Ancient Rome and Early Christianity,
500 B.C.– A.D. 500
Civilizations emerge and
develop on fertile river
plains in Mesopo...
Ancient Rome and Early Christianity,
500 B.C.– A.D. 500
SECTION 1

The Roman Republic

SECTION 2

The Roman Empire

SECTIO...
Section 1

The Roman Republic
The early Romans establish a republic,
which grows powerful and spreads its influence.

NEXT
SECTION

1

The Roman Republic

The Origins of Rome
Rome’s Geography
• Site of Rome chosen for its fertile soil and strate...
SECTION

1

The Early Republic
Early Rulers
•
•
•
•

Around 600 B.C., Etruscan kings begin to rule Rome
Kings build Rome’s...
SECTION

1
continued The

Early Republic

Patricians and Plebeians
• Different groups struggle for power in early Roman
Re...
SECTION

1
continued The

Early Republic

Twelve Tables
• In 451 B.C. officials carve Roman laws on twelve
tablets
• Calle...
SECTION

1
continued The

Early Republic

Government Under the Republic
• Rome elects two consuls—one to lead army, one to...
SECTION

1

Rome Spreads Its Power
Rome Conquers Italy
• Romans defeat Etruscans in north and Greek
city-states in south
•...
SECTION

1
continued Rome

Spreads Its Power

War with Carthage
• Rome and Carthage begin Punic Wars—three
wars between 26...
Section 2

The Roman Empire
The creation of the Roman Empire
transforms Roman government, society,
economy, and culture.

...
SECTION

2

The Roman Empire

The Republic Collapses
Economic Turmoil
• Gap between rich and poor widens as Roman
Republic...
SECTION

2
continued The

Republic Collapses

Julius Caesar Takes Control
• Military leader Julius Caesar elected consul i...
SECTION

2
continued The

Republic Collapses

Caesar’s Reforms
• Caesar makes reforms: grants wider citizenship,
creates j...
SECTION

2

A Vast and Powerful Empire
Pax Romana
• Under Augustus, Rome moves from a republic to
an empire
• Power no lon...
SECTION

2
continued A

Vast and Powerful Empire

Agriculture and Trade
• Agriculture most important industry in empire;
9...
SECTION

2

The Roman World
Slaves and Captivity
• Slavery is a significant part of Roman life in both
cities and farms
• ...
Section 3

The Rise of Christianity
Christianity arises in Roman-occupied
Judea and spreads throughout the Roman
Empire.

...
SECTION

3

The Rise of Christianity

The Life and Teachings of Jesus
Romans Conquer Judea
• Rome conquers Judea, home of ...
SECTION

3
continued The

Life and Teachings of Jesus

A Growing Movement
• Apostles—the twelve men who are disciples (or
...
SECTION

3

Christianity Spreads Through the Empire
Growth of Christianity

Map

• Followers spread Christianity—new relig...
SECTION

3
continued Christianity

Spreads Through the Empire

Jewish Rebellion
• Jews rebel against Rome; Romans storm
Je...
SECTION

3

A World Religion
Christianity’s Expansion
• Christianity becomes powerful force; reasons for
widespread appeal...
SECTION

3
continued A

World Religion

Constantine Accepts Christianity
• Constantine—Roman emperor battles for control
o...
SECTION

3
continued A

World Religion

Early Christian Church
• Priests direct a single church; bishops supervise
numerou...
SECTION

3
continued A

World Religion

A Single Voice
• Church leaders compile standard Christian beliefs
in New Testamen...
Section 4

The Fall of the
Roman Empire
Internal problems and innovations spur the
division and decline of the Roman Empir...
SECTION

4

The Fall of the Roman Empire

A Century of Crisis
The Empire Declines
• Pax Romana ends in A.D. 180 with death...
SECTION

4

A Century of Crisis
Military and Political Turmoil
• By third century A.D. Roman military in turmoil
Soldiers ...
SECTION

4

Emperors Attempt Reform
Diocletian Reforms the Empire
• In A.D. 284 Emperor Diocletian restores order,
divides...
SECTION

4

The Western Empire Crumbles

Interactive

Germanic Invasions
• Mongol nomads from Asia, the Huns, invade
north...
Section 5

Rome and the Roots of
Western Civilization
The Romans develop many ideas and
institutions that become fundament...
SECTION

5

Rome and the Roots of
Western Civilization

The Legacy of Greco-Roman Civilization
A New Culture Emerges
• Rom...
SECTION

5
continued The

Legacy of Greco-Roman Civilization

Learning and Literature
• Romans borrow from Greek philosoph...
SECTION

5

The Legacy of Rome
The Latin Language
• Latin was official language of Roman Catholic
Church until 1900s
• Dev...
SECTION

5
continued The

Legacy of Rome

Roman System of Law
• Principles of Roman law form basis of modern
legal systems...
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Chapter06

  1. 1. Ancient Rome and Early Christianity, 500 B.C.– A.D. 500 Civilizations emerge and develop on fertile river plains in Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley, and China. Augustus (63 B.C. – A.D. 14), first Roman emperor. NEXT
  2. 2. Ancient Rome and Early Christianity, 500 B.C.– A.D. 500 SECTION 1 The Roman Republic SECTION 2 The Roman Empire SECTION 3 The Rise of Christianity SECTION 4 The Fall of the Roman Empire SECTION 5 Rome and the Roots of Western Civilization Map Chart Chart NEXT
  3. 3. Section 1 The Roman Republic The early Romans establish a republic, which grows powerful and spreads its influence. NEXT
  4. 4. SECTION 1 The Roman Republic The Origins of Rome Rome’s Geography • Site of Rome chosen for its fertile soil and strategic location • Located on Italian peninsula in center of Mediterranean Sea • Built on seven hills on Tiber River The First Romans • Latins, Greeks, and Etruscans compete for control of region • Latins found original settlement of Rome between 1000 and 500 B.C. • Etruscans native to northern Italy; influence Roman civilization NEXT
  5. 5. SECTION 1 The Early Republic Early Rulers • • • • Around 600 B.C., Etruscan kings begin to rule Rome Kings build Rome’s first temples and public centers Romans overthrow cruel Etruscan king in 509 B.C. Romans found a republic—government in which citizens elect leaders Image Continued . . . NEXT
  6. 6. SECTION 1 continued The Early Republic Patricians and Plebeians • Different groups struggle for power in early Roman Republic • Patricians—wealthy landowning class that holds most of the power • Plebeians—artisans, merchants, and farmers; can vote, can’t rule • Tribunes—elected representatives protect plebeians’ political rights Continued . . . NEXT
  7. 7. SECTION 1 continued The Early Republic Twelve Tables • In 451 B.C. officials carve Roman laws on twelve tablets • Called Twelve Tables, they become basis for later Roman law • Laws confirm right of all free citizens to protection of the law • Citizenship is limited to adult male landowners • Twelve Tables are hung in the Forum Continued . . . NEXT
  8. 8. SECTION 1 continued The Early Republic Government Under the Republic • Rome elects two consuls—one to lead army, one to direct government • Senate—chosen from Roman upper class; makes foreign, domestic policy • Democratic assemblies elect tribunes, make laws for common people • Dictators are leaders appointed briefly in times of crisis The Roman Army • Roman legion—military unit of 5,000 infantry; supported by cavalry • Army is powerful; key factor in Rome’s rise to greatness NEXT
  9. 9. SECTION 1 Rome Spreads Its Power Rome Conquers Italy • Romans defeat Etruscans in north and Greek city-states in south • By 265 B.C., Rome controls Italian peninsula • Conquered peoples treated justly; this enables Rome to grow Rome’s Commercial Network • Rome establishes large trading network • Access to Mediterranean Sea provides many trade routes • Carthage, powerful city-state in North Africa, soon rivals Rome Continued . . . NEXT
  10. 10. SECTION 1 continued Rome Spreads Its Power War with Carthage • Rome and Carthage begin Punic Wars—three wars between 264–146 B.C. • Rome defeats Carthage, wins Sicily, in first 23-year war • Hannibal—Carthaginian general—avenges defeat in Second Punic War • Attacks Italy through Spain and France, doesn’t take Rome Rome Triumphs • Roman general Scipio defeats Hannibal in 202 B.C. • Rome destroys Carthage, enslaves people in last war (149–146 B.C.) NEXT
  11. 11. Section 2 The Roman Empire The creation of the Roman Empire transforms Roman government, society, economy, and culture. NEXT
  12. 12. SECTION 2 The Roman Empire The Republic Collapses Economic Turmoil • Gap between rich and poor widens as Roman Republic grows • Farmers, former soldiers, lose to large estates; become homeless • Two tribunes, Tiberius and Gaius, try to help poor, are murdered • Civil war—conflict between groups within same country begins Military Upheaval • Military becomes less disciplined and disloyal • Soldiers recruited from poor; show loyalty only to their generals Continued . . . NEXT
  13. 13. SECTION 2 continued The Republic Collapses Julius Caesar Takes Control • Military leader Julius Caesar elected consul in 59 B.C. • Caesar, Crassus, Pompey form a triumvirate—a group of three rulers • Military victories give Caesar increasing popularity and power • Pompey fears Caesar’s growing power and challenges him • Caesar defeats Pompey’s armies in Greece, Asia, Spain, Egypt • Caesar is named dictator for life in 44 B.C. Continued . . . NEXT
  14. 14. SECTION 2 continued The Republic Collapses Caesar’s Reforms • Caesar makes reforms: grants wider citizenship, creates jobs for poor • Group of senators opposes Caesar; kills him on March 15, 44 B.C. Image Beginning of the Empire • 43 B.C., Caesar’s supporters take control; become Second Triumvirate • Octavian, Mark Antony, Lepidus alliance ends in jealousy, violence • In 31 B.C., Mark Antony and Cleopatra’s forces are defeated at Actium • Octavian accepts title of Augustus, “exalted one,” and rules Rome Image NEXT
  15. 15. SECTION 2 A Vast and Powerful Empire Pax Romana • Under Augustus, Rome moves from a republic to an empire • Power no longer resides with citizens, but a single ruler • Rome enjoys 200 years of peace and prosperity known as Pax Romana A Sound Government • Augustus, Rome’s ablest ruler, creates lasting system of government - glorifies Rome with beautiful public buildings - sets up a civil service to administer the empire Continued . . . NEXT
  16. 16. SECTION 2 continued A Vast and Powerful Empire Agriculture and Trade • Agriculture most important industry in empire; 90% of Romans farm • Common coin, denarius, makes trade within empire easier • Rome has vast trading network, includes China and India • Network of Roman roads links empire to Persia, Russia Map Image NEXT
  17. 17. SECTION 2 The Roman World Slaves and Captivity • Slavery is a significant part of Roman life in both cities and farms • Some slaves become gladiators; forced to fight to death Image Gods and Goddesses • Early Romans honor guardian spirits and gods Jupiter, Juno, Minerva • Worship of emperor becomes part of official religion of Rome Society and Culture • Rich live well; most people are poor, receive grain from government • 150 holidays and Colosseum events created to control the masses Image NEXT
  18. 18. Section 3 The Rise of Christianity Christianity arises in Roman-occupied Judea and spreads throughout the Roman Empire. NEXT
  19. 19. SECTION 3 The Rise of Christianity The Life and Teachings of Jesus Romans Conquer Judea • Rome conquers Judea, home of Jews; makes it part of empire, A.D. 6 • Many Jews believe a Messiah, or savior, eventually will free them Jesus of Nazareth Image • Jesus—a Jew born in Bethlehem (around 6 to 4 B.C.), raised in Nazareth • At age 30 begins preaching monotheism, Ten Commandments • Does good works, reportedly performs miracles • Stresses personal relationship with God, love for friends and enemies Continued . . . NEXT
  20. 20. SECTION 3 continued The Life and Teachings of Jesus A Growing Movement • Apostles—the twelve men who are disciples (or pupils) of Jesus • Jesus ignores wealth and status; his message appeals to poor Jesus’ Death • Many Jews view Jesus as the Messiah; others see him as a heretic • Roman governor Pontius Pilate sentences Jesus to be crucified • Apostles believe Jesus ascended into heaven after death • Christos, Greek word for “savior”; Christianity derived from “Christ” NEXT
  21. 21. SECTION 3 Christianity Spreads Through the Empire Growth of Christianity Map • Followers spread Christianity—new religion based on Jesus’ teachings Paul’s Mission • Apostle Paul—spends life preaching and interpreting Christianity • Common languages of Latin and Greek help to spread message • Paul stresses Jesus is son of God who died for people’s sins • Paul declares that Christianity open to all converts Image Continued . . . NEXT
  22. 22. SECTION 3 continued Christianity Spreads Through the Empire Jewish Rebellion • Jews rebel against Rome; Romans storm Jerusalem, destroy Temple • Rebellions in A.D. 66, 70, 132 fail; Jews driven from homeland • Diaspora—centuries of Jewish exile (from Greek word for “dispersal”) Image Persecution of the Christians • Christians won’t worship Roman gods; become enemies of Roman rule • Roman rulers use Christians as scapegoats for hard times • As Pax Romana crumbles, Christians crucified, burned, killed in arena NEXT
  23. 23. SECTION 3 A World Religion Christianity’s Expansion • Christianity becomes powerful force; reasons for widespread appeal: • embraces all people • gives hope to the powerless • appeals to those repelled by extravagance of Roman life • offers personal relationship with a loving God • promises eternal life after death Continued . . . NEXT
  24. 24. SECTION 3 continued A World Religion Constantine Accepts Christianity • Constantine—Roman emperor battles for control of Rome in A.D. 312 • Has vision of cross, Christian symbol; places on soldiers’ shields • Believes Christian God helped him win; legalizes Christianity • In A.D. 380 Emperor Theodosius makes Christianity religion of empire Continued . . . NEXT
  25. 25. SECTION 3 continued A World Religion Early Christian Church • Priests direct a single church; bishops supervise numerous churches • Apostle Peter—first bishop of Rome; clergy trace their authority to him • Pope—the father, or head, of Christian Church; Rome, center of Church Continued . . . NEXT
  26. 26. SECTION 3 continued A World Religion A Single Voice • Church leaders compile standard Christian beliefs in New Testament • New Testament added to Hebrew Bible (also called Old Testament) The Fathers of the Church • Early writers and scholars of teachings called Fathers of the Church • Augustine, bishop in North Africa, one of the most Image important Fathers • Stressed receiving sacraments to obtain God’s grace • Wrote famous book, The City of God NEXT
  27. 27. Section 4 The Fall of the Roman Empire Internal problems and innovations spur the division and decline of the Roman Empire. NEXT
  28. 28. SECTION 4 The Fall of the Roman Empire A Century of Crisis The Empire Declines • Pax Romana ends in A.D. 180 with death of emperor Marcus Aurelius • Subsequent emperors unable to govern giant empire Rome’s Economy Weakens • Hostile tribes outside the empire disrupt trade • Inflation—drop in value of money and rise in prices—weakens trade • Overworked soil, war-torn farmland leads to food shortages NEXT
  29. 29. SECTION 4 A Century of Crisis Military and Political Turmoil • By third century A.D. Roman military in turmoil Soldiers loyal to commanders, not Rome; commanders fighting for throne • Government enlists mercenaries—foreign soldiers they pay to fight • Average citizens lose interest in the affairs of Rome NEXT
  30. 30. SECTION 4 Emperors Attempt Reform Diocletian Reforms the Empire • In A.D. 284 Emperor Diocletian restores order, divides empire in two • Two emperors in Greek-speaking East, Latinspeaking West • In A.D. 305 Diocletian retires, rivals compete for power Constantine Moves the Capital • Constantine becomes emperor of Western Empire in A.D. 312 • Seizes Eastern Empire in A.D. 324; moves Roman capital to Byzantium • Byzantium eventually renamed Constantinople—city of Constantine NEXT
  31. 31. SECTION 4 The Western Empire Crumbles Interactive Germanic Invasions • Mongol nomads from Asia, the Huns, invade northern borders of empire • Germanic tribes flee Huns, enter Roman lands, sack Rome A.D. 410 Attila the Hun • Attila—unites the Huns in A.D. 444; plunders 70 cities in East • Attacks Rome in 452; famine and disease prevents victory An Empire No More • Last Roman emperor falls to Germans in 476; end of Western Empire • East thrives for another thousand years (Byzantine Empire) NEXT
  32. 32. Section 5 Rome and the Roots of Western Civilization The Romans develop many ideas and institutions that become fundamental to Western Civilization. NEXT
  33. 33. SECTION 5 Rome and the Roots of Western Civilization The Legacy of Greco-Roman Civilization A New Culture Emerges • Romans adopt aspects of Greek and Hellenistic culture • Results in Greco-Roman culture, or classical civilization Roman Fine Arts • Romans develop bas-relief sculptures to tell stories • Artists skilled in creating mosaics, painting frescoes • Pompeii—Roman town; ash from volcano eruption A.D. 79 preserves art Image Image Continued . . . NEXT
  34. 34. SECTION 5 continued The Legacy of Greco-Roman Civilization Learning and Literature • Romans borrow from Greek philosophy and literature • Poet Virgil writes epic Aeneid modeled after Homer’s Greek epics • Roman historian Tacitus excels in writing factually accurate history • Annals and Histories provide comprehensive look at Roman life NEXT
  35. 35. SECTION 5 The Legacy of Rome The Latin Language • Latin was official language of Roman Catholic Church until 1900s • Develops into French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Romanian • More than half the words in English stem from Latin Master Builders • Romans pioneer use of arch; also used domes and concrete • Create aqueducts—structures to bring water into cities, towns Continued . . . NEXT
  36. 36. SECTION 5 continued The Legacy of Rome Roman System of Law • Principles of Roman law form basis of modern legal systems Rome’s Enduring Influence • By preserving and adding to Greek civilization, Rome strengthened the Western cultural tradition NEXT
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