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Waste to Energy Fact Sheet


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  • 1. Power Waslteg-To-E l~S'Clean Reliable. Renew~able For More Information Contact: Maria Zannes (2,02) 467-6240 tons of trash each year and Waste-to-energy facilities process nearly 30 million 2.4 million homes. More than 37 generate enough power to meet the needs of nearly plants nationwide. million people in 31 states rely on the 102 waste-to-energy or about one-quarter of Waste-to-energy facilities generate about 2800 megawatts, total electricity about 1.4% of the total biomass generation. Biomass accounts for than 2% of the electricity market. generated. Renewable energy totals slightly more facilities are among the cleanest New Clean Air Act Standards that the year 2000 EPA calculates that mercury emissions sources of electricity in the nation. For example, by more than 90% over 1995 from waste-to-energy plants have dramatically declined than 3% of the U.S. inventory of mercury levels. Waste-to-energy now accounts for less similar success in emissions stemming from industry.' EPA has acknowledged by at least 99% since 1995. Waste- controlling dioxin emissions that have been reduced sources of dioxin.2 to-energy represents less than 1% of the known gases such as methane, carbon Waste-to-energy prevent the release of greenhouse 3 Combined, waste-to-energy dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds. greenhouse gas equivalence. tons of contributes to the reduction of more than 33 million 10 million tons of carbon dioxide * Waste-to-energy prevents the release of more than atmosphere. and more than a million tons of methane into our prevents the release of nearly 25,000 * Waste-to-energy power as an alternative to coal organic compounds. tons of nitrogen oxides and 5,000 tons of volatile natural resources than oil, coal or * Waste-to-energy also depletes less of the Earth's natural gas-powered electricity generation. an average of 33% of their trash, Communities with waste-to-energy plants recycle 788,000 tons of steel is recovered five percent higher than the national avtrage. Nearly An additional 940,000 tons each year for recycling each year at waste-to-energy plants. batteries, paper, card board, yard of non-ferrous metals, glass, plastics, white goods, plants. waste, and ash is recycled on-site at waste-to-energy Fact Report to Congress, December 1997., U.S. EPA 'U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Mercury Combustors, (10/31/95) Sheet, Final Air Regulations for Municipal Waste Final Air Regulation for Municipal Waste Combustors 2 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Fact Sheet 1994; EPA Memorandum, Summary of the National (10/31/95); U.S. EPA Draft Dioxin Reassessment, (09/30/00). Estimates for Municipal Waste Combustion Units, Agency, Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases, 3U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information 1999. 08/11/00 ~I-INTEGRATED lEWASTE SERVICES Washington, DC 20005 * 202-467-6240 FAX: 202-467-6225 IEASSOCIATION 1401 H Street N W., Suite 220
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  • 3. ~~~~~~ E EW For More Information Contact. Katie Cullen 20-21467-6240 of small power plant production * The Public Utility Regulatory Policy Adt's definitionmeans electricity generated from facility is as follows: "The term 'renewable energy' and solar, geothermal resources, biomass, waste, renewable resources to include wind or any combination thereof." renewable electnic energy as * The Federal Power Act Amendments of 1978 defines which produces electric energy "electric energy produced by a renewable energy facility energy, wind energy, waste solely by the use, as a primary energy source, of solar or any combination thereof." resources, biomass resources, geothermal resources, (18 CFR.Ch. 1,4196 * The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Regulations energy source which, on "Any primary Edition, Sec. 292.204) defines biomass energy as biomass shall be considered the basis of its energy content, is 50 percent or more biomass." in the U.S.: 1998 calculates that the * EPA's Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste on average. biomass content of solid waste is more than 70% that "renewable energy * DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory contends energy by converting natural technologies are being developed to produce marketable phenomena into useful energy forms." all energy materials that emanate from * According to DOE "Biomass isa term that includes wastes, residue of wood processing biological sources, whether they are wood or wood solid waste. Unlike the burning of industries, food industry waste products, or municipal carbon fixed by photosynthesis in the fossil fuels, combustion of biomass merely recycles the growth phase." that provides communities with * Waste-to-energy is the only renewable energy technology electricity and clean trash disposal. dual environmental benefits: a clean source of clean electricity is municipal solid * The fuel used in waste-to-energy plants to produce - two basic criteria for waste. Trash is both "sustainable" and "Indigenous" Society will continue to generate establishing what Isa renewable energy source.will ever be 100 percent eliminated. waste and no one can reasonably claim that waste a special incentive for utilities that * The Clean Air Adt Amendments of 1990 provides renewable energy' means use renewable fuels. Under the Act, "the term 'qualified as identified by the Administrator wind energy derived from biomass, solar, geothermal, or in consultation with the Secretary of Energy. renewable energy generation' for "The following listed measures are approved as 'qualified Reserve Program: 3.1 Biomass resources purposes of the Conservation and Renewable Energy sources which include: wood, plant - combustible energy-producing materials from biological and eligible components of municipal solid residues, biological wastes, landfill gas, energy crops, waste." *INTEGRATED WASTE SERVICES 202-467-6240 * FAX 202.467.6225 1401 H Street N W, Suite 220 * Washington, DC 20005 ASSOCIATION
  • 4. SOURCES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR ELECTRIC GENERATION Sources Total in Megawatts O/6 of Market Geothermal 2.854 0.37 Biomass including *1 10,702 1.38 Solar 334 0.04 Wind ~~~~~~~~1,620 0.21 Total Renewable Energy 215,510 2.0 Nonrenewables 763.005 9. Total ~~~~~~~~~778,515 ner pv a ~ t/ ~ - T o ~ ~ * W s e ~ 2,769 0.35 S-Pum-e - Renewable Energy Annual 1998 - U.S. Department of Energy, Information Administration Energy 1Waste-to-energy represents 26% of the biomas s category. 2The Energy Information Administration renewable energy source. Hydroelectric includes hydroelectric power as a totals 79,795 megawaffs, and, if included renewable source, would represent as a 10.2 percent of all electricity generated percent of all renewable sources. and 83 3Waste-to-energy represents i 8% of all renewable energy power is not included in the renewable assuming hydroelectric category. 4Waste-to-energy power generation increased to 2,816 megawatts in 1999.
  • 5. NEW ~ ~~~~~o ~ oe nomto CnatMraZannes (202) 467-6240 garbage to generate electricity and steam Waste-to-energy facilities that burn municipal Those standards ensure that waste-to- are subject to tougher federal emissions standards. in the world. energy is one of the cleanest sources of power set new air pollution control standards As part of the 1990 Clean Air Act mandates, EPA including waste-to-energy for large units (furnaces) at municipal waste combustors, strict enforcement policies, make the facilities. The standards, coupled with EPA's these power plants. new rules among the toughest in the world for to use the "maximum achievable control * These Clean Air Act standards require facilities MACT standards. technology," and therefore are referred to as the units (furnaces) that combust more * The MACT standards apply to facilities with large 90% of national waste-to-energy than 250 tons each day of trash, representing nearly combust 250 tons or less of trash each day capacity. MACT standards for small units that will be promulgated in the year 2000. cleaner than ever. Waste-to-energy * America's 102 waste-to-energy plants operate the nation's other electricity sources plants are now cleaner than the vast majority of most cases, a waste-to-energy plant including power plants fired by coal or oil. In a source of electricity generation. improves air quality by replacing these fuels as emissions limits while others "retrofit" * Some facilities were designed to meet the new equipment. Retrofit technolo~iv newer technology to their existing air pollution control in-cludes: cleaner with hundreds of fabric * A "bag house" that w~orks like a giant vacuum and metals. filter bags which clean the air of soot, smoke, the hot exhaust. The lime * A "scrubber" which sprays a slurry of lime into to neutralize acidic soil. neutralizes acid gases, just as a gardener uses lime in the exhaust. Scrubbing also can improve the capture of mercury that converts nitrogen oxides - * "Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction" or "SNCR" spraying ammonia or urea into -acause of urban smog -- to harmless nitrogen by the hot furnace. into the exhaust gas to absorb * "Carbon Injection" systems that blow charcoal emissions such as dioxins. mercury. Carbon injection also controls organic 08/14/00 ~j INTEGRATED IWASTE SERVICES ' IASSOCIATION 1401 H Street N W., Suite 220 Washington, DC 20005.-202.467-6240 FAX, 202-467-6225
  • 6. MA-CTB ULES FOR EXISTING LARGE UNMITLS AAT FACILITIES Emission Liit Dioxin/Furans Emission ~~~(/dsc) Limit So 2 Large ESP-equipped units 60 ng Lre29 All others ppm or 75% removal )Ong Cd ~~~~~~~~(/dscm) Large HC 0.0 g Large29pmo9%reva Pb ~~~~~~~~~~(/dscm) Oacity Large ~~~~~~0.44 mg.10 10 Hig (/dscmn) 0.8 ar 85% removal Large 2 ~~~~ 7mg - ~ ~~ Visible less than 5% of the time NrOperator of large plants may select one of tetwo options Option A: Units must meet the following Mass Burn/Water Wall standards: 205 ppmv Fluidize Bed RDF 2 180 ppmv 50 ppmv Mass Burn Rotary 250 ppmv Option B: Plants may "bubble" units within the plant to meet the following Mas Bur/Njater Wall standards: 18 0ppmv EFluidize Bed 16 0 ppmv Mass Burn Rotary * 230 ppmv u m R otary ~~220 ppm v Modular 50 ppmv Spreader Stoker Coal/RIDE Mixed, Mass Burn Rotary Refractories,- Waterwall, Refr-actory, Eluidized RDF Stocker i Bed 200 ppmv 100 ppmv' Mass Burn Rotary Waterwall 250 ppmv PuvrzdCoal, RDF Mixed 150 ppmv NEW SOURCE RULES FOR NEWPAT Emission Limit Dioxij~urns EmissionLit 13n/sm 523 p r8% remoa Cd ~~~~~~~~~0.020 mg/dscm HI25pmo9%re Pb va 0 20 mg/ dsc m . O aci t y p 10 PM 24 mg Hg ~~~'uscm)0.0mgo85 FgitivesNx re va Visible less than 5% of the time Frtya 180 ppm After 1st year 150 ppm Modular/Mass Bum, Fluidized Bed RDF ioo ppmv * iigAayis 150 ppmv * MtrasSprto Plan Large unit are defie athsbunnmoehn25tnsacday large units only. MAC? standards ofwse heMC ue apply to for small unt will be promulgate nteya 00b the EPA. 08/14/00
  • 7. WASTE-TO-ENERGY INDUSTRY (202) 467-6240 Contact: Maria Zannes ForMore Infornnation annmually. About one-third of the Americans generate more than 225 mililion tons of trash 150 million tons of trash to be managed. This nation's trash is recycled or composted, leaving as fuel to generate electricity and steam power at used remaining trash is managed in landfills, or waste-to-energy facilities.I trash management and volume reduction with Waste-to-energy is an effective method of be safe, Waste-to-energy technology has proven to the added benefit of generating clean energy.Burning trash effectively destroys waste stream environmentally friendly and economical. The waste-to-energy process also reduces the bacteria, pathogens and other harmful elements. ash is either used as a road bed material or incoming volume by about 90%. The remaining similar product or landfilled. Dilemma... The Future of America's Trash Diqposal Answered by Proven Waste-to-En ergy Projects in 31 states, throughout the U.S. * There are 102 waste-to-energy plants, operating nationwide, or ab6ut 97,000 *,these plants burn about .14% of the trash generated tons each day; megawatts of electricity to meet the * waste-to-energy generates more than 2,800 power needs of nearly 2.5 million homes; of more than 37 million people. * the facilities serve the trash disposal needs capital investment of more than $ 10 billion. * Waste-to-energy plants represent a national and published in the Solid Waste and * A recent survey, conducted in 70 cities nationwide almost three-quarters of the Amnericans polled Power Industry Sourcebook indicates that for the nation's environmental and believe waste-to-energy plants are vital coihponents that waste-to-energy programs mean cleaner economic future. Respondents also believe and cost effective, safe power generation. disposal of trash, less need for landfill space The Environment and the Economy are Incentives to Use Waste-to-Energy Technology total annual wages in excess of $150 million. * Waste-to-energy plant employees receive of more that $300 million. The waste-to- This translates into local economic benefits jobs for American workers. energy industiy provides more than 6,000 at waste-to-energy plants in this country exceeds * The value of energy produced annually a reliable form of power because even after $850 million. Waste-to-energy provides of fuel (trash) is dependable. source reduction and recycling, the supply 08/14/00 IINTEGRATED WASTE SERVICES 1401 H Street N W., Suite 220 WaShington, DC 20005.-202-467-6240 FAX, 202.467-6225 ASSOCIATION
  • 8. WasteO-t.Energy Plants ...Responsive * New clean Air Act rules to the Environment ensure that waste-to-energy is one of in the world. Energy can be the cleanest souces of pwe produced from trash about as a rcen jinty rlesedby heU.S. klt bo cleanly as from natural gas, reports Mec ngieer an oters Sice Conference of M ayors, the American Society of anial usualyoler ol- rcol-b rning the power from modem waste-to-energy plants pla er technologies, they can actually qualtynmmuntie wh re heyOperate. t ec improve the air * How clean are modem Waste-to-energy Sanitation Department officials facilities? Cbnsider created less Pollution than the concluded in 1993 that their that Los Angeles District trucks used to haul trash to a local waste-to-energy facility * The U.S. Department of nearby landfill. Energy Plan to reduce carbon dioxide has labeled waste-to-energy technology as a major part to-energy reduces the buildup emissions in the United States. By replacing fossil fuels, of a such as paper, wood and food of carbon dioxide in the air. waste' waste -- does not add to the Combusting biomass -- materials buildup of greenhouse gases. * A recent air emissions sampling sulfur dioxide emissions were at a waste-to-energy facility in Indianapolis showed reduced by 52% over the levels that generating plant. produced by an old coal power Safe Ash Management and Reuse * Ash landfill studies conducted a metals content at about the over the past decade show that same level as the standards leachate is like salty water, with for safety from each waste-to-energy set for drinking water. Ash plant in accordance with federal is tested * More than 300,000 tons and stat'e laws. of ash is used landfills and in roadbed construction. annually as daily and final cover in place of Ash is used as a substitute for soil in materials, building construction aggregate in road base and artificial offshore reefs. * residue ash is causing it to harden once it is safe for landfilling. The ash exhibits concrete-like properties placed for rainwater to leach contaminants and compacted in a landfill. This reduces the potential from landfills into the ground. 08/14/00
  • 9. at facilities or new generating units A tax credit for new, waste-to-energy clean, government's policy to encourage existing facilities continues the federal cities meet energy diversity while helping renewable electricity, and promotes your support. Here's why the tax credit deserves the challenge of trash disposal. solid waste electricity and steam using municipal * Waste-to-enertgy facilities generate in specially designed boilers to ensure complete (garbage) as fuel. The garbage burns the most standards require facilities to employ combustion, and new Clean Air Act The result is clean, available to scrub emissions. modem pollution control equipment renewable energy. 2400 megawatts of electricity to * Nationwide, 85 waste-to-energy plants supply about a day. Facilities average greater the grid. Plants operate 365-days-a-year, 24-hours plants generally operate than 90% availability of installed capacity. Waste-to-energy to thje customer. in or near an urban area, easing transmilssiofl paid for dispose of the garbage and the pnice * Facility revenues come from fees paid to plants. New facilities or new generating electricity generated by waste-to-eflergy capital investment. The capital, and units built at existing facilities require significant for each costs at a facility equal about $ 100 the operation and maintenance (O&M) 20 cents per On an energy revenue basis, about ton of garbage processed at a facility. that processes and O&M. For example, a facility kWh would be required for capital about $200,000 MW of electricity would require 2000 tons of trash each day into 60 fees or electricity revenues, or both. in revenues daily, coming from either disposal and cannot be operated be sold as "base load" electricity * Waste-to-energy power must because there is a constant need for trash to supply "peak load" power simply power generation steady and reliable. disposal by combustion that keeps qualified sources, waste-to-energy plants are * Similar to other alternative energy power purchase at avoided cost. facilities (Q)Fs) eligible under PURPA for mandatory part, on long-term PURPA financed based, in Most existing facilities have been with the facility debt. contracts that run commensurate municipal solid waste, is about 75% * The biomass content of wat-oeeg' fuel, on a Btu-outpuit basis. by PUR~PA contracts. Power generated * Power purchasers no longer offer long-term existing facilities will be sold as base new units at new waste-to-energy facilities or price on a 24-hour basis at the market clearing load, and the power price will fluctuate market.) be bid at "0" cents and ride with the (i.e., waste-to-enlergy power will not be sufficient to cover the cost * The market price and disposal fee will, on average, this form of clean, tax credit is needed to encourage of a new waste-to-energy unit. A renewable electricity. INTEGRATED 202.467-6240 FAX. 202 467-6225 ~. ut 2 ashington, DC 20005 WASTESOC VIATIO 141HSre
  • 10. I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I v 1.