0
Using Personas
(and Stories)
Effectively
TriUXPA – February 26, 2014
Whitney Quesenbery
WQusability and Center for Civic D...
Hi!
User research, usability, accessibility
 Former theatre designer




Personas (and their stories) as a way to
commu...
What do you hope to get out of this workshop?

3
What are we going to do?


Personas: background and concepts



Stories: and why they work



Creating personas



De...
Personas and UX
Kindersandi.moonfruit.com
What do think personas are?
What is the value of personas?

6
Personas can help address big challenges in UX


Hearing users at all



Organizing increasing
amounts of data





Bu...
Personas remind us to see the individual

How do we understand each
person, not as part of a
demographic, but as an indivi...
What‟s in a persona?

A. About the person
B. Goals & motivations
C. Attitudes and data
D. Background story
E. Scenarios
9
Personas create an integrated view of user research


Personas are built from data



They put a human face on
analytics...
Personas can document assumptions

11
Stories connect us
Couriemail.com.au
We all tell stories

13
Personas and stories both start with listening


Why listen?
 Deeply understand others
 Empower the speaker



Researc...
Listening is not a competitive sport
Be an appreciative listener
 Give them your full attention
 Acknoweldge what you he...
Listening Exercise


Work in pairs



1 minute each to be the speaker - then switch



Speaker‟s job: speak about somet...
Ask the questions that encourage stories
“Have you ever [done something]?”
“How often do you [do that thing]?”
“What makes...
Listen (and watch) for juicy tidbits







Stories you hear from more than one source
Strong detail and action
Detai...
Stories communicate patterns


They...



Communicate culture





Store and transmit knowledge
Explore new ideas

Th...
Stories create relationships
Stories are not a broadcast
Personas create connections
Persona stories create a
relationship between you and
the audience

22
Stories create connections

Sharing what you learn creates a
second story triangle with the
larger team

23
Stories create connections

Personas bridge the gap
between everyone on the
team and the users the
personas represent.

24
A story is shared by everyone who hears it
First the storyteller shapes the
story
As they listen, the audience
members for...
A story is shared by everyone who hears it
The storyteller and
the audience each
affects the other and
shapes the story
th...
Stories change how we think

Our experience of the
world is shaped by our
interpretations of it, the
stories we tell
ourse...
Stories can be efficient
Tanner was deep into a Skatepunkz game—all
the way up to level 12—when he got a buddy
message fro...
Stories are embedded in the UX cycle
Collecting stories:
hearing what other
people have to say

Understand

Analysis:

fin...
Storytelling is already part of UX…
We just don‟t call them stories

User research
Field studies
Site visits

Analysis

Ca...
Personas come in groups






Organized around a clear set of distinctions between behavior
A spectrum of different re...
A clear set of distinctions


Look for variables that identify distinct
differences between participants


Test pairs of...
A spectrum of roles and relationships

33
Open University Personas


Student personas cover a
complete student journey


When we first meet them



Enquiry proce...
Personas can grow over time
SELF-HELPERS
& CAREGIVERS
Assistance and Tools
- recipes and diet
- checklists
- resources

in...
Melissa

Laura

Elizabeth

InfoSeeker

Caregiver

Expert

“I don‟t like to go
backwards to go forwards”

“I want to know h...
Quickly brainstorm as many stories as you can about how someone using
public transit might need, use, or miss information....
Daily use of public transport
Henry
Commuter
P4

11

P6
35

1
7

xx

xx
36

P5

P
7

Anne
Commuter plus
most local travel
...
One model for public transit riders
Daily use

Commuters

People without
cars
Unfamiliar with
area

Know area
well

People...
Start from…
Your stories
And..

Decide on the basics: Name, age, gender, job, family
Where they live and work
How they get...
How will you tell the story?
Mary and Leonard Trujillo – The Mudhead Gallery
What makes a good story?





Stories have
Time and place
Characters
Events

But they also have
 Emotions
 Imagery
...
Scenarios + emotions turn into stories
As a [role] I can [do something] so that [benefit]

+

+
Imagery + Emotion + Contex...
Stories turn profiles into personas

Elizabeth, 32 years old
Married to Joe, has a 5-year old
son, Justin
Aged 30-45

Atte...
Whose style do you tell the story in
If you are telling a story from research, you start with the way you heard
the story....
Choose your voice
Third Person

Second Person

First Person

Story is told about
someone, looking at them
from the outside...
3rd person allows you to explain and interpret

Mary works as a nurse in a hectic
women’s health center for a lowincome ne...
2nd person creates conversation

How can you show the conversation?




Persona by Caroline Jarrett for the Open Univers...
1st person invites identity





You represent the persona and
tell the story from their point of
view.
Lets you “get in...
Add a story for your persona
Focus on imagery, emotion, context
It can be a story about a detail or small event

Help us u...
Comic books


Narrative visual storytelling
can tell a story efficiently



US Army maintenance
newsletter in comic book...
Weave stories into your reports



52

Identify
personas, not
just
participants
Cartoons




Reveal thoughts



53

Show relevant details

Show interactions
Create an identity




54

Their identity
Timeline
Snapshot
Social media storytelling


Six word (or 140 character) stories
can show a


Timelines



Attitudes



Events



Inte...
Make a video

The NCI Cancer Bulletin: http://www.cancer.gov/ncicancerbulletin/101910/page6
Visual Collage






Color
Style
Preferences
Selections
Cultural
markers

57

http://3libraschild.deviantart.com/
Introducing personas
Personas are a way to communicate


Within a project team



Stimulus for design discussions





Team exercise in cr...
Get everyone involved in creating the personas


The process of creating personas is as important as the final results

...
Introducing personas at National Cancer Institute

61
Introducing personas at National Cancer Institute

62
Don‟t be too protective


Acknowledge that they are a work in progress.





Ask for more input
Be open to the possibi...
Make the personas hard to miss


You have to use them if you want everyone else to do so.



Make them part of everyday ...
Share personas through posters




Make a large version of the
personas and post them near
meeting rooms or team desks
U...
Immersive environments encourage stories

Ad agencies create
rooms that represent the
target market for a
brand.

66

http...
Interviewing the personas


Used to





Explore the personas in general
Imagine reactions to new ideas

For general i...
.

What questions do we want to ask the
personas?

68
Pair up: one of you is the interviewer, one is the personas
Interviewers: ask open-ended questions without judgment
Person...
Keep personas fresh


You might add characteristics related to new technologies





Update the types of technology th...
Changing the mix of personas


You might add or remove personas from the set






The OU added courses to appeal to a...
Keep personas from “going feral”


If the personas start to sound too “good” they may be






Do they love everything...
Look through their eyes
Swindon Advertiser
First click analysis (vote with your fingertips)
For any page (especially home pages and landing pages)


What part of th...
Document the results

75
Let personas rate proposed features
Let the personas weigh in to rate ideas for new features or
functionality.





Can...
Compare value for personas and difficulty for business
HIGH
Benefit to personas

Work on these
LATER

Work on these
NOW

L...
Persona-led Reviews
Look at a site or feature through the eyes of a persona


Use the persona's perspective instead of yo...
Step 1: Don‟t look at it (yet)


Sounds contradictory?
You have only one chance to look at something
for the first time a...
Step 2: Write a story


Choose a persona
It lets you think about the experience from their point of view
(or assign one p...
Step 3: Try to use it - as one of the personas



"Channel" your persona.
Start where your persona would in the story.
...
http://www.raleighnc.gov/transit/

82
Step 4: Compare notes


How similar or different were the experiences?



Look for relationship problems




Look for ...
Personas-led heuristic review


Ginny Redish and Dana Chisnell did a large review of 50 websites
for AARP using previousl...
Designing with personas
Tomorrow and Tomorrow
Use personas to frame design ideas
Our products have different
names in different
countries, so it can be hard
to manage i...
Stories can kick off design brainstorming



Points of pain stories – show a problem



Stories based on analytics – sho...
Show a point of pain
Mary was filling in on payroll while Kathy, the office manager, was
away. On Thursday, Kathy left her...
Stories are not a detailed task analysis
Focus on the story
 Establish the scene with imagery
 What‟s the time-frame?
 ...
Use (relevant) details to compare and contrast


Include details outside of their interaction with your product, but
conn...
Brainstorming with stories


Challenge yourself (or a group) to come up with lots of quick examples
of problems




Tie...
Personas keep design work grounded


Bring personas to design
sessions


Use the personas to work
through design problem...
Role play (or Informance)


Used to





Explore how a persona interacts with a product or each other
Extend a persona...
Structure the story to help make your point clear
Some stories are a simple narrative
 Prescriptive structure
Framing str...
Story structures: the frame
Framing structures create
contrast
 Me - Them - Me
 Here - There - Here
 Now - Then - Now

...
Frame example
Opening Frame

Contrast Frame

Resolution

96

When Melissa needed a new window shade, she had a
mental pict...
Story structures: the journey

97
Journey example


Think of any story that involves technical support!

98
Your choice of medium
Words
Comics
Cartoons
Social media

Collage

Create a story of a future, better, trip that your
pers...
Find them in the wild
Match participants to personas
They started life as a way to analyse data from the real world. Now make
sure that you can ...
Recruit usability participants to persona demographics
Job/role
Education
Age
Goals
Web/technology use

102
Matching participant screening questions to persona
demographics
Question

Match to
personas?

What this indicates in
the ...
Persona stories become evaluation tasks


They give you a broad range of
scenarios and perspectives to
draw on.



They ...
Participants can set their own tasks


Use the persona stories to write the beginning of a scenario and use it
to launch ...
Example from the OU
Opening Interview

Ask participant about their interest in university
study, subjects, goals. How far ...
Carol

Jacob

Lea

Emily

Maria

Steven

Vishnu

Bring the outside inside
Trevor
Create the stories you want other people to tell

What connections do you want to make?
108
Storytelling for User Experience
with Kevin Brooks

Global UX
with Daniel Szuc

A Web for Everyone
with Sarah Horton
http:...
Whitney Quesenbery
whitneyq@wqusability.com
www.wqusability.com
@whitneyq

Center for Civic Design
whitneyq@centerforcivic...
Carol

Jacob

Lea

Emily

Steven

Vishnu

Accessible UX
Personas
Maria

Trevor
Personas can have a surprise ending

Maria

Emily

• Community health
worker
• Married with grown
children
• Smartphone is...
Maria
"I love this. It's all here...when I can find it."


Maria
• 49 years old
• Community college +
healthcare certific...
"The right technology lets me
do anything."


Jacob
• 32 years old
• College graduate, legal
training courses
• Shares an...
Demographics

Goals

Info needs

Emotions

Usability needs

Name, role/tagline

Background story

Scenarios
Persona-Led Review Worksheet
Persona
Goal and Scenario

First reaction

Interaction/path

Outcome
Who

Who

are they?

are they?

Where

Where

are they going?

are they going?

What

What

might happen?

might happen?

...
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Using Personas and Stories Effectively - Workshop for TriUXPA

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  • They are part of what we do... and they can make our work better
  • Quantitative dataSearch logsSite logsSales dataQualitative dataUser researchMarket researchUsability testingInformal information gatheringAnd…The stories behind the dataSurvey or other quantitative
  • You’ve gone out and listened to users, and you’ve heard their stories and their dreams, and what delights them.You’ve gathered the analystics – site logs and search logs – and used them to build the personas
  • You’ve gone out and listened to users, and you’ve heard their stories and their dreams, and what delights them.You’ve gathered the analystics – site logs and search logs – and used them to build the personas
  • You’ve gone out and listened to users, and you’ve heard their stories and their dreams, and what delights them.You’ve gathered the analystics – site logs and search logs – and used them to build the personas
  • In the real world, this would be a long research processBut today, we're going to create assumption personasBrainstorm stories about travelLook for affinity groupsIdentify a few personas
  • Try telling the story in first person. Informance: Representing an idea by acting in order to explore, explain and share it.Role playing: Act out the interaction of serviceWhy?It’s harder to talk about someone when you are being themCheck whether reactions feel natural or forced
  • Hand out transit web sites to evaluate
  • Transcript of "Using Personas and Stories Effectively - Workshop for TriUXPA"

    1. 1. Using Personas (and Stories) Effectively TriUXPA – February 26, 2014 Whitney Quesenbery WQusability and Center for Civic Design Twitter @whitneyq
    2. 2. Hi! User research, usability, accessibility  Former theatre designer   Personas (and their stories) as a way to communicate what we know about users, culture and context  Researcher in new UI technologies Performance storyteller   2 Storytelling as a pivotal part of the creation, performance, and design process.
    3. 3. What do you hope to get out of this workshop? 3
    4. 4. What are we going to do?  Personas: background and concepts  Stories: and why they work  Creating personas   Definining the set  Writing a persona  Adding stories Introducing your personas: getting to know them better  Seeing through personas eyes: to review a product, feature, site....  Designing with personas: from problem stories to solution stories  Using personas for evaluation Analysis  4 Gathering information 
    5. 5. Personas and UX Kindersandi.moonfruit.com
    6. 6. What do think personas are? What is the value of personas? 6
    7. 7. Personas can help address big challenges in UX  Hearing users at all  Organizing increasing amounts of data   Building consensus around a clear, consistent view A realistic view of the people we design for 7 General market knowledge Points of pain Business or other functions met by the product Competitive marketplace and analysis Market segments Context of use Web analytics
    8. 8. Personas remind us to see the individual How do we understand each person, not as part of a demographic, but as an individual with a history, goals, actions and a relationship to the product
    9. 9. What‟s in a persona? A. About the person B. Goals & motivations C. Attitudes and data D. Background story E. Scenarios 9
    10. 10. Personas create an integrated view of user research  Personas are built from data  They put a human face on analytics  And their stories built empathy by suggesting the real people behind the persona 10
    11. 11. Personas can document assumptions 11
    12. 12. Stories connect us Couriemail.com.au
    13. 13. We all tell stories 13
    14. 14. Personas and stories both start with listening  Why listen?  Deeply understand others  Empower the speaker  Research is about listening  Ask for stories, not just opinion  Listen for the emotion, attitudes, context in the stories  Good listening elicits good stories  Build a connection that bridges context and culture  Built trust – “They understand me” 14
    15. 15. Listening is not a competitive sport Be an appreciative listener  Give them your full attention  Acknoweldge what you hear, non-verbally  Give the person time to think as well as talk  Don‟t rush the end – sometimes people have one last thought 15
    16. 16. Listening Exercise  Work in pairs  1 minute each to be the speaker - then switch  Speaker‟s job: speak about something relatively comfortable  Listener‟s job: just listen. Don‟t have to talk, interrupt or fill silences. Talk about something you made that you are proud of.
    17. 17. Ask the questions that encourage stories “Have you ever [done something]?” “How often do you [do that thing]?” “What makes you decide to [do that thing]?” “Where do you [do that thing]?” + + “When was the last time you [did that thing]?” “Tell me about that.” (and really listen) 17
    18. 18. Listen (and watch) for juicy tidbits      Stories you hear from more than one source Strong detail and action Details that illuminate other user data or analytics Stories that contradict common beliefs Simple, clear, and compelling 18
    19. 19. Stories communicate patterns  They...   Communicate culture   Store and transmit knowledge Explore new ideas They help us…  Share information in memorable form  Understand emotion and desires 19
    20. 20. Stories create relationships
    21. 21. Stories are not a broadcast
    22. 22. Personas create connections Persona stories create a relationship between you and the audience 22
    23. 23. Stories create connections Sharing what you learn creates a second story triangle with the larger team 23
    24. 24. Stories create connections Personas bridge the gap between everyone on the team and the users the personas represent. 24
    25. 25. A story is shared by everyone who hears it First the storyteller shapes the story As they listen, the audience members form an image of the story in their own minds.
    26. 26. A story is shared by everyone who hears it The storyteller and the audience each affects the other and shapes the story they create. The most important relationship is between the audience and the story. The audience is a part of the story each time it is told.
    27. 27. Stories change how we think Our experience of the world is shaped by our interpretations of it, the stories we tell ourselves.... so the key to personal transformation is story transformation. Timothy Wilson, author of “Redirect” 27 Maria Popova, „Redirect‟: A New Way to Think about Psychological Change, The Atlantic
    28. 28. Stories can be efficient Tanner was deep into a Skatepunkz game—all the way up to level 12—when he got a buddy message from his friend, Steve, with a question about his homework. He looked up with a start. Almost bedtime and his homework was still not done. Mom or Dad would be in any minute. 28
    29. 29. Stories are embedded in the UX cycle Collecting stories: hearing what other people have to say Understand Analysis: finding patterns in shared stories Evaluate Success? Specify Evaluation: testing designs to see if they tell the story well Design Design: creating ideas that embody key stories
    30. 30. Storytelling is already part of UX… We just don‟t call them stories User research Field studies Site visits Analysis Card sorting Cluster sorting Content analysis Evaluation Usability Testing Log Analysis Design Scenarios Wireframes Prototype walkthrough
    31. 31. Personas come in groups     Organized around a clear set of distinctions between behavior A spectrum of different relationships with the organization Stages in behavior or relationships Do the personas represent a person, an activity, or a relationship  One persona can grow over time  Or each persona can represent a slice of time, a single role  Personas can cover multiple secondary roles, with one primary role 31
    32. 32. A clear set of distinctions  Look for variables that identify distinct differences between participants  Test pairs of variables by plotting participants against them on a matrix  P8 Try again until patterns start to emerge Clusters of participants represent possible personas  P 1 Do they have a defining characteristic? P6 P10 1 3 P4 How are they different from the others?  P5 How are these people alike?  P7 P3 P1 2  P2 P9 Look for clusters of participants  11 In each cluster, one participant will often be the inspiration for the persona
    33. 33. A spectrum of roles and relationships 33
    34. 34. Open University Personas  Student personas cover a complete student journey  When we first meet them  Enquiry process  First module  Progression through their university career  Further on in life  And, we can write stories for them for any project 34
    35. 35. Personas can grow over time SELF-HELPERS & CAREGIVERS Assistance and Tools - recipes and diet - checklists - resources info in the tools leads to specific questions EXPERTS Specific Questions - disease updates - diagnostic info learn what they need INFOSEEKERS General Information - warnings/risks - what is it gain more knowledge
    36. 36. Melissa Laura Elizabeth InfoSeeker Caregiver Expert “I don‟t like to go backwards to go forwards” “I want to know how to help my “I don‟t stay on a site long if husband” nothing jumps out at me” Goals: Looking for new information Goals: Looking for helpful information Typical Questions: What is <condition>? Am I at risk? Typical Questions: What do I need to know about it? What are the next steps I should take? Top Usability Need: Engaging - I can tell I‟m in the right place by the amount and level of information Top Usability Needs: Effective - I need resources, and the right information Risks Curious - needs to be drawn in. Little sense of site loyalty Risks Needs information she can act on Goals: Information I can use Answers to specific questions Typical Questions: Tell me something new I want the latest! I need <this> information. Top Usability Needs: Efficient: Give me a search box and I‟ll tell you exactly what I want Risks Already knows the basics
    37. 37. Quickly brainstorm as many stories as you can about how someone using public transit might need, use, or miss information. This is rapid sketching with words Who is the story about Where are they going / What are they doing What might happen: what information do they need / why do they need it Let's create some personas.... Start by brainstorming some stories 37
    38. 38. Daily use of public transport Henry Commuter P4 11 P6 35 1 7 xx xx 36 P5 P 7 Anne Commuter plus most local travel 40 P5 1 2 35 P 1 10 1 5 22 32 27 1 3 26 Travels to familiar places Temp workers at 30 different locations 25 P8 P2 2 1 Travels to unknown places P9 Gail Travels into city When needed Mrs. Henderson Local travel 2-3x week 33 28 1 7 Jim Travels only on vacation # 1 4 1 5 1 4 # Travel to specific 1 places like 5 sports events Occasional use of public transport 1 8 P3 23 P4
    39. 39. One model for public transit riders Daily use Commuters People without cars Unfamiliar with area Know area well People who live near the city Travel for special occasions Tourists / visitors Occasional use 39
    40. 40. Start from… Your stories And.. Decide on the basics: Name, age, gender, job, family Where they live and work How they get around: do they own a car, use public transit… And now, let's sketch out the personas 40
    41. 41. How will you tell the story? Mary and Leonard Trujillo – The Mudhead Gallery
    42. 42. What makes a good story?     Stories have Time and place Characters Events But they also have  Emotions  Imagery  Interaction  Motivation 42 metaphor, movement, weather, atmosphere, hap piness, pride, frustration, boredom, joy, smell, an ger, pleasure, history, context, time, goals....
    43. 43. Scenarios + emotions turn into stories As a [role] I can [do something] so that [benefit] + + Imagery + Emotion + Context + Motivation 43
    44. 44. Stories turn profiles into personas Elizabeth, 32 years old Married to Joe, has a 5-year old son, Justin Aged 30-45 Attended State College, and manages her class alumni site 45% married with children Uses Google as her home page, and reads CNN online Use the web 3-5 times a week Used the web to find the name of a local official 65% college educated 44
    45. 45. Whose style do you tell the story in If you are telling a story from research, you start with the way you heard the story. Then, do you: Use language, terminology, and grammar they way you heard it or  Clean up and translate into the language of your team  Are you trying to communicate  Research authority and a neutral picture - a “realist tale”  Your experience of the story – a “confessional tale”  The perspectives of the persona – an “impressionist tale” John van Mannen – Tales from the Field 45
    46. 46. Choose your voice Third Person Second Person First Person Story is told about someone, looking at them from the outside Story is a conversation between the storyteller and another person Story is told from the point of view of the main character For example: A UX person telling stories about how several different people responded to a prototype. For example: Feedback to a participant or other stakeholder, For example: A UX person telling the story of their own reactions. Persona stories, especially if there is more than one Talking directly to users of a product Retelling a story from the point of view of the original experience. Maintains a distance between “us” and “them” Creates a direct connection and invites the other person to respond. Invites the audience to look at the story through the eyes of the character 46 “Interviewing a persona”
    47. 47. 3rd person allows you to explain and interpret Mary works as a nurse in a hectic women’s health center for a lowincome neighborhood. … Her questions about cancer mostly come from her patients, or from wanting to be sure that she catches any early signs. … She has learned conversational Spanish, so she can talk to her patients for whom this is a first language. … When she looks things up on the Web, she tends to go back to familiar sites 47 Whose words and thoughts are these?  Are these things that Mary would say or are they our interpretation of all the data and stories that went into the Mary persona?  How can we show when we are using her own words?
    48. 48. 2nd person creates conversation How can you show the conversation?   Persona by Caroline Jarrett for the Open University Interviews maintain a separation Conversations can also happen between two personas
    49. 49. 1st person invites identity   You represent the persona and tell the story from their point of view. Lets you “get into the head” of the story (an “impressionist tale”) OR  49 First person can tell your story of your experience with the person (a “confessional tale”)
    50. 50. Add a story for your persona Focus on imagery, emotion, context It can be a story about a detail or small event Help us understand their personality or emotional context Write a story .. 50
    51. 51. Comic books  Narrative visual storytelling can tell a story efficiently  US Army maintenance newsletter in comic book form 51
    52. 52. Weave stories into your reports  52 Identify personas, not just participants
    53. 53. Cartoons   Reveal thoughts  53 Show relevant details Show interactions
    54. 54. Create an identity    54 Their identity Timeline Snapshot
    55. 55. Social media storytelling  Six word (or 140 character) stories can show a  Timelines  Attitudes  Events  Interactions 55
    56. 56. Make a video The NCI Cancer Bulletin: http://www.cancer.gov/ncicancerbulletin/101910/page6
    57. 57. Visual Collage      Color Style Preferences Selections Cultural markers 57 http://3libraschild.deviantart.com/
    58. 58. Introducing personas
    59. 59. Personas are a way to communicate  Within a project team   Stimulus for design discussions   Team exercise in creating the personas For evaluation Between departments   As a basis for comparing and evaluating projects that touch customers and users To the whole company  A vision of the audience and how the product will be used
    60. 60. Get everyone involved in creating the personas  The process of creating personas is as important as the final results   More perspectives included in the personas   Better buy-in for something you have worked on The process itself is important in understanding others Use interactive exercises to introduce personas    Gives everyone a chance to work with them Validates their perspectives Ideas  Have the group sketch “assumption personas” and then match them to the created personas.  Have small groups write stories for the personas as a way to explore them. 60
    61. 61. Introducing personas at National Cancer Institute 61
    62. 62. Introducing personas at National Cancer Institute 62
    63. 63. Don‟t be too protective  Acknowledge that they are a work in progress.    Ask for more input Be open to the possibility of further improvement Accept that there will always be people who will question    There‟s always corporate politics, “not invented here” syndromes There‟s always some skepticism about a new technique Know that the personas will be stronger if you can incorporate insights from others in some way.  If you did your work well, you may find that the “revised” personas aren‟t too different from the original versions 63
    64. 64. Make the personas hard to miss  You have to use them if you want everyone else to do so.  Make them part of everyday life   Use them in presentations, meetings, and reports  Identify usability participants by the persona they are most like   Make them visible as posters, display boards, or on the intranet Interview them in internal newsletters Use them (a lot)  In project reviews  To solicit input in “hallway reviews” 64
    65. 65. Share personas through posters   Make a large version of the personas and post them near meeting rooms or team desks Use collage materials, and other descriptions, plus:  Display photos or plans of typical work spaces  Post quotations that exemplify the persona‟s attitudes  Surround them with artifacts  Include task lists that connect the persona to functionality in the product 65 Follow the UX Leader
    66. 66. Immersive environments encourage stories Ad agencies create rooms that represent the target market for a brand. 66 http://www.core77.com/blog/business/core77_toyota_calty_studio_visit_round_2_how_theyre_winning_11167.asp
    67. 67. Interviewing the personas  Used to    Explore the personas in general Imagine reactions to new ideas For general information or about a task or feature   What stories does the persona have to tell?   What questions does the team want to ask the persona? How do the personas talk about the topic in their own words Tips  Be careful to stay true to the research behind the personas  Don‟t guess – acknowledge gaps in your knowledge 67
    68. 68. . What questions do we want to ask the personas? 68
    69. 69. Pair up: one of you is the interviewer, one is the personas Interviewers: ask open-ended questions without judgment Persona: Try to stay in character, and talk in first person What did we learn Let’s try interviewing a persona 69
    70. 70. Keep personas fresh  You might add characteristics related to new technologies    Update the types of technology the personas use or are comfortable with Add use (or avoidance) of social media or other types of applications You can refactor characteristics    Are the ages, geographical locations, jobs, roles and other behavior up to date? Adjust to changes in learning tools in classrooms or other market research You can add stories or update references to current events    Adjust historical references to keep the age of the personas correct Add stories or scenarios from projects Decide if this is an update, or a whole new persona! 70
    71. 71. Changing the mix of personas  You might add or remove personas from the set    The OU added courses to appeal to a new type of student, and decided to downgrade leisure learners in importance NCI decided to look more closely at researchers, and created a small set of personas to expand the initial, more general one Over time, some personas may grow together   Persona sets often start too large, as they accommodate internal views. Watch for opportunities to show how behaviors may cross what seem like very different roles. Finding the right number of personas is an art, not a science 71
    72. 72. Keep personas from “going feral”  If the personas start to sound too “good” they may be    Do they love everything that the company wants them to love, or behave in ways that are too obvious? Are they too bland, without any distinguishing characteristics Challenge this tendency early  Ask “Are you sure?”  Look for confirmation from other sources  It might be a chance to do some research. 72
    73. 73. Look through their eyes Swindon Advertiser
    74. 74. First click analysis (vote with your fingertips) For any page (especially home pages and landing pages)  What part of this page appeals to each persona  Where is the most likely “first click” for each persona  How easy is it to find?  If this page is not for them, is there an “escape route”? Why   74 Check for balance of needs among personas Ensure no persona is left out of design considerations
    75. 75. Document the results 75
    76. 76. Let personas rate proposed features Let the personas weigh in to rate ideas for new features or functionality.    Can be part of a formal prioritization exercise. Can focus on relative value of features for different personas Ask:   Would each persona value it (how much and why)?  What is the value to the business  Would it be a differentiator?  What is the “cost” of building it  76 Would each persona use it (or not)? What is the cost of maintaining it SBI Razorfish, presentation at UPA NYC many years ago
    77. 77. Compare value for personas and difficulty for business HIGH Benefit to personas Work on these LATER Work on these NOW LOW Technical Difficulty HIGH Technical Difficulty IGNORE these MAYBE include these LOW Benefit to personas 77 The Personas Lifecycle – Tamara Adlin and John Pruitt
    78. 78. Persona-led Reviews Look at a site or feature through the eyes of a persona  Use the persona's perspective instead of your expert opinion  Think about task and context, rather than design guidelines Why  Be sure you are thinking about user experience 78
    79. 79. Step 1: Don‟t look at it (yet)  Sounds contradictory? You have only one chance to look at something for the first time and to think about it like a new user. If you look at it before you try to use it, you‟ll see it differently. If you are reviewing your own material, set it aside for a few hours before you do the persona / story walk-through.
    80. 80. Step 2: Write a story  Choose a persona It lets you think about the experience from their point of view (or assign one person to everyone in the group)   If you don‟t have personas, write a quick description of one person using the product. Write the story  Why are they using this product?  How do they feel about it?  What are their goals?  What do they expect to happen?  Think about confident you are that you really know the persona.
    81. 81. Step 3: Try to use it - as one of the personas   "Channel" your persona. Start where your persona would in the story.     When / how would your persona get the document? (Open the envelope.) Where would your persona start in the web story? (Know the URL? Go to Google?) Go through the content (document, web site, web topic, web page) as if you were the persona carrying out the persona's story. Take notes of what works well and what does not.
    82. 82. http://www.raleighnc.gov/transit/ 82
    83. 83. Step 4: Compare notes  How similar or different were the experiences?  Look for relationship problems   Look for conversation problems   Are the personas and business goals in alignment or conflict? Did the persona understand what the site does, and how to interact with it. Look for appearance problems  Did the personas have a positive reaction to the visual design? 83
    84. 84. Personas-led heuristic review  Ginny Redish and Dana Chisnell did a large review of 50 websites for AARP using previously developed personas and guidelines. “The persona‟s observations were much like the think aloud commentary during an exploratory (diagnostic) usablity test.” 84 http://redish.net/articles-slides/articles-slides-older-adults
    85. 85. Designing with personas Tomorrow and Tomorrow
    86. 86. Use personas to frame design ideas Our products have different names in different countries, so it can be hard to manage international customer service. Let‟s think about how we could make it better. What if it went something like this...
    87. 87. Stories can kick off design brainstorming  Points of pain stories – show a problem  Stories based on analytics – show behavior  Springboard or brainstorming stories – set up a situation 87
    88. 88. Show a point of pain Mary was filling in on payroll while Kathy, the office manager, was away. On Thursday, Kathy left her a message to remind her about some special bonus checks for that week. Mary had not used the payroll program for a while, and only remembered that special checks could be difficult. Reading the postit notes on the wall next to the computer, she scanned for instructions, and was relieved to find one for bonuses. She tried to follow the brief notes. She found the right screen .. Or thought she had. But none of the instructions seemed to line up. Was she going to have to call Kathy on her vacation?
    89. 89. Stories are not a detailed task analysis Focus on the story  Establish the scene with imagery  What‟s the time-frame?  What‟s the emotional context Think about the persona‟s perspective  How do they see the events or interaction?  What words do they use? Style of language?  What are the boundaries of the story from their point of view? (Hint: it might not be your product!) Don‟t use the story to describe all of the details in the user interface. 89
    90. 90. Use (relevant) details to compare and contrast  Include details outside of their interaction with your product, but connect them to behavior that is relevant.   Think about counter-intuitive details   Example: The youngest persona may not be the most technology savvy or have the most advanced mobile technology. Show interactions with other products, organizations, or activities   Example: How central to their lives is this activity? Example: Using recipe sites shows how nurses will use complex search when they understand the context. Add a little human interest  Example: What kind of pets do all the personas have? What sport do they play? What books are they reading? 90
    91. 91. Brainstorming with stories  Challenge yourself (or a group) to come up with lots of quick examples of problems   Tie each one to a persona, so it‟s specific and concrete, rather than abstract Go for quantity – don‟t spend a lot of time on each one.    Identify the problem Write a story in a sentence or two to illustrate the problem Then go through the list and brainstorm a new story  What one thing can you change to solve the problem? 91
    92. 92. Personas keep design work grounded  Bring personas to design sessions  Use the personas to work through design problems  Role play to explore differences in how the personas react to different designs  Consider not just what they would do, but their preferences
    93. 93. Role play (or Informance)  Used to    Explore how a persona interacts with a product or each other Extend a persona-led review into a broader focus For exploring a feature or interaction    Use the same basic process as a persona-led review, but personas have more scope to explore and tell stories. One person can act as the moderator, asking questions and encouraging interaction between the personas Tips  Be careful to stay true to the research behind the personas  Don‟t guess – acknowledge gaps in your knowledge 93
    94. 94. Structure the story to help make your point clear Some stories are a simple narrative  Prescriptive structure Framing structures create contrast  Me - Them - Me  Here - There - Here  Now - Then - Now Stories can explain a situation or set a context  Layered  Contextual interlude
 Journeys show obstacles overcome  A hero‟s journey
    95. 95. Story structures: the frame Framing structures create contrast  Me - Them - Me  Here - There - Here  Now - Then - Now The opening frame Sets the stage Current situation The comparison Another frame of: Time Perspective Place Complete the frame Resolves the contrast 95
    96. 96. Frame example Opening Frame Contrast Frame Resolution 96 When Melissa needed a new window shade, she had a mental picture of what she wanted. It had to roll up and down, and needed to be 50 inches wide. So she searched online…. One of the sites had customer reviews, so she could see what others were saying about the models she was considering. When Melissa‟s mother needed a new window shade, she too had a mental picture of what she wanted. She thought about all the Manhattan stores she knew well ... Then she picked up the phone and called a few of her friends and asked them for suggestions. Her friends helped her narrow down the list of stores she would visit to find just the right shade. Melissa found the shade that was the best match to her mental picture and budget. And in the process, Melissa never had to leave the comfort of her own home. Which is good because living in her particular neck of Northern Vermont means that Melissa‟s a little removed from malls. Storytelling, page 225
    97. 97. Story structures: the journey 97
    98. 98. Journey example  Think of any story that involves technical support! 98
    99. 99. Your choice of medium Words Comics Cartoons Social media Collage Create a story of a future, better, trip that your persona takes 99
    100. 100. Find them in the wild
    101. 101. Match participants to personas They started life as a way to analyse data from the real world. Now make sure that you can match the personas up with the people you meet in user research and usability testing.  Use the personas to identify research participants  Find new stories to keep making the personas even richer
    102. 102. Recruit usability participants to persona demographics Job/role Education Age Goals Web/technology use 102
    103. 103. Matching participant screening questions to persona demographics Question Match to personas? What this indicates in the personas What is your job title? Yes Seniority and type of job What industry do you work in? No – recruit a mix How many years have you been a member? Yes How many professional conferences did you attend in the past year? Yes Are you a member of any SIGs or societies? Yes Are you active in your professional organization Yes What country do you work in No – recruit a mix What is your age? Yes Relationship to organization Indicators of depth and breadth of relationship and activity in professional development groups Stage of career
    104. 104. Persona stories become evaluation tasks  They give you a broad range of scenarios and perspectives to draw on.  They make test tasks more realistic, because they trace back to user research.  Write them like brainstorming stories, setting up the situation, and then asking the participant to “finish the story” 104
    105. 105. Participants can set their own tasks  Use the persona stories to write the beginning of a scenario and use it to launch tasks, following the participant‟s own interests   Ask them to identify a situation similar to the one you want to test (be ready with a scenario if they don‟t come up with one)  Use their story as the first task. Let them work in their own way.   Start with a brief interview to get to know them (and try to identify the persona they best match) Then, use your pre-written tasks, adjusting them to their situation You have to  Know the site or material well, so you can think on your feet  Be aware of issues that differences in content can make  Decide in advance how you will analyze for “success” 105
    106. 106. Example from the OU Opening Interview Ask participant about their interest in university study, subjects, goals. How far along in their search are they? Ask them what questions they want to know [know |or| about any university they consider. Self-directed Task Choose one of their questions, and ask them to find the answer about the OU. [ Start from blank screen |or| OU home page. Our Tasks Use the following tasks, but adjust how it is stated, to include their interests: • What programs does the OU offer in [subject]? • For someone [in their situation], what is the best choice for their first course? • What qualification might they work towards? • How long will it take to earn that qualification? 106
    107. 107. Carol Jacob Lea Emily Maria Steven Vishnu Bring the outside inside Trevor
    108. 108. Create the stories you want other people to tell What connections do you want to make? 108
    109. 109. Storytelling for User Experience with Kevin Brooks Global UX with Daniel Szuc A Web for Everyone with Sarah Horton http://rosenfeldmedia.com/books/a-web-for-everyone/
    110. 110. Whitney Quesenbery whitneyq@wqusability.com www.wqusability.com @whitneyq Center for Civic Design whitneyq@centerforcivicdesign centerforcivicdesign.org @ChadButterfly
    111. 111. Carol Jacob Lea Emily Steven Vishnu Accessible UX Personas Maria Trevor
    112. 112. Personas can have a surprise ending Maria Emily • Community health worker • Married with grown children • Smartphone is her primary computer • Graduated from high school and working on a college degree • Lives in a loft with a group of friends • Works part-time at a local community center
    113. 113. Maria "I love this. It's all here...when I can find it."  Maria • 49 years old • Community college + healthcare certificate • Married, grown children • Spanish – English bilingual • Community health worker • Smartphone from her phone service, home computer primarily her husband‟s, for his work     Ability: Prefers Spanish language sites. Needs instructions written clearly Aptitude: Adventurous, but not very proficient Attitude: Thinks it‟s wonderful to have her favorite websites with her at all times Assistive Technology: Skype, online translation sites The data picture:  17.8 million people in the US speak English "less than well"  Latino adults are more likely to use moile devices and search.
    114. 114. "The right technology lets me do anything."  Jacob • 32 years old • College graduate, legal training courses • Shares an apartment with a friend • Paralegal, reviews cases and writes case summaries • Laptop, braille display, iPhone Ability: Blind since birth  Aptitude: Skilled technology user  Attitude: Digital native, early adopter,  Assistive Technology: Screen reader, audio note-taker, Braille display  The data picture:  People with visual disabilities make up 2.6% of the population.  In the US about 1.8 million people can't easily see printed words  Only about 10% of peple who are blind read Braille
    115. 115. Demographics Goals Info needs Emotions Usability needs Name, role/tagline Background story Scenarios
    116. 116. Persona-Led Review Worksheet Persona Goal and Scenario First reaction Interaction/path Outcome
    117. 117. Who Who are they? are they? Where Where are they going? are they going? What What might happen? might happen? Who Who are they? are they? Where Where are they going? are they going? What What might happen? might happen?
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