Botany anatomy jan 2012
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Botany anatomy jan 2012






Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



3 Embeds 14 9 4 1



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Botany anatomy jan 2012 Botany anatomy jan 2012 Presentation Transcript

  • Botany Basics John PunchesOregon State University
  • Botany is...The study of plants.
  • Plants in our EcosystemCapture sun’s energyFood sourceReplenish atmospheric oxygenParticipate in water cycleModerate world climateProvide shelterSource of numerous raw materials
  • Botany AppliedIdentify plantsGrow & propagate plantsInfluence flowering & fruit productionControl unwanted growthMaintain plant healthModify plant features
  • Reading
  • Basic ClassificationsVascular vs. Non-vascularSeed vs. SeedlessFlowering vs. FlowerlessBig 2 Vascular Plant Divisions  Flowering Plants (Anthophyta)  Cone Bearing Plants (Coniferophyta)
  • Plant Life CyclesAnnuals - complete life cycle (seed to seed) in one yearBiennials - require all or part of 2 years to complete life cyclePerennials - live longer than 2 years  Herbaceous - soft stems that die back in winter  Woody - trees, shrubs, etc.
  • Monocots vs Dicots Structure Monocots Dicots Seed Leaves One TwoVascular System Xylem & phloem Xylem & phloem in in bundles, dispersed rings; xylem inner ring, in stem phloem outer ring Floral Parts Usually threes or Usually in multiples multiples of three of four or five Leaves Often parallel-veined Generally net-veined
  • Vascular Plant Structure Roots Stems Leaves FlowersFruit & Seeds
  • Roots
  • Root FunctionsAbsorb nutrientsAbsorb moistureAnchor plant in soilSupport stemStore foodPropagate vegetatively
  • Root Structure Lateral Root Zone ofPrimary Root Maturation Root Hairs Root Tip Zone of Elongation Meristematic Zone Root Cap
  • Zone of Elongation Meristematic Zone Root Tip Root Cap Photo: Source Unknown
  • Tap Root Fibrous Root
  • Root Anatomy Epidermis Cortex Endodermis Xylem PhloemPhoto: Botany for Gardeners, Capon
  • Root TissuesXylem - conduct water & nutrientsPhloem - carry sugars & starchesEndodermis - contain vascular tissuesCortex - primary tissue surrounding vascular bundleEpidermis - outermost layer of plant tissues, protective layer
  • Stems
  • Stem FunctionsSupport budsSupport leavesSupport flowering/fruiting structuresCarry water & mineralsCarry food (photosynthates)
  • Terminal BudNode Axillary or Internode Lateral BudNode Bud Scale ScarNode Lenticel (breathing pore) Leaf Scar
  • Inside a BudApical Meristem Axillary Bud Node Internode Node Photo: Botany for Gardeners, Capon
  • Stem Structure QuizPhotos: Botany for Gardeners, Capon
  • Herbaceous Stem Anatomy Xylem Phloem Vascular BundlesIllustration: Botany for Gardeners, Capon
  • Vascular Arrangements in StemsHerbaceous Monocot Herbaceous Dicot
  • Monocot Vascular Arrangement Air Space Xylem Phloem Support Cells
  • Dicot Vascular Arrangement Support Cells Phloem Vascular Cambium Xylem
  • Stem TissuesHerbaceous Monocot Herbaceous Dicot Vascular Bundle Epidermis Cortex Vascular Ground Tissue Cambium Pith
  • Woody Stem Growth
  • Woody Stem, Secondary Growth
  • Woody Stem AnatomyHeartwood -nonfunctional Outer Bark xylem Inner Bark (phloem)Sapwood -functional xylem Vascular Cambium
  • Woody Stem AnatomyAdapted from Panshin & DeZeeuw, 1980,Textbook of Wood Technology, 4th edition, p17.
  • Stem TissuesXylem - conduct water & mineralsPhloem - carry sugars & starchesEpidermis - Outermost layer of plant tissue, protective layerCortex - primary tissue surrounding vascular bundlesPith - thin-walled cells at center of stem
  • Specialized Above-Ground StemsCrowns - compressed stems with leaves and flowers on short internodesSpurs - short side stems arising from main stem, often bear fruit on treesStolons - fleshy or semiwoody, elongated, horizontal stems, often at soil surface
  • Specialized Underground StemsTuber - enlarged, short, fleshy underground stem tipRhizome - horizontal underground stem, may be compressed and fleshy or slender with elongated internodesBulb - short, compressed, underground stem with central bud at tip of stem, surrounded by fleshy scales (leaves)
  • Specialized Underground StemsCorm - solid, swollen underground stem with dry, scale-like leavesTuberous stem - short, flat, enlarged underground stem with buds and shoots at top and fibrous roots at bottom
  • Leaves
  • Leaf FunctionsPhotosynthesis - use sunlight to make foodRespiration - use food to make energyTranspiration - lose water (as vapor) to atmosphere
  • Leaf PartsLamina (blade) Petiole
  • Leaf Anatomy Cuticle Upper Epidermis Palisade Mesophyll Vascular Bundle Spongy Mesophyll Intercellular Chamber Lower epidermis CuticleGuard Cells Stoma
  • Leaf Model upperepidermis vascular palisade bundlemesophyll spongy xylemmesophyll phloem lowerepidermis stoma
  • Stoma & Guard Cell Stoma Guard Cell
  • Stomatal ControlOpen Closed
  • Leaf Surface
  • Leaf Forms
  • Types of LeavesScale leaves (cataphylls) - enclose and protect rhizomes and budsSeed leaves (cotyledons) - store food for seedlingsSpines & Tendrils - protect or help supportStorage leaves - found on bulbous plants & succulents, store foodBracts - modified, often brightly-colored leaves around flowers
  • Flowers
  • Flower Functions Exchange pollen Achieve fertilization Produce seed
  • Flower Anatomy Stamen Anther Filament Stigma Pistil StylePetal Ovary Sepal
  • Filament AntherStyleStigma
  • PetalsSepals Photo: Botany for Gardeners, Capon
  • Flower TypesComplete  all floral organs present (sepals, petals, stamens, pistil)Incomplete  flower lacks 1 or more of the 4 organs
  • Flower TypesPerfect - has both stamen (male organs) and pistil (female organ)Imperfect - having only one type of organ  Staminate - male organ present  Pistillate - female organ present
  • Imperfect Flowers Staminate PistillatePhotos: Botany for Gardeners, Capon
  • Imperfect FlowersPistillate Flower Staminate Flower
  • Species with Imperfect FlowersMonoecious  both pistillate and staminate flowers occur on same plant • birch, pecan, squashDioecious  pistillate are on one plant, staminate on a different plant • ginkgo, holly, pistachio, kiwi
  • PollinationExchange of pollenNumerous mechanisms  insects, birds, bats, wind, rainFlowers are optimized for their pollination vector
  • Fertilization Pollen Grain Stigma Style Pollen Tube Ovary OvuleAfter: Botany for Gardeners, Capon
  • Fruit Petal Sepals Stigma Stamens Style OvarySepal Floral Tube Ovule (becomes seed)
  • Types of FruitSimple - develop from one ovary (may have multiple seeds)Aggregate - develop from a single flower with multiple ovariesMultiple - develop from a tight cluster of separate flowers
  • Seeds
  • Seed AnatomyEmbryo - miniature plant in an arrested state of developmentEndosperm - food supply (can be comprised of proteins, carbohydrates, fats)Seed coat - hard outer covering that protects from disease and insects; also repels water
  • GerminationActivation of embryo within seedPreceded by water penetrating seed coatOxygen, favorable temperature, and (in some species) light required
  • Germination of a Dicot
  • Germination of a Monocot
  • TheIncredible Vascular Plant