Sophie & char formation of the solar system
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  • 1. * Formation of the Solar System
  • 2. ** The sun has 99.9% of the mass in the solar system, but the planets has 99.7% of the solar system’s angular momentum.* A couple scientists performed hydrodynamical simulations to find the time scale for how far away the supernova was from the calcium- aluminum-rich-inclusion (CAIs). They figured out the time evolution of density, which was 5 pc (pc is about 3.26 lightyears)
  • 3. *
  • 4. *Formation / Evolutionary Histories• The most common theory is that our solar system was formed by a supernova, then a giant cloud that soon formed into the sun. The cloud contraction was full of elements that helped the planets formed. This cloud became the sun by the gravitation force around it and the inner pressure of the sun was in balance.• All planets began life as tiny debris clumps or either liquid or solid depending on how close it was to the sun -- the farther it is, the colder and more liquid-y it is. This was because the icy planets could not withstand the heat of the sun.• Based on meteorite findings, lots of scientists believe that the solar system is about 4.6 billion years old.
  • 5. *• All planets move around the Sun in the same direction that the sun rotated and close to the equatorial plane of the Sun, except for the retrograde planets.• Retrograde planets spin the other way. The planets are Venus, Uranus and Pluto.
  • 6. *Materials, States of Matter and DensitiesSolids, liquids and gasses are probably the most common – ONEARTH, but are minor states of matter in the solar system.Matter you can find include solids, liquids, gasses, plasma,white dwarf stars and, « Black Hole » Matter.Plasma might be one of the most commonDensities of planetsEarth: 5515 Sun: 1408Mercury: 5427 Jupiter: 1326Venus: 5243 Uranus 1270Mars: 3933 Saturn: 687Pluto: 1750 Moon: 3350Neptune: 1638
  • 7. ** Tools used to discover solar system where they followed two points of light that moved along the stars. Invention of the telescope helped them add the asteroid belt. In the space age they used probes to explore the system.* Comets and asteroids are studied for clues to help understand how the solar system formed. Fragments of asteroids that hit the Earth as meteorites can be analyzed to determine the composition of the early solar accretion disk. Some meteorites have remained unchanged for 4.56 billion years, providing scientists with pristine material from the solar systems earliest period. Meteorites and comets that cross the Earths orbit must be charted and tracked for impact dangers.
  • 8. ** We have used lots of satellites to discover all reaches of the solar system.* Regular satellites orbit the planets like mini solar systems, as if the planet was the Sun.* Irregular satellites orbit the giant planets, and they orbit in a retrograde-style or have high inclinations/eccentricities.* Galilean satellites orbit Jupiter, and exhibit a decrease in density with inceasing distance from Jupiter.
  • 9. *Gravity, Orbiting and Centripetal Forces• The Centripetal force of the Sun/Solar System keeps the planets within the galaxy, even if they are trying to get out.• A balance between gravity and pressure inside the sun kept the cloud from contracting too much.• Orbiting: Mercury’s = .21, 46 mill. K @ closet point to the sun. Fastest to orbit @ 88 Earth daysVenus’s = .007, Nearly perfect. 107 mill. K @ closet point.224.7 Earth days to orbitEarth: .016, about 150 mill. K from the Sun. 365.256 daysMars: .093, one of the most eccentric, 207 mill. K. 687 Earthdays to orbit.
  • 10. *Gravity, Orbiting and Centripetal Forces – Cont.• Jupiter: .048 eccentricity. 741 mill. K away from sun @ closet point. 11.86 Earth Years to orbit• Saturn: .056 eccentricity. 1.35 bill. K away from the Sun. 29.7 Earth Years to orbit. Saturn has only orbited about 13 times, while Earth has orbited about 400 times.• Uranus: 0.47 eccentricity. 2.75 bill. K away. 8.43 Earth Years to orbit• Neptune: . 009 ecentricity. 4.5 bill. K away.
  • 11. ** There ARE traces of water all around the universe. From the Sun to the Kuiper Belt. But Earth had the largest amount.* It comes in all states: liquid, ice and gas. But liquid only appears when the temperature is around 273k and 373k.* It is believed that there is/has been water on Mars. Most scientists believe that water helped formed most of the landforms on Mars, but some believe it was liquid carbon dioxide.* Water was also combined with other elements to make the inner planets, elements like silicon, calcium and aluminum.* Even in the farther planets, liquid water was made into ice or ice grains, and incorporated within them and the planets’ moons.