Botany anatomy jan 2012
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Botany anatomy jan 2012

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Botany anatomy jan 2012 Botany anatomy jan 2012 Presentation Transcript

  • Botany Basics John PunchesOregon State University
  • Botany is...The study of plants.
  • Plants in our EcosystemCapture sun’s energyFood sourceReplenish atmospheric oxygenParticipate in water cycleModerate world climateProvide shelterSource of numerous raw materials
  • Botany AppliedIdentify plantsGrow & propagate plantsInfluence flowering & fruit productionControl unwanted growthMaintain plant healthModify plant features
  • Reading Assignmentextension.oregonstate.edu/mg/botany/
  • Basic ClassificationsVascular vs. Non-vascularSeed vs. SeedlessFlowering vs. FlowerlessBig 2 Vascular Plant Divisions  Flowering Plants (Anthophyta)  Cone Bearing Plants (Coniferophyta)
  • Plant Life CyclesAnnuals - complete life cycle (seed to seed) in one yearBiennials - require all or part of 2 years to complete life cyclePerennials - live longer than 2 years  Herbaceous - soft stems that die back in winter  Woody - trees, shrubs, etc.
  • Monocots vs Dicots Structure Monocots Dicots Seed Leaves One TwoVascular System Xylem & phloem Xylem & phloem in in bundles, dispersed rings; xylem inner ring, in stem phloem outer ring Floral Parts Usually threes or Usually in multiples multiples of three of four or five Leaves Often parallel-veined Generally net-veined
  • Vascular Plant Structure Roots Stems Leaves FlowersFruit & Seeds
  • Roots
  • Root FunctionsAbsorb nutrientsAbsorb moistureAnchor plant in soilSupport stemStore foodPropagate vegetatively
  • Root Structure Lateral Root Zone ofPrimary Root Maturation Root Hairs Root Tip Zone of Elongation Meristematic Zone Root Cap
  • Zone of Elongation Meristematic Zone Root Tip Root Cap Photo: Source Unknown
  • Tap Root Fibrous Root
  • Root Anatomy Epidermis Cortex Endodermis Xylem PhloemPhoto: Botany for Gardeners, Capon
  • Root TissuesXylem - conduct water & nutrientsPhloem - carry sugars & starchesEndodermis - contain vascular tissuesCortex - primary tissue surrounding vascular bundleEpidermis - outermost layer of plant tissues, protective layer
  • Stems
  • Stem FunctionsSupport budsSupport leavesSupport flowering/fruiting structuresCarry water & mineralsCarry food (photosynthates)
  • Terminal BudNode Axillary or Internode Lateral BudNode Bud Scale ScarNode Lenticel (breathing pore) Leaf Scar
  • Inside a BudApical Meristem Axillary Bud Node Internode Node Photo: Botany for Gardeners, Capon
  • Stem Structure QuizPhotos: Botany for Gardeners, Capon
  • Herbaceous Stem Anatomy Xylem Phloem Vascular BundlesIllustration: Botany for Gardeners, Capon
  • Vascular Arrangements in StemsHerbaceous Monocot Herbaceous Dicot
  • Monocot Vascular Arrangement Air Space Xylem Phloem Support Cells
  • Dicot Vascular Arrangement Support Cells Phloem Vascular Cambium Xylem
  • Stem TissuesHerbaceous Monocot Herbaceous Dicot Vascular Bundle Epidermis Cortex Vascular Ground Tissue Cambium Pith
  • Woody Stem Growth
  • Woody Stem, Secondary Growth
  • Woody Stem AnatomyHeartwood -nonfunctional Outer Bark xylem Inner Bark (phloem)Sapwood -functional xylem Vascular Cambium
  • Woody Stem AnatomyAdapted from Panshin & DeZeeuw, 1980,Textbook of Wood Technology, 4th edition, p17.
  • Stem TissuesXylem - conduct water & mineralsPhloem - carry sugars & starchesEpidermis - Outermost layer of plant tissue, protective layerCortex - primary tissue surrounding vascular bundlesPith - thin-walled cells at center of stem
  • Specialized Above-Ground StemsCrowns - compressed stems with leaves and flowers on short internodesSpurs - short side stems arising from main stem, often bear fruit on treesStolons - fleshy or semiwoody, elongated, horizontal stems, often at soil surface
  • Specialized Underground StemsTuber - enlarged, short, fleshy underground stem tipRhizome - horizontal underground stem, may be compressed and fleshy or slender with elongated internodesBulb - short, compressed, underground stem with central bud at tip of stem, surrounded by fleshy scales (leaves)
  • Specialized Underground StemsCorm - solid, swollen underground stem with dry, scale-like leavesTuberous stem - short, flat, enlarged underground stem with buds and shoots at top and fibrous roots at bottom
  • Leaves
  • Leaf FunctionsPhotosynthesis - use sunlight to make foodRespiration - use food to make energyTranspiration - lose water (as vapor) to atmosphere
  • Leaf PartsLamina (blade) Petiole
  • Leaf Anatomy Cuticle Upper Epidermis Palisade Mesophyll Vascular Bundle Spongy Mesophyll Intercellular Chamber Lower epidermis CuticleGuard Cells Stoma
  • Leaf Model upperepidermis vascular palisade bundlemesophyll spongy xylemmesophyll phloem lowerepidermis stoma
  • Stoma & Guard Cell Stoma Guard Cell
  • Stomatal ControlOpen Closed
  • Leaf Surface
  • Leaf Forms
  • Types of LeavesScale leaves (cataphylls) - enclose and protect rhizomes and budsSeed leaves (cotyledons) - store food for seedlingsSpines & Tendrils - protect or help supportStorage leaves - found on bulbous plants & succulents, store foodBracts - modified, often brightly-colored leaves around flowers
  • http://www.free-pictures-photos.com/leaves/leafs-n7z.jpg
  • Flowers
  • Flower Functions Exchange pollen Achieve fertilization Produce seed
  • Flower Anatomy Stamen Anther Filament Stigma Pistil StylePetal Ovary Sepal
  • Filament AntherStyleStigma
  • PetalsSepals Photo: Botany for Gardeners, Capon
  • Flower TypesComplete  all floral organs present (sepals, petals, stamens, pistil)Incomplete  flower lacks 1 or more of the 4 organs
  • Flower TypesPerfect - has both stamen (male organs) and pistil (female organ)Imperfect - having only one type of organ  Staminate - male organ present  Pistillate - female organ present
  • Imperfect Flowers Staminate PistillatePhotos: Botany for Gardeners, Capon
  • Imperfect FlowersPistillate Flower Staminate Flower
  • Species with Imperfect FlowersMonoecious  both pistillate and staminate flowers occur on same plant • birch, pecan, squashDioecious  pistillate are on one plant, staminate on a different plant • ginkgo, holly, pistachio, kiwi
  • PollinationExchange of pollenNumerous mechanisms  insects, birds, bats, wind, rainFlowers are optimized for their pollination vector
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/27872075@N02/3163971737/sizes/o/
  • Fertilization Pollen Grain Stigma Style Pollen Tube Ovary OvuleAfter: Botany for Gardeners, Capon
  • Fruit Petal Sepals Stigma Stamens Style OvarySepal Floral Tube Ovule (becomes seed)
  • Types of FruitSimple - develop from one ovary (may have multiple seeds)Aggregate - develop from a single flower with multiple ovariesMultiple - develop from a tight cluster of separate flowers
  • Seeds
  • Seed AnatomyEmbryo - miniature plant in an arrested state of developmentEndosperm - food supply (can be comprised of proteins, carbohydrates, fats)Seed coat - hard outer covering that protects from disease and insects; also repels water
  • GerminationActivation of embryo within seedPreceded by water penetrating seed coatOxygen, favorable temperature, and (in some species) light required
  • Germination of a Dicot
  • Germination of a Monocot
  • TheIncredible Vascular Plant