Jenny Greeve - AIGA Design for Democracy in Washington State

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This is a presentation by Jenny Greeve, from EVN 2011, uploaded with her permission.

This is a presentation by Jenny Greeve, from EVN 2011, uploaded with her permission.

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  • 1. AIGA Design for Democracyin Washington StateJenny GreeveWashington State Election Design Fellow, 2009-2011
  • 2. Session takeawaysWhy does design matter in elections?What’s it like to have a professional designer workwith local elections officials?What can a partnership like this achieve?
  • 3. AIGA Design for DemocracyDesign for Democracydesigners, researchers, policy-makers & elections officialscollaborating to improve elections materials & establish / maintaindesign standards for elections materials> increased recognition after the infamous “butterfly ballot”> known for “top 10 election design guidelines”Election Design Fellowscommunication designers working at the state-levelon the design of election materials
  • 4. Design & electionsLocal electionsofficials wantcivic engagementtrust in elections ! Communication designers deliverrisk prevention print / web designaccuracy copywritingefficiency Local elections usability testingeffectiveness officials must prevent user experience Florida, 2000: butterfly ballot Minnesota, 2008: complicated ballot envelopes Washington, 2009: ballot with race below instructions
  • 5. Evidence-based design TOP 1. Use lowercase letters: Mixed-case letters are more legible than TEN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS because they are easier to recognize. 2. Avoid centered type: Left-aligned type is more legible than centered type, which forces the eye to stop reading in order to find the start of the next line. election 3. Use big enough type: “Fine print” is hard to read and may intimidate or alienate voters. Use minimum type sizes: 12-point for optical scan; 25-point for touchscreens. (Following this principle for optical scan ballots may impact printing design costs but will be a worthwhile investment in election accuracy.) 4. Pick one sans-serif font: Avoid introducing new fonts, which require the eye to stop reading and adjust. Sans-serif fonts with clean strokes (Arial, Univers, Verdana) are recommended for screen and for the quantity and variation of text found on paper ballots. For dual-language materials, use bold text for the primary language, regular text for the secondary language. 5. Support process and navigation: For optical-scan ballots, offer comprehensive instructions and page numbering. For touchscreen ballots, offer language and mode options, continuous access to instructions, consistent and flexible navigation and clear feedback about selections. Post notable Introduction 1.1 wayfinding and instructional materials in and around the polling place. 6. Use clear, simple language: State instructions and options as simply as possible. Summarize referenda in simple language alongside required formats.Effective Designs for the Do not include more than two languages on any one material. Administration of Federal Elections 7. Use accurate instructional illustrations: Visual instructions help low-literacy and general-population voters. Photo images, which are difficult to Section 1: Introduction shoot and reproduce well, are not recommended. Illustrations must be accurate in their details to avoid misleading voters. June 2007 8. Use informational icons (only): Avoid political party icons. Icons that call attention to key information and support navigation are recommended in limited use. 9. Use contrast and color functionally: On optical scan ballots, to differentiate instructions from contents and contests from each other; and on touchscreen ballots, to support navigation, call special attention and provide user feedback. Color cannot be relied on as the only way to communicate important information. 10. Decide what’s most important: Page and screen layout and text sizes should support information hierarchy. For instance, the ballot title should be more prominent than any one contest, a contest header should be more prominent than its candidates’ names and a candidate’s name should be bolder than his/her party affiliation. Candidates’ names and options should be presented with equal importance. Pop quiz: how many of the Top 10 Election Design Best Practices are being violated in the graphic / type treatment at left? Subversive quiz question: in this instance, does it matter that we’re violating the Top 10? U.S. Election Assistance Commission
  • 6. Fellowship in Washington State39 autonomous counties withindependently-elected officialsAll vote-by-mail state2 years, 40+ design projectsStatewide & county-specific projects
  • 7. Fellowship guiding principlesMission Toolsfacilitate civic engagement > understandingthrough design > creativity > testingAudience > researchvia LEOs: voters &potential voters > analysis > educationSkills> diplomacy Mantras> persuasion > design is not an afterthought> professionalism > design matters> evidence
  • 8. MINI CASE STUDY:Voter registration form redesignReasons for redesign> improve usability to gather accurate, complete information> new statute requirements> major administrative shift: will mail directly to countyProcess> statewide workgroup 10+ elections officials> 5 rounds / design> 2 rounds / usabilityConstraints> not 100% buy-in on need for redesign> complicated language & statute requirements
  • 9. MINI CASE STUDY:Voter registration form redesign moisten glue strip above and fold over to seal instructions Washington State Voter Registration Form register online at www.vote.wa.gov You must be a United States citizen to register to vote. qualifications first person to MOISTEN AND FOLD OVER TO SEAL if you mark no to either of these questions, do not complete this form Mail-In Voter Registration Form how to register to vote or update a registration I am a citizen of the United States of America. yes no Use Black or Blue Pen Only - Please Print Clearly 1 NOTE: Voter registration requires U.S. Citizenship NAME CHANGE ADDRESS CHANGE Please print all information SIGNATURE UPDATE NEW REGISTRATION clearly using black or blue pen. FOR OFFICE USE ONLY I will be at least 18 years old by the next election. personal information yes no engage registrants Will you be at least 18 years of age or older before Election Day? YES Mail or deliver this form to NO Are you a citizen of the United States? YES NO your County Elections Office. last name first name middle Federal and state law require you to provide your Washington Driver’s License number or Washington ID Card number. Addresses are on reverse. If you do not have a Washington Driver’s License or Washington ID Card, provide the last four digits of your Social Security Number. male female 2 A. Washington Driver’s License or ID Number B. Last four Digits/SSN Check here if you do not 3 Date of Birth (MM/DD/YYYY) for more information have a Washington Driver’s date of birth (mm / dd / yyyy) phone number * License, ID Card, or SSN. 4 Last Name Male www.vote.wa.gov onlineDaytime Phone Number Female ( ) residential address (in Washington) call 1-800-448-4881 5 First Name Middle Name Jr. Email Address (optional) Sr. visit your County Elections Office city zip 6 Washington Residential/Physical Address (Required) City or Town ZIP This registration will be in effect 7 Address Where You Get Your Mail (if different from residential/physical address) City or Town the next election if postmarked for State ZIP mailing address (if different than residential address) or delivered no later than 8 Check any that currently apply Military Domestic Military Foreign National Guard/Reserves U.S. Citizen Overseas the Monday four weeks before city state / zip 9 ONGOING ABSENTEE REQUEST NOTE: If your county is vote by mail, do not complete this section. A ballotDay. mailed to you automatically. Election will be I would like to receive absentee ballots for all future elections YES NO fold here fold here If you miss this deadline, email address* please contact your County 5 sections of similar FOLD HERE I am in the Armed Forces (includes National Guard and Reserves) Elections Office. I am a U.S. citizen living outside the U.S. 10 NOTE: Previous registration information I was previously registered under this name and address: You will receive your ballot Washington driver’s license / state ID # types of information Sign as previously registered Name by mail. Contact your County Address County Elections Office for in-person City State ZIP voting options. if you do not have a Washington driver’s license or state ID card, WARNING: If you knowingly provide false information on this voter registration form or knowingly make a false declaration about your If you knowingly provide false qualifications for voter registration, you will have committed a class C felony that is punishable by imprisonment for up to five years, or by a fine provide the last four digits of your Social Security number of up to ten thousand dollars or both imprisonment and fine. (RCW 29A.08.210) information on this voter 11 Voter Declaration xx x-x x- registration form or knowingly By signing this document, I hereby assert, under penalty of perjury, that I am legally eligible to vote. If I am found to have voted illegally, I may be prosecuted and/or fined for this illegal act. In addition, I hereby acknowledge that my name make known address will be forwarded to the and last a false declaration about oath appropriate state and/or federal authorities if I am found to have voted illegally. (RCW 29A.08.210) your qualifications for voter • I declare that the facts on this registration form are true; I declare that the facts on this voter registration form are true. I am a citizen of the • I am a citizen of the United States; registration you will have committed a class C felony that United States, I am not presently denied the right to vote as a result of being convicted • I am not presently denied my civil rights as a result of being convicted of a felony; • I will have lived in Washington state at this address for thirty days immediately before the nextis punishable by imprisonment election at which I vote; of a felony, I will have lived in Washington at this address for thirty days immediately • I will be at least eighteen years old when I vote. before the next election at which I vote, and I will be at least 18 years old when I vote. (RCW 29A.08.230) for up to 5 years, a fine of up SIGN OR MARK IN THE BOX to $10,000, or both. sign date Your name, address, gender and here here 12 If you are physically unable to sign NAME your name, please have the person date of birth are public information. DATE SIGNED who assisted you in completing this ADDRESS Month/Day/Year form provide: *optional information MI 3/07 former registration if you are already registered and are changing your name or address, fill out this section (this information will be used to update your registration) former last name first name middle 09/2009 former residential address city state / zip
  • 10. MINI CASE STUDY:Chelan County ballot packetReasons for redesign> improve usability for voter> major administrative shift: no “flap” covering signatureProcess> started with clean slate> multiple design variations up front> informal prototypingConstraints> complicated language & statute requirements
  • 11. MINI CASE STUDY:Chelan County ballot packet Secrecy Envelope Seal your completed ballot in this envelope. Place this envelope in the Return Envelope and follow the numbered steps. POSTAGE REQUIRED plain language, simple instructions Return EnvelopeSKIP MOORECHELAN COUNTY AUDITORP BOX 4760 .O.WENATCHEE, WA 98807-4760Address Service Requested 1 Read the oath If you cannot sign I do solemnly swear or affirm under penalty of perjury that I am: Try to sign or mark in the “signature of voter” area in the presenceYour A citizen of the United States; A legal resident of the state of Washington; of two witnesses. The two witnesses should then sign below. At least 18 years old on election day; Voting only once in this election;Official Ballot Not ineligible to vote due to a felony conviction; and Not disqualified from voting due to a court order. It is illegal to forge a signature or cast another person’s ballot. Attempting to vote when not qualified, attempting to vote more than witness 1 signature above witness 2 signature above once, or falsely signing this oath is a felony punishable by a maximum imprisonment of five years, a maximum fine of $10,000, or both. 2 Sign & date 1, 2, 3 visually linked & you’re done! signature of voter above by color, layout, date above typography phone number above (optional, in case there is an issue with your signature) 3 Postmark or deposit your ballot by 8pm on election day.
  • 12. Session takeaway reviewYes, design matters in elections!A design professional working with local elections officialsallows each to do their best work and do right by the voterA partnership can assist us in achieving civic engagement,trust in the system & accurate, efficient elections
  • 13. Hart ballot design projectJenny GreeveWashington State Election Design Fellow, 2009-2011
  • 14. Session takeawaysWhy ballot design?What’s it like for local elections officials,design professionals & vendor to partner?What was achieved?
  • 15. Why ballot design?It’s at the heart of elections!General Election 2009: undervote in King Countyblamed on ballot designJenny’s self-proclaimed“Year of the Ballot”Establish consistency based on best practicesEmpower local elections officials
  • 16. Pre-project Hart ballots
  • 17. Project logistics Instructions Statewide Instructions How to vote Tiatenimus sum ipit eos How to vote Tiatenimus sum ipit eos militat usaest, sum aditemo militat usaest, sum aditemo luptustia que volorep editati Harrison Ford READ: Each candidate for luptustia que volorep editati Harrison Ford umendem volorror molore Guy Ritchie partisan office may state umendem volorror molore Guy Ritchie doluptate labo. Ut quiatus doluptate labo. Ut quiatus a political party that he or dem que illest, sam, ut inver- Madonna Completely fill in the box dem que illest, sam, ut inver- Madonna uptatur, consequid ut es vollor she prefers. A candidate’s to the left of your choice. uptatur, consequid ut es vollor volorror molore. Linda Ronstadt Completely fill in the box preference does not imply Vote for one in each race. volorror molore. Linda Ronstadt to the left of your choice. that the candidate is If you vote for more than Yes one, no votes will be Yes Vote for one in each race. nominated or endorsed by + = counted for that race. No the party, or that the party No If you vote for more than approves of or associates If you make a Julie Andrews one, no votes will be with that candidate. mistake Julie Andrews Tiatenimus sum ipit eos Van Halen counted for that race. Candidate 1 Tiatenimus sum ipit eos Van Halen Candidate 2 militat usaest, sum aditemo militat usaest, sum aditemo If you make a Candidate 3 luptustia que volorep editati luptustia que volorep editati Draw a line through the umendem volorror molore do- mistake entire measure response umendem volorror molore do- luptate labo. Ut inveruptatur, Continue voting or candidate’s name. luptate labo. Ut inveruptatur, consequid ut es vollor volorror consequid ut es vollor volorror molore. Liz Lemon Candidate 1 next side Then you may make molore. Liz Lemon Candidate 2 another choice. Tiatenimus sum ipit eos Tiatenimus sum ipit eos Jack Donaghy Jack Donaghy militat usaest, sum aditemo Candidate 3 Optional write-in militat usaest, sum aditemo luptustia que volorep editati Frank the Tank luptustia que volorep editati Frank the Tank umendem volorror molore Ben Harper Draw a line through the or write-in umendem volorror molore Ben Harper doluptate labo. entire measure response Precinct Committee Officer doluptate labo. Yes Dave Matthews or candidate’s name. is a position in each major To vote for a candidate Yes Dave Matthews Elliott Nolan political party. not listed for that race, Elliott Nolan No Then you may make For this office only: If you fill in the box to the left of No another choice. consider yourself a Democrat “or write-in” and print the name on the dashed line. or Republican, you may vote Mickey Mouse Optional write-in for a candidate of that party. Mickey Mouse Jack Nicholson Jack Nicholson Donald Duck or write-in Donald Duck Jimmy Buffett Jimmy Buffett Minnie Mouse Minnie Mouse Goofy Goofy To vote for a candidate not listed for that race, fill in the box to the left of Continue voting “or write-in” and print the next side name on the dashed line.New templates New images Better ballots,by Hart by SOS / D4D increased options
  • 18. Partnering with Hart39 Washington State counties21 Hart counties13 Post-project: Hart counties with templates + images21 Post-project: counties with images only
  • 19. Features of new Hart templates large page identifier shading for race information throughout: > different type weights > different type sizes > fewer lines & boxes dashed line for write-ins
  • 20. Template specifics18 total templates10 English templates, 8 bilingual templates8.5 x 11, 8.5 x 14, 8.5 x 17 11 x 17 ,2, 3, 4 columnRegular: Arial 12 & 10Condensed: Arial 10 & 8
  • 21. SOS / D4D image collectionInstructions Instructions Statewide throughout:How to vote How to vote > shading, type sizes Continue voting match templates next side > plain languageCompletely fill in the box Completely fill in the boxto the left of your choice. to the left of your choice. > just the basics READ: Each candidate for partisan office may stateVote for one in each race. Vote for one in each race.If you vote for more than If you vote for more than > county collaboration a political party that he or she prefers. A candidate’sone, no votes will be counted one, no votes will be counted preference does not implyfor that race. for that race. that the candidate is nominated or endorsed byIf you make a mistake If you make a mistake the party, or that the party approves of or associates Option 1 Option 1 with that candidate. Option 2 Option 2 Option 3 Option 3Draw a line through the Draw a line through the Precinct Committee Officerentire measure response entire measure response is a position in each majoror candidate’s name. or candidate’s name. political party.Then you may make another Then you may make another For this office only: If youchoice. choice. consider yourself a Democrat or Republican, you may voteOptional write-in Optional write-in for a candidate of that party. or write-in write-inTo vote for a candidate not To vote for a candidate notlisted for that race, fill in the listed for that race, fill in the boxbox to the left of “or write-in” to the left of “write-in” and printand print the name on the the name on the dashed line.dashed line. Start voting here
  • 22. Image specifics38 different instruction images2, 3, 4 columndifferent treatments for “write-in”specific layout for when races appear below instructionsballot section dividers, miscellaneous images,election-specific images
  • 23. Ballot design guide 1.2 Hart Ballot Design Guide Summer 2010 Hart templates Regular v. condensed templates 1.3Regular v. condensed templates Hart Ballot Design GuideThe difference between regular & condensed templates is the type size of Arial usedthroughout the ballot. Regular templateRegular templates feature type sizes recommended by existing researchfor maximum legibility. 10 pointCondensed templates, which feature smaller type sizes, are provided as a • Proposition text“last resort” when you are in a long ballot situation. • Specific race information (excluding race title)Regular or condensed? • Specific race instructions Summer 2010, V.1 • Party preferenceWhile not always possible, attempt to use a regular template before using 12 pointa condensed template. • Everything else Jenny GreeveBecause condensed templates use 8 point Arial, your voters with low vision mayhave problems reading their ballot. AIGA / D4D Washington State Design Fellow Hart InterCivic Washington State Hart Counties Washington Secretary of State Elections Division 2.22 Hart Ballot Design Guide Summer 2010 HAVA Instruction images 3 & 4 column | regular | no race below & race below 2.23 3 & 4 column 3 & 4 column 3 & 4 column 3 & 4 column 3 & 4 column 3 & 4 column regular regular regular regular regular regular “or write-in” Condensed template “write-in” blank “write-in” “or write-in” “write-in” blank “write-in” 3col_1.bmp 8 point 3col_2.bmp 3col_3.bmp 3col_4.bmp 3col_5.bmp 3col_6.bmp • Proposition text • Specific race information Visit section 5 to see King County’s decision-making matrix. A visual guide used (excluding race title) by their ballot designers for each election to manage difficult questions such as what size • Specific race instructions Instructions Instructions Instructions Instructions Instructions Instructions ballot to select, whether to place races below the instructions & when to compromise • Party preference on type size. How to vote 10 point How to vote How to vote How to vote How to vote How to vote ? These ballots look funny. Yes, they do. They are missing party preferences, “write-ins” • Everything else & races are completely in the wrong order & sometimes repeated. These were delivered from Hart as samples, meant to give you a general feeling of the formatting. Use a dark blue or black Use a dark blue or black Use a dark blue or black Use a dark blue or black Use a dark blue or black Use a dark blue or black ink pen to completely ink pen to completely ink pen to completely ink pen to completely ink pen to completely ink pen to completely fill in the box to the left fill in the box to the left fill in the box to the left fill in the box to the left fill in the box to the left fill in the box to the left of your choice. of your choice. of your choice. of your choice. of your choice. of your choice. Vote for one in each race. Vote for one in each race. Vote for one in each race. Vote for one in each race. Vote for one in each race. Vote for one in each race. If you vote for more than If you vote for more than If you vote for more than If you vote for more than If you vote for more than If you vote for more than one, no votes will be one, no votes will be one, no votes will be one, no votes will be one, no votes will be one, no votes will be counted for that race. counted for that race. counted for that race. counted for that race. counted for that race. counted for that race. If you make a If you make a If you make a If you make a If you make a If you make a mistake mistake mistake mistake mistake mistake Option 1 Option 1 Option 1 Option 1 Option 1 Option 1 Option 2 Option 2 Option 2 Option 2 Option 2 Option 2 Option 3 Option 3 Option 3 Option 3 Option 3 Option 3 Draw a line through the Draw a line through the Draw a line through the Draw a line through the Draw a line through the Draw a line through the entire measure response entire measure response entire measure response entire measure response entire measure response entire measure response or candidate’s name. or candidate’s name. or candidate’s name. or candidate’s name. or candidate’s name. or candidate’s name. Then you may make Then you may make Then you may make Then you may make Then you may make Then you may make another choice. another choice. another choice. another choice. another choice. another choice. Optional write-in Optional write-in Optional write-in Optional write-in Optional write-in Optional write-in or write-in write-in or write-in write-in To vote for a candidate To vote for a candidate To vote for a candidate To vote for a candidate To vote for a candidate To vote for a candidate not listed for that race, not listed for that race, not listed for that race, fill not listed for that race, not listed for that race, not listed for that race, fill fill in the box to the left of fill in the box to the left in the box to the left of the fill in the box to the left of fill in the box to the left in the box to the left of the “or write-in” and print the of “write-in” and print the dashed line and print the “or write-in” and print the of “write-in” and print the dashed line and print the name on the dashed line. name on the dashed line. name of the candidate. name on the dashed line. name on the dashed line. name of the candidate. Start voting here Start voting here Start voting here
  • 24. New template + images
  • 25. New template + images
  • 26. Project kinksOnly 4 counties could use new templates for 2010 GeneralBallot templates produced enormous files,took 5x as long to produceBallot templates required larger paper sizesVendor not responsive during ballot production timeNot all counties used SOS / D4D images as intended
  • 27. Project praise“The most important things for us: is the voter less confused?Are they getting it? If only 10 voters have a better experience,it is definitely worth it for us. ”Nissa Burger, Chelan County“Despite the kinks, we love the look and will continue usingthe new templates. We have had positive feedback from ourlocal candidates and party members. ”Carolyn Myers, Cowlitz County
  • 28. Session takeaway reviewWashington was primed to make ballot design improvementsUnprecedented collaboration among LEOs,design professionals & vendorWhile there were kinks, project was a huge step forward& the work will continue