NEXT
Discus thrower (about 450 B.C.), Myron.
Classical Greece,
2000 B.C.–300 B.C.
The history and culture
of classical Gre...
NEXT
Classical Greece,
2000 B.C.–300 B.C.
Map Chart
SECTION 1
SECTION 2
SECTION 3
SECTION 4
Cultures of the Mountains and ...
NEXT
Section 1
Cultures of the Mountains
and the Sea
The roots of Greek culture are based on interaction
of the Mycenaean,...
NEXT
Geography Shapes Greek Life
Cultures of the Mountains
and the Sea
Ancient Greece
• Collection of separate lands where...
NEXT
continued Geography Shapes Greek Life
SECTION
1
The Land
• Mountains slow travel, divide land into regions
• Lack of ...
NEXT
Mycenaean Civilization Develops
SECTION
1
Origins
• Mycenaeans—Indo-Europeans who settled
on Greek mainland in 2000 B...
NEXT
Greek Culture Declines Under the Dorians
SECTION
1
Dorians Replace Mycenaeans
• Mycenaean civilization collapses arou...
NEXT
Greeks Create Myths
• Greeks develop their own myths—traditional
stories about gods
• Greeks seek to understand myste...
NEXT
The growth of city-states in Greece leads
to the development of several political
systems, including democracy.
Secti...
NEXT
Rule and Order in Greek City-States
Warring City-States
The City-State
• By 750 B.C. the Greek city-state, or polis, ...
NEXT
Greek Political Structures
• City-states have different forms of government
• Monarchy—rule by a king; aristocracy—ru...
NEXT
Athens Builds a Limited Democracy
Building Democracy
• About 621 B.C., democracy—rule by the
people—develops in Athen...
NEXT
Sparta Builds a Military State
A Unique City-State
• Sparta, isolated from much of Greece, builds
military state
Spar...
NEXT
Spartan Daily Life
• Spartan values: duty, strength, individuality,
discipline over freedom
• Sparta has the most pow...
NEXT
The Persian Wars
A New Kind of Army Emerges
• Cheaper iron replaces bronze, making arms and
armor cheaper
• Leads to ...
NEXT
continued The Persian Wars
SECTION
2
Thermopylae and Salamis
• In 480 B.C., Persians launch new invasion of Greece
• ...
NEXT
continued The Persian Wars
SECTION
2
Consequences of the Persian Wars
• New self-confidence in Greece due to victory
...
Section 3
Democracy and Greece’s
Golden Age
Democratic principles and classical culture
flourish during Greece’s golden ag...
NEXT
Pericles’ Plan for Athens
Democracy and Greece’s
Golden Age
Pericles as Leader
• Skillful politician, inspiring speak...
NEXT
continued Pericles’ Plan for Athens
Athenian Empire
• Takes over Delian League; uses money to strengthen
Athenian fle...
NEXT
Glorious Art and Architecture
Architecture and Sculpture
• Pericles builds the Parthenon—a large temple to
honor godd...
NEXT
Drama and History
Tragedy and Comedy
• Greeks invent drama as an art form; includes chorus,
dance, poetry
• Two forms...
NEXT
Athenians and Spartans Go to War
War Begins
• 431 B.C. city-states Sparta and Athens at war—
Peloponnesian War
Pelopo...
NEXT
Philosophers Search for Truth
Rise of Great Philosophers
• After the war, rise of philosophers—thinkers,
"lovers of w...
NEXT
Plato
• Plato—student of Socrates; writes The
Republic—an ideal society
• In 387 B.C., establishes Athens school, the...
NEXT
Section 4
Alexander’s Empire
Alexander the Great conquers Persia and
Egypt and extends his empire to the Indus
River ...
NEXT
Philip Builds Macedonian Power
Alexander’s Empire
Macedonia
• Macedonia—kingdom of mountain villages north of
Greece
...
NEXT
Conquest of Greece
• 338 B.C. Macedonians defeat Greece; 336 B.C.
King Philip murdered
• His son named king of Macedo...
NEXT
Alexander Defeats Persia
Alexander’s Early Life
• Tutored by Aristotle; inspired by the Iliad; has
military training
...
NEXT
Conquering the Persian Empire
• Alexander marches into Egypt, crowned pharaoh in
332 B.C.
• At Gaugamela in Mesopotam...
NEXT
Alexander’s Other Conquests
Alexander in India
• Alexander fights his way across the deserts of
Central Asia to India...
NEXT
Section 5
The Spread of Hellenistic
Culture
Hellenistic culture, a blend of Greek and
other influences, flourishes th...
NEXT
The Spread of Hellenistic Culture
The Spread of Hellenistic Culture
Hellenistic Culture in Alexandria
• Result of Ale...
NEXT
Science and Technology
Alexandria’s Scholars
• Scholars preserve Greek and Egyptian learning
in the sciences
Astronom...
NEXT
Philosophy and Art
Stoicism and Epicureanism
• Zeno founds Stoic school; promoted virtuous,
simple lives
• Epicurus b...
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Chapter05

  1. 1. NEXT Discus thrower (about 450 B.C.), Myron. Classical Greece, 2000 B.C.–300 B.C. The history and culture of classical Greece has a significant impact on the modern world.
  2. 2. NEXT Classical Greece, 2000 B.C.–300 B.C. Map Chart SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea Warring City-States Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age Alexander’s Empire The Spread of the Hellenistic CultureSECTION 5
  3. 3. NEXT Section 1 Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea The roots of Greek culture are based on interaction of the Mycenaean, Minoan, and Dorian cultures.
  4. 4. NEXT Geography Shapes Greek Life Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea Ancient Greece • Collection of separate lands where Greek-speaking people live • Includes mainland and about 2,000 islands The Sea • The sea shapes Greek civilization • Proximity to sea, lack of resources encourage sea travel and trade SECTION 1 Continued . . .
  5. 5. NEXT continued Geography Shapes Greek Life SECTION 1 The Land • Mountains slow travel, divide land into regions • Lack of fertile land leads to small populations, need for colonies The Climate • Moderate climate promotes outdoor life • Greek men, especially, spend much of their time outside Image
  6. 6. NEXT Mycenaean Civilization Develops SECTION 1 Origins • Mycenaeans—Indo-Europeans who settled on Greek mainland in 2000 B.C. • Took their name from their leading city, Mycenae • Mycenaean warrior-kings dominate Greece from 1600–1100 B.C. Contact with Minoans • After 1500 B.C., Mycenaeans adopt Minoan sea trade and culture The Trojan War • Trojan War—fought by Mycenaeans against city of Troy in 1200s B.C. • Once thought to be fictional, archaeological evidence has been found Image
  7. 7. NEXT Greek Culture Declines Under the Dorians SECTION 1 Dorians Replace Mycenaeans • Mycenaean civilization collapses around 1200 B.C. • Dorians—possibly relatives of Bronze Age Greeks—move into Greece • Less advanced than Mycenaeans, Dorians leave no written records Epics of Homer • Oral tradition grows, especially epics of Homer—a blind storyteller • Epic—a narrative poem about heroic deeds • Homer’s epic the Iliad, about Trojan War, shows Greek heroic ideal Continued . . . Image
  8. 8. NEXT Greeks Create Myths • Greeks develop their own myths—traditional stories about gods • Greeks seek to understand mysteries of life through myths • Greeks attribute human qualities—love, hate, jealousy—to their gods • Zeus, ruler of Gods, lives on Mount Olympus with his wife, Hera • Zeus’s daughter Athena is goddess of wisdom and guardian of cities continued Greek Culture Declines Under the Dorians SECTION 1 Image
  9. 9. NEXT The growth of city-states in Greece leads to the development of several political systems, including democracy. Section 2 Warring City-States
  10. 10. NEXT Rule and Order in Greek City-States Warring City-States The City-State • By 750 B.C. the Greek city-state, or polis, is the formal government • A polis is a city and its surrounding villages; 50 to 500 square miles • Population of a city-state is often less than 10,000 • Citizens gather in the marketplace and acropolis—a fortified hilltop SECTION 2 Continued . . . Image
  11. 11. NEXT Greek Political Structures • City-states have different forms of government • Monarchy—rule by a king; aristocracy—rule by nobility • Oligarchy—rule by small group of powerful merchants and artisans continued Rule and Order in Greek City-States Tyrants Seize Power • Rulers and common people clash in many city-states • Tyrants—nobles and wealthy citizens win support of common people • They seize control and rule in the interests of ordinary people SECTION 2
  12. 12. NEXT Athens Builds a Limited Democracy Building Democracy • About 621 B.C., democracy—rule by the people—develops in Athens • Nobleman, Draco, develops legal code based on equality of citizens • Ruler Solon abolishes debt slavery; Cleisthenes has citizens make laws • Only native-born, property-owning males are citizens SECTION 2 Athenian Education • Schooling only for sons of wealthy families • Girls learn from mothers and other female members of household
  13. 13. NEXT Sparta Builds a Military State A Unique City-State • Sparta, isolated from much of Greece, builds military state Sparta Dominates Messenians • Around 725 B.C., Sparta conquers Messenia • Messenians become helots—peasants forced to farm the land • Harsh rule leads to Messenian revolt; Spartans build stronger state SECTION 2 Sparta’s Government and Society • Sparta government has four branches; citizens elect officials • Three social classes: citizens, free noncitizens, helots—slaves Continued . . .
  14. 14. NEXT Spartan Daily Life • Spartan values: duty, strength, individuality, discipline over freedom • Sparta has the most powerful army in Greece • Males move into barracks at age 7, train until 30, serve until 60 • Girls receive some military training and live hardy lives • Girls also taught to value service to Sparta above all else continued Sparta Builds a Military State SECTION 2
  15. 15. NEXT The Persian Wars A New Kind of Army Emerges • Cheaper iron replaces bronze, making arms and armor cheaper • Leads to new kind of army; includes soldiers from all classes • Phalanx—feared by all, formation of soldiers with spears, shieldsBattle at Marathon • Persian Wars—between Greece and Persian Empire—begin in Ionia • Persian army attacks Athens, is defeated at Marathon in 490 B.C. SECTION 2 Continued . . . Image Pheidippides Brings News • Runner Pheidippides races to Athens to announce Greek victory
  16. 16. NEXT continued The Persian Wars SECTION 2 Thermopylae and Salamis • In 480 B.C., Persians launch new invasion of Greece • Greeks are divided; many stay neutral or side with Persians • Greek forces hold Thermopylae for three days before retreating • Athenians defeat Persians at sea, near island of Salamis • Victories at Salamis and Plataea force Persian retreat • Many city-states form Delian League and continue to fight Persians Continued . . . Interactive
  17. 17. NEXT continued The Persian Wars SECTION 2 Consequences of the Persian Wars • New self-confidence in Greece due to victory • Athens emerges as leader of Delian League • Athens controls the league by using force against opponents • League members essentially become provinces of Athenian empire • Stage is set for a dazzling burst of creativity in Athens
  18. 18. Section 3 Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age Democratic principles and classical culture flourish during Greece’s golden age. NEXT
  19. 19. NEXT Pericles’ Plan for Athens Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age Pericles as Leader • Skillful politician, inspiring speaker, respected general • Dominates life in Athens from 461 to 429 B.C. SECTION 3 Stronger Democracy • Pericles hires more public officials; creates direct democracy • Direct democracy—citizens rule directly, not through representatives Continued . . . Image
  20. 20. NEXT continued Pericles’ Plan for Athens Athenian Empire • Takes over Delian League; uses money to strengthen Athenian fleet • Sparta and other cities resent Athenian power Glorifying Athens • Pericles buys gold, ivory, marble; hires artisans to beautify Athens SECTION 3 Image
  21. 21. NEXT Glorious Art and Architecture Architecture and Sculpture • Pericles builds the Parthenon—a large temple to honor goddess Athena • Within temple, sculptor Phidias crafts 30-foot statue of Athena • Sculptors create graceful, strong, perfectly formed figures • Classical art—values harmony, order, balance, proportion, beauty SECTION 3
  22. 22. NEXT Drama and History Tragedy and Comedy • Greeks invent drama as an art form; includes chorus, dance, poetry • Two forms of drama: tragedy and comedy • Tragedy—tells story of heroes’ downfall; themes of love, hate, war • Comedy—makes fun of politics and respected people; slapstick humor • Greek dramatists include Aeschylus, Euripides, Aristophanes SECTION 3 History • Historians Herodotus and Thucydides record and study past events
  23. 23. NEXT Athenians and Spartans Go to War War Begins • 431 B.C. city-states Sparta and Athens at war— Peloponnesian War Peloponnesian War • Sparta has better army, Athens has better navy • Plague strikes Athens in 430 B.C., kills many— including Pericles • Sparta and Athens sign truce in 421 B.C. Sparta Gains Victory • 415 B.C. Athens renews war, attacks Syracruse; is defeated in 413 B.C. • Athens and allies surrender to Sparta in 404 B.C. SECTION 3 Map
  24. 24. NEXT Philosophers Search for Truth Rise of Great Philosophers • After the war, rise of philosophers—thinkers, "lovers of wisdom" • Believe universe is subject to absolute and unchanging laws • People could understand these laws through logic, reason • Sophist philosopher Protagoras questions the existence of Greek gods Socrates • Socrates—believes in questioning, self- examination of values, actions • Convicted of corrupting young people; sentenced to death in 399 B.C. Continued . . . SECTION 3
  25. 25. NEXT Plato • Plato—student of Socrates; writes The Republic—an ideal society • In 387 B.C., establishes Athens school, the Academy; lasts 900 years • His writings dominate European philosophy for 1,500 years continued Philosophers Search for Truth Aristotle • Aristotle—student of Plato; uses rules of logic for argument • His work provides the basis for scientific method, still used today • Tutors 13-year-old prince who becomes Alexander the Great SECTION 3
  26. 26. NEXT Section 4 Alexander’s Empire Alexander the Great conquers Persia and Egypt and extends his empire to the Indus River in northwest India.
  27. 27. NEXT Philip Builds Macedonian Power Alexander’s Empire Macedonia • Macedonia—kingdom of mountain villages north of Greece • King Philip II—ruler, brilliant general; dreams of controlling Greece • Macedonians call themselves Greek; rest of Greece does not Philip’s Army • Philip creates well-trained professional army; plans to invade Greece SECTION 4 Continued . . . Map
  28. 28. NEXT Conquest of Greece • 338 B.C. Macedonians defeat Greece; 336 B.C. King Philip murdered • His son named king of Macedonia—becomes Alexander the Great continued Philip Builds Macedonian Power SECTION 4 Image
  29. 29. NEXT Alexander Defeats Persia Alexander’s Early Life • Tutored by Aristotle; inspired by the Iliad; has military training • Becomes king when 20 years old; destroys Thebes to curb rebellion Invasion of Persia • 334 B.C. Alexander invades Persia; quick victory at Granicus River • Darius III—king of Persia, assembles army of 50,000–75,000 men • Alexander defeats Persians again, forces King of Persia to flee SECTION 4 Continued . . .
  30. 30. NEXT Conquering the Persian Empire • Alexander marches into Egypt, crowned pharaoh in 332 B.C. • At Gaugamela in Mesopotamia, Alexander defeats Persians again • Alexander captures cities of Babylon, Susa, and Persepolis • Persepolis, the Persian capital, burned to the ground • Ashes of Persepolis signal total destruction of Persian Empire continued Alexander Defeats Persia SECTION 4
  31. 31. NEXT Alexander’s Other Conquests Alexander in India • Alexander fights his way across the deserts of Central Asia to India • Alexander conquers Indus Valley area in 326 B.C. Reluctantly returns to Babylon, dies in 323 B.C. Alexander’s Legacy • Alexander melds Greek and Persian cultures; wife is Persian • Empire becomes three kingdoms: (1) Macedonia, Greek city-states; (2) Egypt; (3) old Persia, also known as Seleucid kingdom SECTION 4 Interactive
  32. 32. NEXT Section 5 The Spread of Hellenistic Culture Hellenistic culture, a blend of Greek and other influences, flourishes throughout Greece, Egypt, and Asia.
  33. 33. NEXT The Spread of Hellenistic Culture The Spread of Hellenistic Culture Hellenistic Culture in Alexandria • Result of Alexander’s policies—a new vibrant culture • Hellenistic culture—Greek blended with Egyptian, Persian, Indian Trade and Cultural Diversity • Alexandria—Egyptian city becomes center of Hellenistic civilization Alexandria’s Attractions • Lighthouse, called the Pharos, stands over 350 feet tall • Museum contains art galleries, a zoo, botanical gardens, dining hall • Library holds masterpieces of ancient literature; supports scholars SECTION 5
  34. 34. NEXT Science and Technology Alexandria’s Scholars • Scholars preserve Greek and Egyptian learning in the sciences Astronomy • Astronomer Aristarchus proves sun is larger than Earth • Proposes planets revolve around sun; not accepted for 14 centuries • Eratosthenes uses geometry to calculate Earth’s circumference Mathematics and Physics • Euclid—mathematician; Elements the basis for courses in geometry • Archimedes—scientist; ideas help build force pump and steam engine SECTION 5
  35. 35. NEXT Philosophy and Art Stoicism and Epicureanism • Zeno founds Stoic school; promoted virtuous, simple lives • Epicurus believes people should focus on what senses perceive Realism in Sculpture • Colossus of Rhodes—Hellenistic bronze sculpture over 100 feet tall • Sculptors move to non-classical, natural forms; real people SECTION 5 Image
  36. 36. This is the end of the chapter presentation of lecture notes. Click the HOME or EXIT button.
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