WQusability.com
Whitney Quesenbery
whitneyq@wqusability.co
A Web For
Everyone
Giving users a place
at the (design) table:
...
2
The big idea
Those who will use it
help design it
3
The big idea: creating together
 Engages
stakeholders and
users in the
process
 Encourages
participants to
bring their...
4
Designing with the user, not for the
user
―Good systems cannot be built by design experts
who proceed with only limited ...
5
Including the excluded
Roots in Scandinavia
and civic planning
6
When computers entered the workplace
Roots in Scandinavia, with a
philosophy:
 Designers must take work
practices serio...
7
Influenced design approaches in many fields
 Suchman and AI --
Situated action
 Brown and Duguid HCI
and knowledge
man...
8
Charrettes address social and
civic design challenges
Exemplary participation can:
 Include the excluded
 Advance the ...
9
Current influences: Designing with
(not just for)
 Agile/Lean
practices
 Design studio
 HCI for
Development
 Design ...
10
There are limitations and pitfalls
 Don’t expect participants to be designers
 Or technology experts
 So, don’t ask ...
11
Deeper understanding: unexpected
innovation
Participatory design
concepts in UX
12
Design research:
Letting users tell their own stories
 Photos and
videos
 Day-in-the-life
 Scrapbooks
 Diary studie...
13
Diary Studies:
Glimpses into lived experiences
Participants record their experiences
as they happen, over several days ...
14
Kits for diary studies
(also called cultural probes)
Diary study kits can be as simple as a
notebook
 Create structure...
15
Using social media
 Create a closed
group or monitor an
open group
 Listen and observe or
interact
 Closed or open
q...
16“Creativity Based Research”:
Eliciting context
 Collages
 Rich Pictures
 Games
 Role playing
http://www.usabilitypro...
17
Collages: images for a rich description
 Explore
 Emotional landscape
 Relationships
 Cultural issues
 Design and ...
18
Gamestorming:
New ways to get from A to B
1. Imagine the world – create a
temporary space
2. Create the world – within ...
19Informance:
Role-playing and improvisation
Representing an idea by acting
out scenarios to:
 Tell how things work (or
m...
20
Co-Design:
Working with design artifacts
 Card sorting
 Paper prototyping
http://davids-user-centered-design-work.wik...
21
Paper prototyping: rapid iteration
 Also called Wizard-of-Oz
 Combines design with
usability testing
Paper Prototypin...
22
Agile Stories: personas + scenarios
Agile can be based on
co-design work with
stakeholders to create
stories
23
Social media as a metaphor
Variations on ―design the box‖ using
social media to show relationships
 Make a Facebook pa...
24
Design studio
Design studio
makes it easy to
adapt to include
non-designer
stakeholders.
25
3 mini case studies
Election design workshop
Student home page
If this site was an animal
26
Election design workshops and
Open innovation competition
Charrette-like process to work
on a difficult, multi-stakehol...
27Workshop: collaboration and active
problem solving
 Brainstorm many ideas
 Build from inspiration to
concept to refine...
28
Open IDEO innovation challenge
3 of the winning concepts from the Open IDEO Innovation Challenge
http://www.openideo.co...
29
Open University
Student Home Page
Building participatory design
activities into user research
sessions
30
“Design a student-home page for you”
Step 1: Card sorting
We asked participants to sort cards
into topics:
 They have ...
31
“Design a student-home page for you”
Step 2: Design your page
We asked participants use
the cards they have used or
mig...
32
“Design a student-home page for you”
Step 3: Tell us about it
We asked participants to
walk us through the page
they cr...
33
“Design a student-home page for you”
Step 4: Transcribed pages
We transcribed the pages
into digital files so we could
...
34
If this site was an animal
Adding a quick question to
a usability test
35
Summary
Three quick and easy ways to add participatory
activities to any usability test or research project
 Ask an in...
Whitney Quesenbery
WQusability.com
whitney@wqusability.com
usabilityinciviclife.org
Twitter @whitneyq
A Web for
Everyone
S...
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A Place at the Table

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I put this presentation together for a team, as we explored the different ways to work with users in a participatory, collaborative way. It ends with 3 mini case studies of how we used these techniques in an innovation workshop, and as part of a design process

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  • Engages stakeholders and users in the process of solving a problem.Uses activities and process that allows participants to bring their on perspectives and unique ideas to the table. Focuses on eliciting meaning, priorities, and needs to inform the rest of the design process.
  • situated activity (Suchman, 1987)work-oriented design (Ehn, 1988)situated design (Greenbaum and Kyng, 1991design for learnability (Brown and Duguid, 1992) contextual inquiry (Holtzblatt, 1993)
  • Roots in Scandinavia:In the 1970s, Norwegian labor unions wanted input into computer systems in the workplace.UTOPIA projet and Nordic Graphic Workers’ UnionDEMOS project in Sweden
  • situated activity (Suchman, 1987)work-oriented design (Ehn, 1988)situated design (Greenbaum and Kyng, 1991design for learnability (Brown and Duguid, 1992) contextual inquiry (Holtzblatt, 1993)
  • Example from Sarasota: The charrette was organized by the school district at the urging of the Sarasota Architectural Foundation to discuss ways to renovate the campus without tearing down the Rudolph-designed gym or glassing in the breezeways of Building.Constructed events, like a public hearing, but which allows citizens and stakeholders to have meaningful input while exploring a problem together. Often used to be sure that diverse voices are heard, and that all stakeholders accept the results. Often look like a design studio – with participants creating artifacts to represent design ideas – getting past “talk” to produce more tangible representations of design concepts.
  • Make Tools: Liz Sanders has extended participatory design research by focusing on the actual mechanisms by which participatory design can occur. She describes how design toolkits can be used to extract creativity from non-designers. These toolkits—pieces and parts that participants can arrange to create their own rudimentary design solutions with little or no craft-based experience—are known as Generative Tools, and contain two-dimensional parts such as paper shapes and photos or three-dimensional parts such as forms with Velcroed knobs and buttons.Older work on Rich Pictures from York had a similar philosophy but was less of a tool kit and more of a process.
  • Influence of anthropology and video documentary
  • As with most of these techniques, the story the participant tells may be as important as the artifact
  • Turning business work into play to get past endless debate. Using games to “suspend disbelief” and explore different ways to get from intitial A to B
  • Brenda Laurel coined the term.Good for group or multi-person interactions
  • A Place at the Table

    1. 1. WQusability.com Whitney Quesenbery whitneyq@wqusability.co A Web For Everyone Giving users a place at the (design) table: Techniques for participatory design Whitney Quesenbery
    2. 2. 2 The big idea Those who will use it help design it
    3. 3. 3 The big idea: creating together  Engages stakeholders and users in the process  Encourages participants to bring their perspectives  Focuses on eliciting meaning to inform design http://experientia.com/perspectives/creating-togetherbuilding-value-with-participatory-design/
    4. 4. 4 Designing with the user, not for the user ―Good systems cannot be built by design experts who proceed with only limited input from users... There are many aspects of a work process—such as how a particular tool is held, or what it is for something to "look right"—that reside in the complex, often tacit, domain of context.‖ - Sara Kuhn and Terry Winograd Profile of Participatory Design in Bringing Design to Software http://hci.stanford.edu/publications/bds/14-p-partic.html
    5. 5. 5 Including the excluded Roots in Scandinavia and civic planning
    6. 6. 6 When computers entered the workplace Roots in Scandinavia, with a philosophy:  Designers must take work practices seriously  Human actors rather than systems  Tasks in context  Work is fundamentally social, involving cooperation and communication http://codesignresearch.com/2012/09/03/spreading-the-participatory-design-approach-in-a-developing-country/
    7. 7. 7 Influenced design approaches in many fields  Suchman and AI -- Situated action  Brown and Duguid HCI and knowledge management -- Design for learnability  Kyng and HCI -- Situated design  Holtzblatt & Beyer – UCD --Contextual design http://hci.stanford.edu/publications/bds/14-p-partic.html
    8. 8. 8 Charrettes address social and civic design challenges Exemplary participation can:  Include the excluded  Advance the state of the art  Influence the outcome  Deal with difference  Engage the designer  Integrate complex thinking  Make place regional What makes participation exemplary? http://designobserver.com/media/pdf/What_Makes_Par_917.pdf Project for Public Spaces – http://www.pps.org Photo: http://safsrq.wordpress.com/2012/06/09/shs-charrette-sarasota-community-engaged-united/
    9. 9. 9 Current influences: Designing with (not just for)  Agile/Lean practices  Design studio  HCI for Development  Design for Good https://www.wickedproblems.com/2_building_empathy_by_designing_with.php
    10. 10. 10 There are limitations and pitfalls  Don’t expect participants to be designers  Or technology experts  So, don’t ask the group to start from scratch  Find people who want to participate  But don’t let a few people dominate the design  Read the results in a thoughtful way  Focus on the underlying concepts, not the design artifacts  Don’t assume people can predict what they might do  Or that a design can (by itself) change a reality Mobile Community Design: Effective Use Of Participatory Design Methods, Jeff Axup http://www.mobilecommunitydesign.com/2006/05/effective-use-of-participatory-design.html
    11. 11. 11 Deeper understanding: unexpected innovation Participatory design concepts in UX
    12. 12. 12 Design research: Letting users tell their own stories  Photos and videos  Day-in-the-life  Scrapbooks  Diary studies http://www.globaldesignresearch.com/ Using video to create a story for each particpant
    13. 13. 13 Diary Studies: Glimpses into lived experiences Participants record their experiences as they happen, over several days or weeks  Written notebooks  Photos or video notes  Phone it in  Google Voice number  Posting on a private site  Basecamp, Blackboard  Instagram or other shared blogs Dear Diary: Using Diaries to Study User Experience by Carine Lallemand http://www.usabilityprofessionals.org/uxmagazine/dear-diary-using-diaries-to- study-user-experience/
    14. 14. 14 Kits for diary studies (also called cultural probes) Diary study kits can be as simple as a notebook  Create structure or open-ended  Provide a camera or a way to upload or print photos Questionnaires and scales can provide a consistent measure  AttrakDiff mobile survey  Medical pain scales http://infodesign.com.au/usabilityresources/culturalprobes/ AttrakDiff – www.attrakdiff.de
    15. 15. 15 Using social media  Create a closed group or monitor an open group  Listen and observe or interact  Closed or open questions  Sending reminders  Use tools that are easy and familiar
    16. 16. 16“Creativity Based Research”: Eliciting context  Collages  Rich Pictures  Games  Role playing http://www.usabilityprofessionals.org/uxmagazine/kidsteam/
    17. 17. 17 Collages: images for a rich description  Explore  Emotional landscape  Relationships  Cultural issues  Design and style  Interpret  The discussion is more important than the artifact  Photo sources  Flickr or stock photos  Proprietary picture decks http://3libraschild.deviantart.com/ http://www.ksrinc.com/r2r/download/r2r_projective_techniques_ppt.pdf
    18. 18. 18 Gamestorming: New ways to get from A to B 1. Imagine the world – create a temporary space 2. Create the world – within the boundaries of the space 3. Open the world – but with agreement on the boundaries 4. Explore the world – meet goals within the world’s constraints 5. Close the world – ceremonial ending at the goal
    19. 19. 19Informance: Role-playing and improvisation Representing an idea by acting out scenarios to:  Tell how things work (or might work)  Explain the interaction  Share and explore the ideas Good for complex or multi- person interactions Photo: http://stinelin.wordpress.com/2011/01/17/2nd-prototype-and-experience-prototyping/
    20. 20. 20 Co-Design: Working with design artifacts  Card sorting  Paper prototyping http://davids-user-centered-design-work.wikispaces.com/Paper+Prototyping
    21. 21. 21 Paper prototyping: rapid iteration  Also called Wizard-of-Oz  Combines design with usability testing Paper Prototyping by Carolyn Snyderhttp://www.paperprototyping.com/what.html Photo Courtesy Timo Jokela The "Computer" highlights the item the user has just selected. A member of the development team observes and takes notes. The facilitator (not visible) is sitting to the right of the user.
    22. 22. 22 Agile Stories: personas + scenarios Agile can be based on co-design work with stakeholders to create stories
    23. 23. 23 Social media as a metaphor Variations on ―design the box‖ using social media to show relationships  Make a Facebook page to represent [this]  Write the Twitter feed of a ―day in the life‖  Choose tools that the particpants use
    24. 24. 24 Design studio Design studio makes it easy to adapt to include non-designer stakeholders.
    25. 25. 25 3 mini case studies Election design workshop Student home page If this site was an animal
    26. 26. 26 Election design workshops and Open innovation competition Charrette-like process to work on a difficult, multi-stakeholder problem
    27. 27. 27Workshop: collaboration and active problem solving  Brainstorm many ideas  Build from inspiration to concept to refinement  Encourage inclusive, open collaboration Students created the posters and worked as ―design scribes‖ http://elections.itif.org/projects/design-workshops/ http://elections.itif.org/reports/AVTI-003-Sanford-Milchus-Rebola-2012.pdf
    28. 28. 28 Open IDEO innovation challenge 3 of the winning concepts from the Open IDEO Innovation Challenge http://www.openideo.com/open/voting/winning-concepts/
    29. 29. 29 Open University Student Home Page Building participatory design activities into user research sessions
    30. 30. 30 “Design a student-home page for you” Step 1: Card sorting We asked participants to sort cards into topics:  They have used in the past  They might use in the future  Not interesting/relevant  Don’t know what it is Work at the Open University for Ian Roddis, with Caroline Jarrett, Effortmark
    31. 31. 31 “Design a student-home page for you” Step 2: Design your page We asked participants use the cards they have used or might use to create a personal home page.  They worked on a sheet of flip-chart pages  Orange cards were links to groups of topics cards  They could write on the paper  They didn’t have to use all the cards
    32. 32. 32 “Design a student-home page for you” Step 3: Tell us about it We asked participants to walk us through the page they created
    33. 33. 33 “Design a student-home page for you” Step 4: Transcribed pages We transcribed the pages into digital files so we could work with them more easily. We were very interested in:  Labels for groups of cards  Spatial arrangments  Their stories about how they would use the page
    34. 34. 34 If this site was an animal Adding a quick question to a usability test
    35. 35. 35 Summary Three quick and easy ways to add participatory activities to any usability test or research project  Ask an indirect question for emotional reactions and new ideas  If this site was an animal  What if the rules were changed  Leave time for storytelling  If you ran the circus...  Ask the participant to draw, markup, or assemble a picture  What was the best... worst...  Bring in a picture  A picture of their classroom, or where they study at home
    36. 36. Whitney Quesenbery WQusability.com whitney@wqusability.com usabilityinciviclife.org Twitter @whitneyq A Web for Everyone Storytelling for User Experience with Kevin Brooks Global UX: with Daniel Szuc A Web for Everyone with Sarah Horton

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