Why are we combining these systems into a single unit ? Blood and Lymph are both fluids have functions within the immune system. We will begin with a discussion of the different elements found in blood and the function of each as part of the immune response…. Next slide
Transcript of "Respiratory System"
Respiratory SystemMedical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals HSC 1531 Florida State College of Jacksonville Professor: Michael Whitchurch, MHS
Respiratory System at a Glance Functions of the Respiratory System Inhale fresh air into lungs Exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide Exhale stale air
Respiratory System at a Glance Organs of the Respiratory System Nasal cavity Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchial tubes Lungs
Anatomy and Physiology Cells of body require constant gas exchange Delivery of oxygen Removal of carbon dioxide Respiratory system works in conjunction with …. Cardiovascular system to meet this need
Respiration Must be continuous to meet cells’ needs Subdivided into three distinct parts: Ventilation Inhalation Exhalation
Ventilation Flow of air between outside environment and lungs Inhalation Flow of air into lungs Brings fresh oxygen into air sacs Exhalation Flow of air out of lungs Removes carbon dioxide from body
Ventilation Flow of air between outside environment and lungs Inhalation Flow of air into lungs Brings fresh oxygen into air sacs Exhalation or Expiration Flow of air out of lungs Removes carbon dioxide from body
External Respiration Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in lungs Gases diffuse in opposite directions Oxygen Leaves air sacs and enters blood stream Carbon dioxide Leaves blood stream and enters air sacs
Internal Respiration Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange at cellular level Oxygen Leaves bloodstream and is delivered to tissue Used immediately for metabolism Carbon dioxide Waste product of metabolism Leaves tissue and enters bloodstream
Nasal Cavity Cilia Small hairs line opening to nasal cavity Filter out large dirt particles before they can enter lungs Walls of nasal cavity and nasal septum Made of flexible cartilage Covered with mucous membrane
Nasal Cavity Much of respiratory tract is coved with mucous membrane Mucus is thick and sticky secretion of membrane Cleanses air by trapping dust and bacteria Capillaries in mucous membranes Warm air Humidify air
Nasal Cavity Paranasal sinuses Located within facial bones Echo chamber for sound production Gives resonance to voice
Lungs Apex Pointed superior portion Base Broad lower area Hilum Entry and exit point Bronchi, blood vessels, nerves
Lungs Protected externally by the ribs Protected internally by double membrane called pleura
Pleura Parietal pleura Outer membrane that lines wall of chest cavity Visceral pleura Inner membrane that adheres to surface of lungs Pleura is folded to form a sac around each lung called pleural cavity Serous fluid between two pleural layers reduces friction when two layers rub together during ventilation
Respiratory System StructureExerciseClick here to review the respiratory system anatomy with a labeling exercise.
Pulmonary Function Tests It is important to measure actual volume of air flowing in and out of lungs Can then determine lung capacity Respiratory therapist Measures lung volumes Pulmonary function tests
Lung VolumesTidal volume (TV) Volume of air moving in and out of lungs in a single relaxed breathInspiratory reserve Volume of air that can be forcefully inhaledvolume (IRV) after a normal inhaleExpiratory reserve Volume of air that can be forcefully exhaledvolume (ERV) after a normal exhaleResidual volume (RV) Volume of air remaining in lungs after a forced exhale
Respiratory Muscles - Inhalation Diaphragm Muscle separates abdomen from thoracic cavity Contracts and moves down into abdominal cavity Causes decrease of pressure, negative pressure, within chest cavity Air then enters lungs (inhalation) to equalize pressure
Respiratory Muscles - Inhalation Intercostal muscles Located between ribs Raise rib cage to further enlarge thoracic cavity Increases negative pressure Assists with forceful inhalation
Respiratory Muscles - Exhalation Unforced exhale results when: Diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax Thoracic cavity becomes smaller Creates positive thoracic pressure Air flows out of lungs to equalize pressure For forceful exhale Use additional chest and neck muscles to further decrease size of thoracic cavity Create greater positive pressure
Respiratory Rate One of the vital signs (VS), along with heart rate, temperature, and blood pressure Respiratory rate dependent on level of CO2 in blood When CO2 level is high, we breathe more rapidly to expel excess If CO2 levels drop, respiratory rate will also drop until CO2 builds up in bloodstream
Respiratory Rates by Age Group Age Respirations per Minute Newborn 30–60 1-year-old 18–30 16-year-old 16–20 Adult 12–20
Respiratory Rate Assessment Video Click here to view a video on assessing respiratory rate.
Word Building with bronch/o–gram bronchogram record of bronchus–itis bronchitis inflammation of bronchus–plasty bronchoplasty surgical repair of bronchus–genic bronchogenic produced by bronchus–scope bronchoscope instrument to view bronchus involuntary muscle contraction of–spasm bronchospasm bronchus–ial bronchial pertaining to bronchus
Word Building with bronchi/o anddiaphragmat/o–ectasis bronchiectasis dilated bronchus–ic diaphragmatic pertaining to diaphragm
Word Building with laryng/o–ectomy laryngectomy surgical removal of larynx–itis laryngitis inflammation of larynx–plasty laryngoplasty surgical repair of larynx–scope laryngoscope instrument to view larynx–eal laryngeal pertaining to larynx–plegia laryngoplegia paralysis of larynx
Word Building with lob/o & pleur/o–ectomy lobectomy surgical removal of lobe puncture of pleura to withdraw–centesis pleurocentesis fluid–ectomy pleurectomy surgical removal of pleura–dynia pleurodynia pleura pain
Word Building with ox/o and ox/i–meter oximeter instrument to measure oxygenan– –ia anoxia condition of no oxygen blood condition of insufficienthypo– –emia hypoxemia oxygenhypo– –ia hypoxia condition of insufficient oxygen
Word Building with pharyng/oand pulmon/o–itis pharyngitis inflammation of pharynx–eal pharyngeal pertaining to pharynx inflammation of nose andnas/o –itis nasopharyngitis pharynx–logist pulmonologist lung specialist–ary pulmonary pertaining to lungs
Word Building with rhin/o–itis rhinitis inflammation of nose abnormal condition of fungus inmyc/o –osis rhinomycosis nose–plasty rhinoplasty surgical repair of nose–rrhagia rhinorrhagia rapid flow (of blood) from nose–rrhea rhinorrhea nose discharge
Word Building with sinus/o & thorac/opan– –itis pansinusitis inflammation of all sinuses–algia thoracalgia chest pain–ic thoracic pertaining to the chest–otomy thoracotomy incision into chest
Word Building with trache/oendo– –al endotracheal pertaining to within trachea–otomy tracheotomy incision into trachea–stenosis tracheostenosis narrowing of trachea
Word Building with –phonia & –capniaa– aphonia no voicedys– dysphonia abnormal voicea– acapnia no carbon dioxidehyper– hypercapnia excessive carbon dioxide
Word Building with –osmia & –thoraxan– anosmia no smellhem/o hemothorax blood in the chestpy/o pyothorax pus in the chestpneum/o pneumothorax air in the chest
Word Building with –pneaa– apnea no breathingbrady– bradypnea slow breathingdys– dyspnea difficult, labored breathingeu– eupnea normal breathinghyper– hyperpnea excessive (deep) breathinghypo– hypopnea insufficient (shallow) breathingortho– orthopnea (sitting) straight breathingtachy– tachypnea rapid breathing
Respiratory System Vocabulary lack of oxygen; can lead to unconsciousness andasphyxia death withdrawing fluid using suction; removing phlegm fromaspiration patient’s airway; inhaling food or liquid into tracheaCheyne- abnormal breathing pattern with long periods of apneaStokes followed by deep & rapid breathingrespiration abnormal widening and thickening of fingers due toclubbing chronic oxygen deficiency
Respiratory System Vocabularycyanosis blue skin caused by low oxygen in bloodepistaxis a nosebleedhemoptysis cough up blood or blood-stained sputumhyperventilation breathing too fast and too deephypoventilation breathing too slow and too shallow branch of medicine involving diagnosis andinternal medicine treatment of diseases of internal organs; physician is an internist
Respiratory System Vocabulary two-pronged plastic device to delivernasal cannula oxygen into the nose difficulty breathing made worse by lyingorthopnea flat; patient breaths better sitting up branch of medicine involving diagnosis andotorhinolaryngology treatment of diseases of the ear, nose, and throat
Respiratory System Vocabularypatent open or unblocked using fingers to tap on surface to determinepercussion condition beneath surfacephlegm thick mucus secreted by respiratory tract grating sound made when layers of pleura rubpleural rub together during respiration branch of medicine involving diagnosis andpulmonology treatment of diseases of respiratory system; physician is a pulmonologist
Respiratory System Vocabulary abnormal crackling sound during inspiration; indicatesrales fluid or mucus in airway musical sound during expiration; caused by bronchialrhonchi tube spasmsrespiratory allied health specialty; assists with respiratory andtherapy cardiopulmonary disordersshortness of indicates that a patient is having difficulty breathing;breath (SOB) also called dyspnea
Respiratory Therapy Video Click here to view a video on respiratory therapy.
Respiratory System Vocabularysputum phlegm coughed up from respiratory tract harsh, high-pitched breath sound; indicates obstructionstridor in the airwaythoracic branch of medicine involving diagnosis and treatment ofsurgery diseases of respiratory system using surgical means
Upper Respiratory System Pathology acute respiratory condition in children; characterized croup by barking type of cough bacterial infection characterized by formation of thick diphtheria membranous film across throat; high mortality rate bacterial infection of upper respiratory system; pertussis characterized by whooping cough
Bronchial Tube Pathology difficulty breathing caused by bronchospasms,asthma dyspnea, coughing, and wheezing enlarged bronchi due to destruction of bronchialbronchiectasis wall; result of infectionsbronchogenic cancerous tumor originating in bronchicarcinoma
Asthma Video Click here to view a video on asthma.
Lung Pathologyadult respiratory acute respiratory failure; characterized bydistress syndrome tachypnea, dyspnea, cyanosis, and(ARDS) hypoxemia type of pneumoconiosis; coal dust collecting inanthracosis lungs; also called black lung or miner’s lung type of pneumoconiosis; asbestos fibersasbestosis collecting in lungs
Lung Pathology condition in which alveoli in aatelectasis portion of lung collapses; prevents gas exchange in lungchronic progressive, chronic, and usuallyobstructive irreversible group of conditions; likepulmonary emphysema; lungs have decreaseddisease capacity to function(COPD) genetic condition; produces verycystic fibrosis thick mucus that causes severe(CF) congestion in lungs
COPD Video Click here to view a video on chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.
Cystic Fibrosis Video Click here to view a video on cystic fibrosis.
Lung Pathology chronic lung condition characterized byemphysema destruction of alveolar wallshistoplasmosis fungal infection of the lungsinfant respiratory most common in premature infants;distress syndrome characterized by tachypnea; previously(IRDS) called hyaline membrane diseaseinfluenza viral infection of respiratory system
Lung Pathology severe bacterial infection causingLegionnaire’s disease pneumonia, liver, and kidney damage less severe but longer lasting form ofMycoplasma bacterial pneumonia; also called walkingpneumonia pneumonia accumulation of foreign particles, such aspneumoconiosis coal dust, in the lungs
Lung PathologyPneumocystis carinii pneumonia caused by a fungus; anpneumonia (PCP) opportunistic infection seen in AIDS patients inflammatory condition of lungs; results inpneumonia alveoli filling with fluid excessive amount of tissue fluidpulmonary edema accumulating in the lung tissues floating blood clot obstructs pulmonarypulmonary embolism artery; causes infarct of lung tissue
Lung Pathology formation of fibrous scar tissue in lung;pulmonary fibrosis reduced ability to expand lungssevere acute acute viral respiratory infection; begins like flurespiratory but quickly progresses; very high mortality ratesyndrome (SARS) type of pneumoconiosis; accumulation of silicasilicosis dust in lungs
Lung Pathology breathing stops repeatedly during sleep;sleep apnea causes drop in oxygen levels unexpected and unexplained death ofsudden infant death apparently well infant; stops breathing forsyndrome (SIDS) unknown reasons bacterial lung infection; results in inflammationtuberculosis (TB) and calcification of lungs
Tuberculosis Testing Video Click here to view a video on tuberculosis testing.
Pleural Cavity Pathology accumulation of pus in pleuralempyema space; also called pyothorax accumulation of fluid in pleuralpleural effusion cavity; prevents lungs from fully expanding inflammation of pleura;pleurisy characterized by sharp pain with each breath collection of air in pleuralpneumothorax cavity; may result in collapsed lung
Clinical Laboratory Testsarterial blood blood test of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels ingases (ABGs) the bloodsputum culture & cultures sputum for bacterial growth, if present,sensitivity (C&S) then determines best antibiotic to usesputum cytology examining sputum for malignant cells
Diagnostic Imaging X-ray of lung after inhaling radiopaquebronchography substancechest X-ray X-ray of the organs of the thoracic cavitypulmonary X-ray of lungs after injecting dye into bloodangiography vessel nuclear medicine test; radioactive air is inhaledventilation- for ventilation portion; radioactive dye is injectedperfusion scan for perfusion portion; looks for pulmonary emboli
Endoscopic Proceduresbronchoscopy visual examination of bronchial tubes using a(Bronch) bronchoscopelaryngoscopy visual examination of larynx using a laryngoscope
Pulmonary Function Tests measures oxygen level inoximetry blood; uses oximeter on patient’s finger tippulmonary group of tests to measure airfunction test flow in and out of lungs, lung(PFT) volumes, and gas exchange measures lung capacity usingspirometry a spirometer
Oximetry Video Click here to view a video on performing oximetry.
Spirometry Video Click here to view a video on spirometry.
Additional Diagnostic Procedures monitoring patientpolysomnography sleeping to identify sleep apnea test for cystic fibrosis; this disease causessweat test large amount of salt in sweat introducing purified protein derivative (PPD)tuberculin skin under the skin;tests (TB test) determines if person has been exposed to TB
Respiratory Therapy medication suspended in aaerosol mist and inhaled; delivered bytherapy a nebulizer or metered dose inhaler (single puff dose) placing a tube through theendotracheal mouth and into the trachea tointubation keep airway openintermittent method for assisting patients inpositive breathing with a machine thatpressure produces an increase inbreathing positive thoracic pressure(IPPB)
Nebulizer Video Click here to view a video on nebulizers.
Metered Dose Inhaler Video Click here to view a video on using metered dose inhalers.
Endotrachael Intubation Video Click here to view a video on endotrachael intubation.
Respiratory Therapy drainage of bronchial secretions by placing patient in positionspostural using gravity to promotedrainage drainage; cystic fibrosis treatmentsupplement providing additional oxygenoxygen concentration to improve oxygentherapy levels in bloodstream machine that provides artificialventilator ventilation for a patient unable to breathe alone
Nasal Cannula Video Click here to view a video on applying a nasal cannula.
Surgical Procedures surgical puncture of chestthoracentesis wall to remove fluids; also called thoracocentesis insertion of tube (a chestthoracostomy tube) into chest to drain off fluid or air emergency procedure to create an opening directlytracheostomy into trachea so person can breathe easier; also called tracheotomy
Additional Procedurescardiopulmonary emergency treatment given to personsresuscitation (CPR) when respiration and heart stop technique for removing foreign bodyHeimlich maneuver obstructing trachea or pharynx
Respiratory System Pharmacologyantibiotic kills bacteria Amoxil, Cipro blocks histamine released Allegra, Claritan,antihistamine during allergy attack Benadryl Hycodan, Vicksantitussive relieves urge to cough Formula 44
Respiratory System Pharmacology relaxes Proventil, bronchospasbronchodilator Ventolin, ms; treats Theo-Dur asthma reduces Flonase, inflammationcorticosteroids Nasonex, of respiratory Azmacort tract reduces congestion in Afrin, Drixoral,decongestant respiratory Sudafed system
Respiratory System Pharmacology improves ability to coughexpectorant Robitussin, Mucinex up mucus liquefies mucus so it ismucolytic Mucomyst easier to cough up
Respiratory System AbbreviationsCTA clear to auscultationCXR chest X-rayDOE dyspnea on exertionDPT diphtheria, pertussis, tetanusENT ear, nose, and throatERV expiratory reserve volumeFRC functional residual capacity
Respiratory System AbbreviationsHMD hyaline membrane diseaseIC inspiratory capacityIPPB intermittent positive pressure breathingIRDS infant respiratory distress syndromeIRV inspiratory reserve volumeLLL left lower lungLUL left upper lung
Respiratory System AbbreviationsMDI metered dose inhalerO2 oxygenPCP Pneumocystis carinii pneumoniaPFT pulmonary function testPPD purified protein derivativeR respirationRA room air
Respiratory System AbbreviationsRDS respiratory distress syndromeRLL right lower lungRML right middle lobeRRT registered respiratory therapistRV residual volumeRUL right upper lungSARS severe acute respiratory syndrome
Respiratory System AbbreviationsSIDS sudden infant death syndromeSOB shortness of breathTB tuberculosisTLC total lung capacityTPR temperature, pulse, respirationTV tidal volumeURI upper respiratory infectionVC vital capacity