NEXT
King Ramses II (13th-century B.C.)
holding prisoners.
First Age of Empires,
1570 B.C.–200 B.C.
The first large empire...
NEXT
First Age of Empires,
1570 B.C.–200 B.C.
SECTION 1
SECTION 2
SECTION 3
SECTION 4
The Egyptians and Nubian Empires
The...
NEXT
Section 1
The Egyptian and
Nubian Empires
Two empires along the Nile, Egypt and Nubia,
forge commercial, cultural, an...
NEXT
Nomadic Invaders Rule Egypt
The Egyptian and Nubian Empires
Invaders
• About 1640 B.C., Asian warriors, the Hyksos, u...
NEXT
The New Kingdom of Egypt
Continued . . .
SECTION
1
Technological Changes
• About 1570 to 1075 B.C. pharaohs create Ne...
NEXT
continued The New Kingdom of Egypt
SECTION
1
Thutmose the Empire Builder
• Thutmose III, Hatshepsut’s stepson, expand...
NEXT
The Egyptians and the Hittites
• Around 1285 B.C. Egyptians battle the Hittites
in Palestine
• Egypt’s pharaoh, Ramse...
NEXT
The Empire Declines
SECTION
1
Invasion by Land and Sea
• “Sea Peoples” (possibly Philistines) cause great
destruction...
NEXT
The Kushites Conquer the Nile Region
SECTION
1
Egypt and Kush
• From 2000 to 1000 B.C., Egypt dominates
kingdom of Ku...
NEXT
The Interaction of Egypt and Nubia
• Egyptian culture influences Nubia and beyond to
southern Africa
• About 1200 B.C...
NEXT
The Golden Age of Meroë
SECTION
1
Meroë
• Kushites settle Meroë; join in trade with Africa,
Arabia, India
The Wealth ...
NEXT
Assyria develops a military machine and
establishes a well-organized
administration.
Section 2
The Assyrian Empire
NEXT
A Mighty Military Machine
The Assyrian Empire
Assyria
• Assyria uses military might to acquire empire across
Southwes...
NEXT
The Empire Expands
Kings of Assyria
• Defeat Syria, Palestine, Babylonia between 850
and 650 B.C.
Assyrian Rule
• Cre...
NEXT
Rebirth of Babylon Under the Chaldeans
Early Warnings
• Empire spread thin, cruelty earns many enemies,
Ashurbanipal ...
Section 3
The Persian Empire
By governing with tolerance and wisdom,
the Persians establish a well-ordered
empire that las...
NEXT
The Rise of Persia
The Persian Empire
The Persian Homeland
• Persia (ancient Iran) has fertile land and minerals
• Me...
NEXT
Persian Rule
Cambyses and Darius
• Cyrus’s son, Cambyses, conquers Egypt but
rules unwisely
• Darius seizes control, ...
NEXT
The Persian Legacy
Zoroaster
• Persian thinker called Zoroaster develops new
religion
SECTION
3
Zoroaster’s Teachings...
NEXT
Section 4
The Unification of China
The social disorder of the warring states
contributes to the development of three
...
NEXT
Confucius and the Social Order
The Unification of China
Zhou Dynasty
• Lasted 1027 to 256 B.C.; ancient values declin...
NEXT
Confucian Ideas About Government
• Thinks education can transform people
• Teachings become foundation for bureaucrac...
NEXT
Other Ethical Systems
Daoists Seek Harmony
• Laozi teaches that people should follow the
natural order of life
• Beli...
NEXT
I Ching and Yin and Yang
• I Ching (The Book of Changes) offers good advice,
common sense
• Concept of yin and yang—t...
NEXT
The Qin Dynasty Unifies China
The Qin Dynasty
• Qin Dynasty replaces Zhou Dynasty in third
century B.C.
A New Emperor...
NEXT
A Program of Centralization
• Shi Huangdi builds highways, irrigation projects;
increases trade
• Sets standards for ...
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Chapter04

  1. 1. NEXT King Ramses II (13th-century B.C.) holding prisoners. First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C.–200 B.C. The first large empires develop in Africa and Asia between 1570 B.C. and 200 B.C.
  2. 2. NEXT First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C.–200 B.C. SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 The Egyptians and Nubian Empires The Assyrian Empires The Persian Empire The Unification of China Map
  3. 3. NEXT Section 1 The Egyptian and Nubian Empires Two empires along the Nile, Egypt and Nubia, forge commercial, cultural, and political connections.
  4. 4. NEXT Nomadic Invaders Rule Egypt The Egyptian and Nubian Empires Invaders • About 1640 B.C., Asian warriors, the Hyksos, use chariots to conquer Egypt Hebrews Migrate to Egypt • Hebrews move to Egypt from Canaan around 1650 B.C. • Egyptians resent the presence of Hebrews and Hyksos in Egypt Expulsion and Slavery • Egyptians drive out the hated Hyksos • Hebrews lose protection of Hyksos; are enslaved SECTION 1
  5. 5. NEXT The New Kingdom of Egypt Continued . . . SECTION 1 Technological Changes • About 1570 to 1075 B.C. pharaohs create New Kingdom, a powerful empire • Army uses bronze weapons and chariots to conquer other lands Hatshepsut’s Prosperous Rule • Hatshepsut—pharaoh whose reign most noted for her trade expeditions, not war Image Image
  6. 6. NEXT continued The New Kingdom of Egypt SECTION 1 Thutmose the Empire Builder • Thutmose III, Hatshepsut’s stepson, expands Egypt’s empire • Invades Palestine, Syria, and Nubia—region around the upper Nile River • Egypt most powerful and wealthy during reign of New Kingdom pharaohs Continued . . . Image
  7. 7. NEXT The Egyptians and the Hittites • Around 1285 B.C. Egyptians battle the Hittites in Palestine • Egypt’s pharaoh, Ramses II, and the Hittite king sign a peace treaty continued The New Kingdom of Egypt SECTION 1 An Age of Builders • New Kingdom pharaohs built great palaces, magnificent temples • Valley of the Kings near Thebes is home to royal tombs • Ramses II builds impressive temples with enormous statues of himself Image
  8. 8. NEXT The Empire Declines SECTION 1 Invasion by Land and Sea • “Sea Peoples” (possibly Philistines) cause great destruction in Egypt • Libyan raids on villages and Palestine rebellions weaken empire Egypt’s Empire Fades • Weakened empire breaks into smaller kingdoms • From around 950 to 730 B.C. Libyan pharaohs rule Egypt, erect cities
  9. 9. NEXT The Kushites Conquer the Nile Region SECTION 1 Egypt and Kush • From 2000 to 1000 B.C., Egypt dominates kingdom of Kush in Nubia The People of Nubia • Live south of Egypt near division of Blue Nile and White Nile • Nile River is a great trade route for goods and ideas • Nubians link Egypt and Mediterranean to African interior through trade Continued . . . Map
  10. 10. NEXT The Interaction of Egypt and Nubia • Egyptian culture influences Nubia and beyond to southern Africa • About 1200 B.C., Nubia gains independence but keeps Egyptian culture continued The Kushites Conquer the Nile Region SECTION 1 Piankhi Captures the Egyptian Throne • In 751 B.C., Kushite king Piankhi conquers Egypt, ousts Libyans • Assyrians overcome Kushites and take Egypt Image
  11. 11. NEXT The Golden Age of Meroë SECTION 1 Meroë • Kushites settle Meroë; join in trade with Africa, Arabia, India The Wealth of Kush • Meroë becomes important center for iron weapons and tools • Iron products transported to Red Sea, exchanged for luxury goods The Decline of Meroë • Meroë thrives from about 250 B.C. to A.D. 150, then declines • Aksum, 400 miles southeast, dominates North African trade • Has port on Red Sea, defeats Meroë in A.D. 350
  12. 12. NEXT Assyria develops a military machine and establishes a well-organized administration. Section 2 The Assyrian Empire
  13. 13. NEXT A Mighty Military Machine The Assyrian Empire Assyria • Assyria uses military might to acquire empire across Southwest Asia The Rise of a Warrior People • After invasions in Mesopotamia, Assyrians develop warlike behavior • Assyrian king Sennacherib brutally destroys enemies SECTION 2 Military Organization and Conquest • Glorified armies wear metal armor, copper helmets, leather protection • Use iron weapons, engineering skill, and brute force to conquer cities • Kill, enslave, or banish captive peoples to distant lands Map Interactive
  14. 14. NEXT The Empire Expands Kings of Assyria • Defeat Syria, Palestine, Babylonia between 850 and 650 B.C. Assyrian Rule • Creates central authority over local governors of dependent regions • Collects taxes and tribute from conquered lands SECTION 2 Assyrian Culture • Rulers build great cities, including capital at Nineveh • Carved sculptures of military campaigns and the lion hunt • King Ashurbanipal builds library of 20,000 tablets; Epic of Gilgamesh Image Image
  15. 15. NEXT Rebirth of Babylon Under the Chaldeans Early Warnings • Empire spread thin, cruelty earns many enemies, Ashurbanipal dies Decline and Fall • Army of Medes and Chaldeans destroys Nineveh (612 B.C.); library survives SECTION 2 Rebirth of Babylon Under the Chaldeans • Chaldeans make Babylon capital of own empire • King Nebuchadnezzar builds legendary hanging gardens of Babylon • Builds tall ziggurats; astronomers make discoveries about solar system • Chaldean Empire falls to Persians; they adopt Assyrian inventions
  16. 16. Section 3 The Persian Empire By governing with tolerance and wisdom, the Persians establish a well-ordered empire that lasts for 200 years. NEXT
  17. 17. NEXT The Rise of Persia The Persian Empire The Persian Homeland • Persia (ancient Iran) has fertile land and minerals • Medes and Persians rose to power there SECTION 3 Cyrus the Great Founds an Empire • Starting in 550 B.C., Persian king Cyrus conquers neighboring lands • Governs with tolerance toward conquered peoples • Honors local customs, including religious ones • Allows Jews to return to Israel to rebuild temple of Jerusalem Image
  18. 18. NEXT Persian Rule Cambyses and Darius • Cyrus’s son, Cambyses, conquers Egypt but rules unwisely • Darius seizes control, establishes stability; expands empire to India Provinces and Satraps • Darius divides empire into 20 areas of local administration • Appoints satraps—governors—to rule each area • Build Royal Road to make communication within empire easier • Issues coins that can be used throughout the empire SECTION 3 Image Map Interactive Chart
  19. 19. NEXT The Persian Legacy Zoroaster • Persian thinker called Zoroaster develops new religion SECTION 3 Zoroaster’s Teachings • Life is a battleground between good and evil • One god will judge us by how well we fight for good • Zoroastrianism influenced Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Political Order • Through tolerance and good government, Persians bring political order • Preserve earlier cultures, find new ways to live and rule Image
  20. 20. NEXT Section 4 The Unification of China The social disorder of the warring states contributes to the development of three Chinese ethical systems.
  21. 21. NEXT Confucius and the Social Order The Unification of China Zhou Dynasty • Lasted 1027 to 256 B.C.; ancient values decline near end of dynasty Confucius Urges Harmony • End of Zhou Dynasty is time of disorder • Scholar Confucius wants to restore order, harmony, good government • Stresses developing good relationships, including family • Promotes filial piety—respect for parents and ancestors • Hopes to reform society by promoting good government SECTION 4 Continued . . . Image Image
  22. 22. NEXT Confucian Ideas About Government • Thinks education can transform people • Teachings become foundation for bureaucracy, a trained civil service • Confucianism is an ethical system of right and wrong, not a religion • Chinese government and social order is based on Confucianism continued Confucius and the Social Order SECTION 4
  23. 23. NEXT Other Ethical Systems Daoists Seek Harmony • Laozi teaches that people should follow the natural order of life • Believes that universal force called Dao guides all things • Daoism philosophy is to understand nature and be free of desire • Daoists influence sciences, alchemy, astronomy, medicine Legalists Urge Harsh Rule • Legalism emphasizes the use of law to restore order; stifles criticism • Teaches that obedience should be rewarded, disobedience punished SECTION 4 Continued . . . Image
  24. 24. NEXT I Ching and Yin and Yang • I Ching (The Book of Changes) offers good advice, common sense • Concept of yin and yang—two powers represent rhythm of universe • Yin: cold, dark, soft, mysterious; yang: warm, bright, hard, clear • I Ching and yin and yang explain how people fit into the world continued Other Ethical Systems SECTION 4 Image
  25. 25. NEXT The Qin Dynasty Unifies China The Qin Dynasty • Qin Dynasty replaces Zhou Dynasty in third century B.C. A New Emperor Takes Control • Emperor Shi Huangdi unifies China, ends fighting, conquers new lands • Creates 36 administrative districts controlled by Qin officials • With legalist prime minister, murders Confucian scholars, burns books • Establishes an autocracy, a government with unlimited power SECTION 4 Continued . . . Image
  26. 26. NEXT A Program of Centralization • Shi Huangdi builds highways, irrigation projects; increases trade • Sets standards for writing, law, currency, weights and measures • Harsh rule includes high taxes and repressive government continued The Qin Dynasty Unifies China Great Wall of China • Emperor forces peasants to build Great Wall to keep out invaders The Fall of the Qin • Shi Huangdi’s son loses the throne to rebel leader; Han Dynasty begins SECTION 4 Image
  27. 27. This is the end of the chapter presentation of lecture notes. Click the HOME or EXIT button.
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