Waslteg-To-E l~S'Clean Reliable. Renew~able
For More Information Contact: Maria Zannes
tons of trash each year and
Waste-to-energy facilities process nearly 30 million
2.4 million homes. More than 37
generate enough power to meet the needs of nearly plants nationwide.
million people in 31 states rely on the 102 waste-to-energy
or about one-quarter of
Waste-to-energy facilities generate about 2800 megawatts, total electricity
about 1.4% of the
total biomass generation. Biomass accounts for
than 2% of the electricity market.
generated. Renewable energy totals slightly more
facilities are among the cleanest
New Clean Air Act Standards that the year 2000
EPA calculates that mercury emissions
sources of electricity in the nation. For example,
by more than 90% over 1995
from waste-to-energy plants have dramatically declined
than 3% of the U.S. inventory of mercury
levels. Waste-to-energy now accounts for less similar success in
emissions stemming from industry.' EPA has acknowledged
by at least 99% since 1995. Waste-
controlling dioxin emissions that have been reduced
sources of dioxin.2
to-energy represents less than 1% of the known
gases such as methane, carbon
Waste-to-energy prevent the release of greenhouse 3
dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds. greenhouse gas equivalence.
contributes to the reduction of more than 33 million
10 million tons of carbon dioxide
* Waste-to-energy prevents the release of more than
and more than a million tons of methane into our
prevents the release of nearly 25,000
* Waste-to-energy power as an alternative to coal
tons of nitrogen oxides and 5,000 tons of volatile
natural resources than oil, coal or
* Waste-to-energy also depletes less of the Earth's
natural gas-powered electricity generation.
an average of 33% of their trash,
Communities with waste-to-energy plants recycle
788,000 tons of steel is recovered
five percent higher than the national avtrage. Nearly
An additional 940,000 tons each year
for recycling each year at waste-to-energy plants.
batteries, paper, card board, yard
of non-ferrous metals, glass, plastics, white goods,
waste, and ash is recycled on-site at waste-to-energy
Report to Congress, December 1997., U.S. EPA
'U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Mercury
Sheet, Final Air Regulations for Municipal Waste Final Air Regulation for Municipal Waste Combustors
2 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Fact Sheet
1994; EPA Memorandum, Summary of the National
(10/31/95); U.S. EPA Draft Dioxin Reassessment,
Estimates for Municipal Waste Combustion Units,
Agency, Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases,
3U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information
lEWASTE SERVICES Washington, DC 20005 * 202-467-6240 FAX: 202-467-6225
IEASSOCIATION 1401 H Street N W., Suite 220
For More Information Contact. Katie Cullen
of small power plant production
* The Public Utility Regulatory Policy Adt's definitionmeans electricity generated from
facility is as follows: "The term 'renewable energy' and solar, geothermal resources,
biomass, waste, renewable resources to include wind
or any combination thereof."
renewable electnic energy as
* The Federal Power Act Amendments of 1978 defines which produces electric energy
"electric energy produced by a renewable energy facility energy, wind energy, waste
solely by the use, as a primary energy source, of solar or any combination thereof."
resources, biomass resources, geothermal resources,
(18 CFR.Ch. 1,4196
* The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Regulations energy source which, on
Edition, Sec. 292.204) defines biomass energy as biomass shall be considered
the basis of its energy content, is 50 percent or more
in the U.S.: 1998 calculates that the
* EPA's Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste on average.
biomass content of solid waste is more than 70%
that "renewable energy
* DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory contends energy by converting natural
technologies are being developed to produce marketable
phenomena into useful energy forms."
all energy materials that emanate from
* According to DOE "Biomass isa term that includes
wastes, residue of wood processing
biological sources, whether they are wood or wood solid waste. Unlike the burning of
industries, food industry waste products, or municipal carbon fixed by photosynthesis in
fossil fuels, combustion of biomass merely recycles
the growth phase."
that provides communities with
* Waste-to-energy is the only renewable energy technology
electricity and clean trash disposal.
dual environmental benefits: a clean source of
clean electricity is municipal solid
* The fuel used in waste-to-energy plants to produce - two basic criteria for
waste. Trash is both "sustainable" and "Indigenous"
Society will continue to generate
establishing what Isa renewable energy source.will ever be 100 percent eliminated.
waste and no one can reasonably claim that waste
a special incentive for utilities that
* The Clean Air Adt Amendments of 1990 provides renewable energy' means
use renewable fuels. Under the Act, "the term 'qualified as identified by the Administrator
energy derived from biomass, solar, geothermal, or
in consultation with the Secretary of Energy.
renewable energy generation' for
"The following listed measures are approved as 'qualified
Reserve Program: 3.1 Biomass resources
purposes of the Conservation and Renewable Energy sources which include: wood, plant
- combustible energy-producing materials
and eligible components of municipal solid
residues, biological wastes, landfill gas, energy crops,
WASTE SERVICES 202-467-6240 * FAX 202.467.6225
1401 H Street N W, Suite 220 * Washington, DC 20005
SOURCES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY
FOR ELECTRIC GENERATION
Total in Megawatts O/6 of Market
Biomass including waste-to..energy *1 10,702 1.38
Wind ~~~~~~~~1,620 0.21
Total Renewable Energy 215,510
ner pv a ~ t/ ~ - T o ~ ~
* W s e
~ 2,769 0.35
S-Pum-e - Renewable Energy Annual
1998 - U.S. Department of Energy,
Information Administration Energy
represents 26% of the biomas s category.
Energy Information Administration
renewable energy source. Hydroelectric includes hydroelectric power as a
totals 79,795 megawaffs, and, if included
renewable source, would represent as a
10.2 percent of all electricity generated
percent of all renewable sources. and 83
represents i 8% of all renewable energy
power is not included in the renewable assuming hydroelectric
4Waste-to-energy power generation increased to 2,816
megawatts in 1999.
NEW ~ ~~~~~o
~ oe nomto CnatMraZannes
garbage to generate electricity and steam
Waste-to-energy facilities that burn municipal
Those standards ensure that waste-to-
are subject to tougher federal emissions standards.
in the world.
energy is one of the cleanest sources of power
set new air pollution control standards
As part of the 1990 Clean Air Act mandates, EPA
for large units (furnaces) at municipal waste combustors,
strict enforcement policies, make the
facilities. The standards, coupled with EPA's
these power plants.
new rules among the toughest in the world for
to use the "maximum achievable control
* These Clean Air Act standards require facilities
technology," and therefore are referred to as the
units (furnaces) that combust more
* The MACT standards apply to facilities with large
90% of national waste-to-energy
than 250 tons each day of trash, representing nearly
combust 250 tons or less of trash each day
capacity. MACT standards for small units that
will be promulgated in the year 2000.
cleaner than ever. Waste-to-energy
* America's 102 waste-to-energy plants operate
the nation's other electricity sources
plants are now cleaner than the vast majority of
most cases, a waste-to-energy plant
including power plants fired by coal or oil. In
a source of electricity generation.
improves air quality by replacing these fuels as
emissions limits while others "retrofit"
* Some facilities were designed to meet the new
equipment. Retrofit technolo~iv
newer technology to their existing air pollution control
cleaner with hundreds of fabric
* A "bag house" that w~orks like a giant vacuum
filter bags which clean the air of soot, smoke,
the hot exhaust. The lime
* A "scrubber" which sprays a slurry of lime into
to neutralize acidic soil.
neutralizes acid gases, just as a gardener uses lime
in the exhaust.
Scrubbing also can improve the capture of mercury
that converts nitrogen oxides -
* "Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction" or "SNCR"
spraying ammonia or urea into
-acause of urban smog -- to harmless nitrogen by
the hot furnace.
into the exhaust gas to absorb
* "Carbon Injection" systems that blow charcoal
emissions such as dioxins.
mercury. Carbon injection also controls organic
IASSOCIATION 1401 H Street N W., Suite 220 Washington, DC 20005.-202.467-6240
MA-CTB ULES FOR EXISTING
LARGE UNMITLS AAT FACILITIES
60 ng Lre29
All others ppm or 75% removal
0.0 g Large29pmo9%reva
Hig (/dscmn) 0.8 ar 85% removal
Visible less than 5% of the time
NrOperator of large plants may select
one of tetwo options
Option A: Units must meet the following
Mass Burn/Water Wall standards:
205 ppmv Fluidize Bed
RDF 2 180 ppmv
Mass Burn Rotary
Option B: Plants may "bubble" units
within the plant to meet the following
Mas Bur/Njater Wall standards:
18 0ppmv EFluidize Bed
16 0 ppmv
Rotary * 230 ppmv
u m R otary ~~220 ppm v
50 ppmv Spreader Stoker Coal/RIDE Mixed,
Mass Burn Rotary Refractories,-
Waterwall, Refr-actory, Eluidized RDF Stocker i
Bed 200 ppmv
100 ppmv' Mass Burn Rotary
Waterwall 250 ppmv
PuvrzdCoal, RDF Mixed
NEW SOURCE RULES FOR
p r8% remoa
0 20 mg/ dsc m
. O aci t y
PM 24 mg Hg ~~~'uscm)0.0mgo85
FgitivesNx re va
Visible less than 5% of the time
year 150 ppm
Modular/Mass Bum, Fluidized Bed
RDF ioo ppmv * iigAayis
150 ppmv * MtrasSprto Plan
Large unit are defie athsbunnmoehn25tnsacday
large units only. MAC? standards ofwse heMC ue apply to
for small unt will be promulgate
nteya 00b the EPA.
WASTE-TO-ENERGY INDUSTRY (202) 467-6240
Contact: Maria Zannes
annmually. About one-third of the
Americans generate more than 225 mililion tons of trash
150 million tons of trash to be managed. This
nation's trash is recycled or composted, leaving as fuel to generate electricity and steam power at
remaining trash is managed in landfills, or
trash management and volume reduction with
Waste-to-energy is an effective method of be safe,
Waste-to-energy technology has proven to
the added benefit of generating clean energy.Burning trash effectively destroys waste stream
environmentally friendly and economical.
The waste-to-energy process also reduces the
bacteria, pathogens and other harmful elements. ash is either used as a road bed material or
incoming volume by about 90%. The remaining
similar product or landfilled.
The Future of America's Trash Diqposal
Answered by Proven Waste-to-En ergy Projects
in 31 states, throughout the U.S.
* There are 102 waste-to-energy plants, operating
nationwide, or ab6ut 97,000
*,these plants burn about .14% of the trash generated
tons each day;
megawatts of electricity to meet the
* waste-to-energy generates more than 2,800
power needs of nearly 2.5 million homes;
of more than 37 million people.
* the facilities serve the trash disposal needs
capital investment of more than $ 10 billion.
* Waste-to-energy plants represent a national
and published in the Solid Waste and
* A recent survey, conducted in 70 cities nationwide
almost three-quarters of the Amnericans polled
Power Industry Sourcebook indicates that for the nation's environmental and
believe waste-to-energy plants are vital coihponents
that waste-to-energy programs mean cleaner
economic future. Respondents also believe and cost effective, safe power generation.
disposal of trash, less need for landfill space
The Environment and the Economy are Incentives
to Use Waste-to-Energy Technology
total annual wages in excess of $150 million.
* Waste-to-energy plant employees receive
of more that $300 million. The waste-to-
This translates into local economic benefits
jobs for American workers.
energy industiy provides more than 6,000
at waste-to-energy plants in this country exceeds
* The value of energy produced annually a reliable form of power because even after
$850 million. Waste-to-energy provides
of fuel (trash) is dependable.
source reduction and recycling, the supply
1401 H Street N W., Suite 220 WaShington, DC 20005.-202-467-6240
WasteO-t.Energy Plants ...Responsive
* New clean Air Act rules to the Environment
ensure that waste-to-energy is one of
in the world. Energy can be the cleanest souces of pwe
produced from trash about as
a rcen jinty rlesedby heU.S.
klt bo cleanly as from natural gas,
Mec ngieer an oters Sice Conference of M ayors, the American Society of
usualyoler ol- rcol-b rning the power from modem waste-to-energy plants
pla er technologies, they can actually
qualtynmmuntie wh re heyOperate.
t ec improve the air
* How clean are modem Waste-to-energy
Sanitation Department officials facilities? Cbnsider
created less Pollution than the concluded in 1993 that their that Los Angeles District
trucks used to haul trash to a local waste-to-energy facility
* The U.S. Department of nearby landfill.
Plan to reduce carbon dioxide has labeled waste-to-energy technology as a major
to-energy reduces the buildup emissions in the United States. By replacing fossil fuels, of a
such as paper, wood and food of carbon dioxide in the air. waste'
waste -- does not add to the Combusting biomass -- materials
buildup of greenhouse gases.
* A recent air emissions sampling
sulfur dioxide emissions were at a waste-to-energy facility in Indianapolis showed
reduced by 52% over the levels that
generating plant. produced by an old coal power
Safe Ash Management and Reuse
* Ash landfill studies conducted
a metals content at about the over the past decade show that
same level as the standards leachate is like salty water, with
for safety from each waste-to-energy set for drinking water. Ash
plant in accordance with federal is tested
* More than 300,000 tons and stat'e laws.
of ash is used
landfills and in roadbed construction. annually as daily and final cover in place of
Ash is used as a substitute for soil in
materials, building construction aggregate in road base
and artificial offshore reefs.
* Waste-to..energy residue
causing it to harden once it is safe for landfilling. The ash exhibits concrete-like properties
for rainwater to leach contaminants and compacted in a landfill. This reduces the potential
from landfills into the ground.
facilities or new generating units
A tax credit for new, waste-to-energy clean,
government's policy to encourage
existing facilities continues the federal cities meet
energy diversity while helping
renewable electricity, and promotes your support.
Here's why the tax credit deserves
the challenge of trash disposal.
electricity and steam using municipal
* Waste-to-enertgy facilities generate in specially designed boilers to ensure complete
(garbage) as fuel. The garbage burns the most
standards require facilities to employ
combustion, and new Clean Air Act The result is clean,
available to scrub emissions.
modem pollution control equipment
2400 megawatts of electricity to
* Nationwide, 85 waste-to-energy plants supply about
a day. Facilities average greater
the grid. Plants operate 365-days-a-year, 24-hours plants generally operate
than 90% availability of installed capacity. Waste-to-energy
to thje customer.
in or near an urban area, easing transmilssiofl
dispose of the garbage and the pnice
* Facility revenues come from fees paid to
plants. New facilities or new generating
electricity generated by waste-to-eflergy capital investment. The capital, and
units built at existing facilities require significant for each
costs at a facility equal about $ 100
the operation and maintenance (O&M) 20 cents per
On an energy revenue basis, about
ton of garbage processed at a facility. that processes
and O&M. For example, a facility
kWh would be required for capital about $200,000
MW of electricity would require
2000 tons of trash each day into 60 fees or electricity revenues, or both.
in revenues daily, coming from either disposal
and cannot be operated
be sold as "base load" electricity
* Waste-to-energy power must because there is a constant need for
to supply "peak load" power simply
power generation steady and reliable.
disposal by combustion that keeps
sources, waste-to-energy plants are
* Similar to other alternative energy power purchase at avoided cost.
facilities (Q)Fs) eligible under PURPA for mandatory part, on long-term PURPA
financed based, in
Most existing facilities have been
with the facility debt.
contracts that run commensurate
municipal solid waste, is about 75%
* The biomass content of wat-oeeg' fuel,
on a Btu-outpuit basis.
PUR~PA contracts. Power generated
* Power purchasers no longer offer long-term existing facilities will be sold as base
new units at
new waste-to-energy facilities or price
on a 24-hour basis at the market clearing
load, and the power price will fluctuate market.)
be bid at "0" cents and ride with the
(i.e., waste-to-enlergy power will
not be sufficient to cover the cost
* The market price and disposal fee will, on average, this form of clean,
tax credit is needed to encourage
of a new waste-to-energy unit. A
INTEGRATED 202.467-6240 FAX. 202 467-6225
~. ut 2 ashington, DC 20005
WASTESOC VIATIO 141HSre