology Capstone NUC-495-OLProfessor Adam Geesey
OBJECTIVES Describe the basics of nuclear safety Describe “Passive” safety features Overview of the Westinghouse AP1000 Passive ContainmentCooling system Describe plant upgrades and retrofits Describe New Nuclear plant designs and ideas Identify proposed nuclear waste disposal methods
TECHNOLOGICAL SAFETYADVANCEMENTS the three basics of nuclear safety are; to control reactivity to cool the fuel contain radioactive substances
“PASSIVE” SAFETY FEATURES Reactor Safety still maintained with No operator action even if; Coolant leaks Loss of electrical power Operators evacuate the plant
WESTINGHOUSE AP1000For a more detailed description on how this works go tohttp://ap1000.westinghousenuclear.com/station_blackout_home/passivecontainmentcooling.html
VISUAL DEMONSTRATION OF THEPASSIVE CONTAINMENT COOLINGSYSTEM
OLDER PLANT UPGRADES Retrofitted with more reliable and cost effective digitalinstrumentation and control systems All plants have installed earthquake sensors to auto shutdown thereactor Retrofitted with better plant materials to minimize radioactivewastes. Upgraded shielding and containment structures
NEW NUCLEAR PLANT DESIGNS ANDIDEAS Thorium based fuel Can be dissolved into flouride mixture Lightbridge company has designed a thorium based fuel assembly Bill Gates funding traveling wave reactor project Uses “waste Uranium” and Thorium to convert into fissionable elements
NEW NUCLEAR PLANT DESIGNS ANDIDEAS(CON’T) Modular Mini Reactors Self contained Can be put into underground bunkers Designed to be stacked together or can work separately Supports supply and demand fluctuations in power grid
NUCLEAR WASTE DISPOSAL Currently no designated long term waste storage collection facilityin U.S. Nuclear plants forced to keep spent fuel in large suppression pools. All of U.S. current spent fuel waste could be stored in a building the size of aWal-Mart superstore Current nuclear fuel assembly designs only use about 2% of their potentialenergy. Some scientist propose a “Strategic Uranium Reserve” for future generationsuse.
NUCLEAR WASTE DISPOSAL (CONT.) Reprocessing of spent fuel to generate much less waste (95%) Waste Disposal processes still being researched Geologic sites being researched Land based subductive waste disposal method being closelylooked at by U.S.
FUEL REPROCESSING EXAMPLE: Japan Atomic Energy Agency Tokai Research Development Center
CONTINUOUS ORGANIZATIONALIMPROVEMENT Always improving processes and work practices Nuclear policy enforcement agencies help ensure reactor safetythrough auditing and surveillance programs Improved training programs