NEXT
Hittite archer in chariot.
People and Ideas on the Move,
2000 B.C.–250 B.C.
Migrations by Indo-
Europeans led to majo...
NEXT
People and Ideas on the Move,
2000 B.C.–250 B.C.
SECTION 1
SECTION 2
SECTION 3
SECTION 4
The Indo-Europeans
Hinduism ...
NEXT
Section 1
The Indo-Europeans
Indo-Europeans migrate into Europe,
India, and Southwest Asia and interact
with peoples ...
NEXT
Indo-Europeans Migrate
Indo-Europeans
Characteristics of Indo-Europeans
• Indo-Europeans—nomadic, pastoral people;
ta...
NEXT
The Hittite Empire
SECTION
1
The Hittite Arrival
• Hittites—a group of Indo-European speakers
• Take control of Anato...
NEXT
Aryans Transform India
Continued . . .
SECTION
1
The Aryan People
• Aryans—Indo-European people, enter Indus
River Va...
NEXT
Aryan Kingdoms Arise
• Aryans extend settlements to other river valleys
• Small kingdoms arise
• Magadha kingdom unit...
NEXT
The beliefs of the Vedic Age develop into
Hinduism and Buddhism.
Section 2
Hinduism and
Buddhism Develop
NEXT
Hinduism Evolves Over Centuries
Hinduism and Buddhism Develop
Hinduism
• Collection of religious beliefs that develop...
NEXT
SECTION
2
Hinduism Changes and Develops
• Over last 2,500 years different forms of gods
grow in importance
• Today, H...
NEXT
The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment
Continued . . .
Siddhartha Gautama
• Founder of Buddhism; priests prophesized his
grea...
NEXT
SECTION
2
Origins and Beliefs
• Buddha begins to teach followers
• Preaches Four Noble Truths—basic philosophy of
Bud...
NEXT
SECTION
2
The Religious Community
• Some followers devote lives to religion, become
monks and nuns
• Three bases of B...
NEXT
SECTION
2
Buddhism in India
• Spreads to other parts of Asia
• Never gains firm hold in India; Hinduism remains
stron...
Section 3
Seafaring Traders
Trading societies extend the development
of civilization beyond the Fertile Crescent
region.
N...
NEXT
Minoans Trade in the Mediterranean
Seafaring Traders
The Minoan People
• The Minoans, powerful seafaring people, live...
NEXT
Unearthing a Brilliant Civilization
• Excavations of Knossos, capital city of Minoan
civilization, revealed:
- Minoan...
NEXT
Minoan Culture’s Mysterious End
• Earthquakes in 1700 B.C. caused damage, but
Minoans rebuild
• In 1470 B.C. major ea...
NEXT
Phoenicians Spread Trade and Civilization
The Phoenician People
• Phoenicians—powerful traders in wealthy city-
state...
NEXT
Ancient Trade Routes
Trade Links Peoples
• Land routes link Mediterranean world and Asia
• Indian traders sail to Sou...
NEXT
Section 4
The Origins of Judaism
The Hebrews maintain monotheistic
religious beliefs that were unique in the
ancient ...
NEXT
The Search for a Promised Land
The Origins of Judaism
Ancient Palestine
• Palestine was region on eastern shores of
M...
NEXT
SECTION
4
The God of Abraham
• Hebrews are monotheists, believing in one God
only—Yahweh
• Yahweh is all powerful, no...
NEXT
Moses and the Exodus
Hebrews Migrate to Egypt
• At first Hebrews are honored in Egyptian kingdom;
later become slaves...
NEXT
SECTION
4
The Land and People of the Bible
• Torah tells of Hebrews wandering Sinai Desert for
40 years
• Arrive in C...
NEXT
The Kingdom of Isreal
Canaan
• Land that Hebrews believe God promised them
• Canaan land is harsh; Hebrews expand sou...
NEXT
SECTION
4
Solomon Builds the Kingdom
• David’s son Solomon becomes King; makes
Israel a trading empire
• He builds a ...
NEXT
The Babylonian Captivity
A Conquered People
• In 738 B.C. Israel and Judah pay tribute (money for
peace) to Assyria
•...
This is the end of the chapter presentation of
lecture notes. Click the HOME or EXIT button.
BACK
Print Slide Show
1. On the File menu, select Print
2. In the pop-up menu, select Microsoft PowerPoint
If the dialog b...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Chapter03

670

Published on

Published in: Spiritual, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
670
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
11
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter03

  1. 1. NEXT Hittite archer in chariot. People and Ideas on the Move, 2000 B.C.–250 B.C. Migrations by Indo- Europeans led to major changes in trade and language as well as to the foundations of three religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, and Judaism.
  2. 2. NEXT People and Ideas on the Move, 2000 B.C.–250 B.C. SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 The Indo-Europeans Hinduism and Buddhism Seafaring Traders The Origins of Judaism Map
  3. 3. NEXT Section 1 The Indo-Europeans Indo-Europeans migrate into Europe, India, and Southwest Asia and interact with peoples living there.
  4. 4. NEXT Indo-Europeans Migrate Indo-Europeans Characteristics of Indo-Europeans • Indo-Europeans—nomadic, pastoral people; tamed horses, rode chariots • Came from the steppes—dry grasslands north of the Caucasus mountains The Indo-European Language Family • Language ancestral to many modern languages of Europe and Asia • English, Spanish, Persian, Hindu trace origins to original Indo-European • Language groups settled in different areas An Unexplained Migration • 1700–1200 B.C. Indo-Europeans migrated, moved in all directions SECTION 1 Map
  5. 5. NEXT The Hittite Empire SECTION 1 The Hittite Arrival • Hittites—a group of Indo-European speakers • Take control of Anatolia (Asia Minor) around 2000 B.C. • City-states join to form empire; dominate Southwest Asia for 450 years Hittites Adopt and Adapt • Borrowed ideas from Mesopotamian culture; adopted Babylonian language Chariots and Iron Technology • Hittites skilled in war; spread iron technology by trade and conquest • Empire falls around 1190 B.C. after attacks from northern tribes Image
  6. 6. NEXT Aryans Transform India Continued . . . SECTION 1 The Aryan People • Aryans—Indo-European people, enter Indus River Valley around 1500 B.C. • Sacred writing, the Vedas, reveal much of their culture A Caste System Develops • Aryans physically distinct from people of India • Four castes, or social classes, develop: - priests (Brahmans) - warriors - peasants or traders - laborers • People are born into their caste for life • Hundreds of subgroups arise later
  7. 7. NEXT Aryan Kingdoms Arise • Aryans extend settlements to other river valleys • Small kingdoms arise • Magadha kingdom unites all and spreads across India by 100 B.C. • Epic Mahabharata reflects blending of Aryan and non-Aryan culture continued Aryans Transform India SECTION 1 Image Map
  8. 8. NEXT The beliefs of the Vedic Age develop into Hinduism and Buddhism. Section 2 Hinduism and Buddhism Develop
  9. 9. NEXT Hinduism Evolves Over Centuries Hinduism and Buddhism Develop Hinduism • Collection of religious beliefs that developed slowly over time • No one founder with a single set of ideas Origins and Beliefs • 750–500 B.C. Hindu teachers create Upanishads—texts of teachings • Each person has atman—soul united with all others in Brahman • In reincarnation, people reborn to new lives • A soul’s good and bad deeds, karma, determines course of new life Continued . . . SECTION 2
  10. 10. NEXT SECTION 2 Hinduism Changes and Develops • Over last 2,500 years different forms of gods grow in importance • Today, Hindus choose own path to moksha—a state of perfect understanding continued Hinduism Evolves Over Centuries Hinduism and Society • Hinduism strengthened the caste system New Religions Arise • Jainism, a new religion, arises in 500s B.C. • Jains will not harm any creature • They work in trade, commerce; practice religious tolerance Image
  11. 11. NEXT The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment Continued . . . Siddhartha Gautama • Founder of Buddhism; priests prophesized his greatness Siddhartha’s Quest • Raised in isolation, Siddhartha Gautama wants to learn about world • Seeks enlightenment (wisdom), how to escape human suffering • Tries many methods; gains enlightenment by meditating • Becomes the Buddha, the “enlightened one” SECTION 2 Image
  12. 12. NEXT SECTION 2 Origins and Beliefs • Buddha begins to teach followers • Preaches Four Noble Truths—basic philosophy of Buddhism • Fourth Noble Truth is to follow the Eightfold path to achieve nirvana • Nirvana: - a perfect state of understanding - a release from selfishness and pain - a break from the chain of reincarnations, rebirths • Buddha rejects caste system and multiple gods of Hinduism continued The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment Continued . . . Chart
  13. 13. NEXT SECTION 2 The Religious Community • Some followers devote lives to religion, become monks and nuns • Three bases of Buddhism: Buddha, religious community, teachings continued The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment Buddhism and Society • Many followers at first among poor and lower caste • Monks and nuns spread Buddha’s teachings • Teachings written to become sacred literature Continued . . . Image
  14. 14. NEXT SECTION 2 Buddhism in India • Spreads to other parts of Asia • Never gains firm hold in India; Hinduism remains strong • Buddhist pilgrims often visit India continued The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment Trade and the Spread of Buddhism • Buddhism spreads by traders to: - Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Sumatra - China, Korea, Japan Map Interactive
  15. 15. Section 3 Seafaring Traders Trading societies extend the development of civilization beyond the Fertile Crescent region. NEXT
  16. 16. NEXT Minoans Trade in the Mediterranean Seafaring Traders The Minoan People • The Minoans, powerful seafaring people, live on Crete in Aegean Sea • Dominate trade in eastern Mediterranean from 2000 to 1400 B.C. • Culture influences others, especially Greeks SECTION 3 Continued . . . Map
  17. 17. NEXT Unearthing a Brilliant Civilization • Excavations of Knossos, capital city of Minoan civilization, revealed: - Minoans were peaceful, athletic, lovers of nature and beauty - Women had major role, especially in religion - Sacrificed animals, and sometimes people, to gods • Archaelogists name civilization Minoa after King Minos - King Minos—legendary king who owned a minotaur continued Minoans Trade in the Mediterranean SECTION 3 Continued . . . Image
  18. 18. NEXT Minoan Culture’s Mysterious End • Earthquakes in 1700 B.C. caused damage, but Minoans rebuild • In 1470 B.C. major earthquakes and volcanic eruption • Minoans never recover from disasters • Invaders from Greece take Minoan lands continued Minoans Trade in the Mediterranean SECTION 3
  19. 19. NEXT Phoenicians Spread Trade and Civilization The Phoenician People • Phoenicians—powerful traders in wealthy city- states along Mediterranean • Skilled shipbuilders, seafarers; sailed around continent of Africa Commercial Outposts Around the Mediterranean • Phoenicians set up colonies in western and central Mediterranean • Famous for red-purple dye produced from snail Phoenicia’s Great Legacy: The Alphabet • Developed system of writing to record trade deals • Later developed into western alphabet SECTION 3 Image Image Image
  20. 20. NEXT Ancient Trade Routes Trade Links Peoples • Land routes link Mediterranean world and Asia • Indian traders sail to Southeast Asia and Indonesia • Trade helps spread culture, ideas, religion SECTION 3 Map
  21. 21. NEXT Section 4 The Origins of Judaism The Hebrews maintain monotheistic religious beliefs that were unique in the ancient world.
  22. 22. NEXT The Search for a Promised Land The Origins of Judaism Ancient Palestine • Palestine was region on eastern shores of Mediterranean • Hebrew people settled in Canaan, land promised to them by God From Ur to Egypt • Torah, first five books of Hebrew Bible, tells early history of Hebrews • In Torah, God chose Abraham, a shepherd, to be father of Hebrew people • Abraham moves family and herds from Ur to Canaan around 1800 B.C. • Around 1650 B.C. Abraham’s descendants move to Egypt SECTION 4 Continued . . . Image
  23. 23. NEXT SECTION 4 The God of Abraham • Hebrews are monotheists, believing in one God only—Yahweh • Yahweh is all powerful, not a physical being • A mutual promise, covenant, is made between God and Abraham • Abraham promises to obey God, Yahweh promises protection continued The Search for a Promised Land Image
  24. 24. NEXT Moses and the Exodus Hebrews Migrate to Egypt • At first Hebrews are honored in Egyptian kingdom; later become slaves “Let My People Go” • Hebrews flee Egypt between 1300 and 1200 B.C. • Bible tells of God’s command that Moses lead this “Exodus” A New Covenant • Moses receives Ten Commandments—become basis of Hebrew law SECTION 4 Continued . . . Image
  25. 25. NEXT SECTION 4 The Land and People of the Bible • Torah tells of Hebrews wandering Sinai Desert for 40 years • Arrive in Canaan form twelve tribes; judges provide leadership continued Moses and the Exodus A Hebrew Law • Women and men have separate roles, responsibilities • Law includes strict justice softened by mercy • Prophets arise later to interpret the law • They teach people to live moral lives
  26. 26. NEXT The Kingdom of Isreal Canaan • Land that Hebrews believe God promised them • Canaan land is harsh; Hebrews expand south and north Saul and David Establish a Kingdom • Hebrews threatened by Philistines to the north • Only one tribe remains, Judah; Hebrew religion called Judaism • From 1020 to 922 B.C. Hebrews (Jews) unite; new kingdom called Israel • King David establishes Jerusalem as capital SECTION 4 Continued . . .
  27. 27. NEXT SECTION 4 Solomon Builds the Kingdom • David’s son Solomon becomes King; makes Israel a trading empire • He builds a magnificent temple and royal palace in Jerusalem continued The Kingdom of Israel The Kingdom Divides • High taxes and forced labor lead Jews in north to revolt • By 922 B.C. kingdom divides in two—Israel in north, Judah in south • 200 years of conflict follow Image Interactive
  28. 28. NEXT The Babylonian Captivity A Conquered People • In 738 B.C. Israel and Judah pay tribute (money for peace) to Assyria • By 722 B.C. Assyrians conquer Israel • In 586 B.C. Babylonians conquer Judah, destroy Solomon’s Temple • Many surviving Jews exiled to Babylon • In 539 B.C. Persians conquer Babylon; 40,000 Jews return to Jerusalem • Temple and walls rebuilt; land later ruled by Persians, Greeks, Romans SECTION 4
  29. 29. This is the end of the chapter presentation of lecture notes. Click the HOME or EXIT button.
  30. 30. BACK Print Slide Show 1. On the File menu, select Print 2. In the pop-up menu, select Microsoft PowerPoint If the dialog box does not include this pop-up, continue to step 4 3. In the Print what box, choose the presentation format you want to print: slides, notes, handouts, or outline 4. Click the Print button to print the PowerPoint presentation Print Text Version 1. Click the Print Text button below; a text file will open in Adobe Acrobat 2. On the File menu, select Print 3. Click the Print button to print the entire document, or select the pages you want to print Print TextPrint Text
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×