Mercury, the closest planet to the sun, has a core made of liquid iron that surprisingly takes up about ¾ of the planet’s diameter, it is as big as our moon, and it takes up 70% of its weight. Its mantle is made of silica. It has a rocky crust made of silicate rocks. It is about 350 miles thick and it is covered with many craters and dents. Mercury’s atmosphere is composed of very small amounts of hydrogen, oxygen, helium and sodium.
Core Mantle –¾ of made of silicaMercury’sTotal diameter.Made of liquid iron Crust 350 miles Thick . Made of Silicate rocks
Even though Mercury is the closest planet to the sun, it is not the hottest. Its atmosphere is very thin and it cannot trap solar heat. Mercury’s hot side (the side that is facing the Sun) experiences the most extreme temperatures. It can reach temperatures as high as 700° Kelvin. Mercury receives 6.5 times the amount of sunlight that the Earth does.
On the dark side of the planet, temperatures can fall to as low as 100° K, making it the coldest of all the inner planets Researchers think there are craters dotting the north and south poles that have temperatures as low as 90°K. The average temperature of Mercury averages to around 452°K!
Venus is one of the brightest things in the sky (besides the sun and moon). If you know where to look, you can see it at daytime. Venus’ atmosphere is composed of 96% carbon dioxide and 4% nitrogen, and is 90% denser than Earth’s. The pressure is the same as the pressure if you were a kilometer below sea-level on Earth, which is not survivable for humans. The interior of Venus is composed of a central iron core and a molten rocky mantle, similar to the composition of Earth.
The surface of Venus may have been formed by a lot of volcanic activity. It is said to have 167 volcanoes that measure up to 100 km across. Venus is sometimes referred as Earth’s sister planet because not only is Venus similar in size to Earth, but scientists think that a long time ago, Venus had tectonic plates and liquid water. Venus may have become the way it is by having a massive greenhouse gas affect, vaporizing all of the water and messing up the tectonic plates.
Crust- 50 km thick.Core-Made ofiron.3,000 kmacross Mantle- 3,000 km thick
Venus’ atmosphere being so dense results in a severe greenhouse affect making Venus the hottest planet in our solar system The average surface temperature of Venus is 735° Kelvin Venus’ very slight axial tilt means that it receives the same amount of energy from the Sun no matter what time of year it is so it is always HOT.
The atmosphere is covered in clouds made up of sulfuric acid and other corrosive substances resulting in acid rain. Along with extreme heat and acid rain, Venus can have winds at speeds of 100 meters per second!
Mars lacks a magnetic field and because of this it is constantly bombarded by radiation The Martian core is solid and is thought to be 2,960 km in diameter. The mantle is believed to be fairly soft, kind of like a rock paste. No one knows how thick it is. Its crust is basalt and contains just enough iron oxide to give it its reddish hue.
Core-Mantle- Mostly made ofMade of a Sulfur and ironRock paste Crust- Made of basalt and iron oxide
Average temperature: -67 °F On summer days, it can be around 20 degrees Celsius then plummet to -90 C at night Even at the equator, the night time temperatures fall well below zero. Has seasons because its axial tilt is similar to ours Mars’ atmosphere is over 96% carbon dioxide. If the planet could retain heat, the carbon dioxide would cause a greenhouse effect and the planet would end up like Venus
Its atmosphere resembles that of the sun, made up mostly of hydrogen and helium. Jupiter could hold more than 1,300 Earths. Jupiters gargantuan magnetic field is the strongest of all the planets in the solar system at nearly 2,000 times the strength of Earth’s. Jupiter’s rocky iron core is surrounded by a helium- rich layer of fluid metallic hydrogen, wrapped up in an atmosphere primarily made of molecular hydrogen. There isn’t really any terrain because it is gas
The colorful bands of Jupiter are arranged in dark belts and light zones that are created by strong east-west winds in the planets upper atmosphere , which travel more than 400 miles per hour. The white clouds in the zones are made of crystals of frozen ammonia. Darker clouds of other chemicals are found in the belts. The deepest visible level holds blue clouds
The Great Red Spot is a giant storm that has lasted for more than 300 years. At its widest, the Great Red Spot is 3 times the diameter of Earth. Its color which usually varies from brick red to slightly brown, may come from small amounts of sulfur and phosphorus in the ammonia crystals in Jupiters clouds. Every now and again, the Great Red Spot seems to fade entirely.
Io is the most volcanically active body is the solar system 3rd largest of Jupiter’s moons. The volcanic plumes rise 300 km (190 miles) above the surface Io is constantly renewing its surface filling in any impact craters with molten lava lakes Know one knows what the volcanos spew out. Sulfur dioxide is the primary thing in Io’s thin atmosphere It has no water.
Slightly smaller that Earth’s moon Europa is thought to have a iron core, a rocky mantle and on its surface, a salt water ocean. The ocean is deep enough to cover the surface of the entire planet but since it is far from the sun, it is frozen over. The ocean could possible support life forms
It has a inner rocky core which is surrounded by a large icy mantle. Callisto is twice as bright as our own Moon. Callisto is the most heavily cratered object in our solar system It has a surface is 4 billion years old It has no atmosphere or tectonics
It’s larger than Mercury and Pluto Thought to have a thin oxygen atmosphere. It’s not thick enough to support life though Its core is metallic metal. Its mantle is made of rock, and the crust is made of ice. The ice sheet is thought to be 800 km thick might contain some rock as well
96% of the planet is made of hydrogen. The other 4 percent is oxygen and other stuff. 61 moons known Divided into layers The first layer has ammonia crystals. Right bellow it is water and ammonium hydro-sulfide. Under that, pressure can so high, the hydrogen is compressed into a liquid Under that is metallic hydrogen People think the core is made of rock and metal elements, but they don’t know for sure
Mostly made of water ice, chemicals, and dust particles Size of particles range from a few micrometers to a few meters big. 5 rings: D ring- closest ring to Saturn, 7,500 km wide A ring- There are 2 gaps within the A ring: Encke gap and Keeler gap C ring-Very faint, made of darker materials B ring-Largest and brightest, 25,500 km wide. F ring-Outermost ring, estimated 30-500km thick
Saturn’s largest moon Frozen version of Earth Occasionally forms clouds and rains Developed an orange haze of smog Has erosion from liquid Surface shaped by rivers and lakes
Surface covered with clean ice Reflects 100% of the light that hits it Has an atmosphere Interior of the moon is thought to be liquid Heated by a tidal mechanism
Composed of water ice and a little rock Average temperature is -305 degrees Fahrenheit Small moon
One side is dark and has a slight reddish color The other side is bright Think the dark side is material that oozed from Iapetus’s insides
Third largest planet in the solar system Not visible the naked eye It doesn’t really have any terrain Made of various ices, like water, ammonia and methane People think it has a solid core Regions of the core experience pressure of 8 million bars, and have a temperature of 5,000 Kelvin
If you tried to land a spaceship of Uranus you would fall through the upper atmosphere of hydrogen and helium, and into the liquid icy center. Has large amounts of methane it its atmosphere
Has an most extreme axial tilt of 98° so it has seasons Each pole has 42 Earth years of light and 42 Earth years of darkness Has an unusually cold temperature Average temperature on Uranus is -224° Celsius Has huge wind storms, with wind speeds reaching as much as 900 km/hr Again, DON’T LAUGH
The atmosphere in Neptune is composed of 80% hydrogen 19% helium, and 1% methane. Blue because the methane absorbs the color red Upper-level of Neptune has methane clouds If the pressure is more than 5 bars, ammonium sulfide, hydrogen sulfide and water clouds may form. Clouds of water-ice may form at 50 bars of pressure. Has no terrain A spaceship would sink right through Neptune and hit its core Has very faint rings
The mean temperature of the planet is 73° K (-200° Celsius The temperature of Neptune can reach as low as 55° Kelvin The temperature at South Pole are -10° C warmer than the rest of the planet because it is currently titled towards the Sun. At the core temperatures reach 7000° C The difference in temperature between the core and the surface cause winds as fast as 2100 km/hr.
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