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Respiratory SystemMedical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals                   HSC 1531      Florida State College o...
Respiratory System at a Glance Functions of the Respiratory System    Inhale fresh air into lungs    Exchange oxygen fo...
Respiratory System at a Glance Organs of the Respiratory System      Nasal cavity      Pharynx      Larynx      Trach...
Respiratory System Combining Forms alveol/o                  bronch/o      alveolus; air sac         bronchus anthrac...
Respiratory System Combining Forms coni/o             laryng/o      dust               larynx diaphragmat/o      lob...
Respiratory System Combining Forms orth/o                    pleur/o      straight, upright         pleura ox/o, ox/i...
Respiratory System Combining Forms pulmon/o              spir/o      lung                  breathing rhin/o          ...
Respiratory System Suffixes –capnia                    –pnea      carbon dioxide             breathing –ectasis      ...
Anatomy and Physiology Cells of body require constant gas exchange    Delivery of oxygen    Removal of carbon dioxide ...
Respiration Must be continuous to meet cells’ needs Subdivided into three distinct parts:    Ventilation    Inhalation...
Ventilation Flow of air between outside environment and lungs Inhalation    Flow of air into lungs    Brings fresh oxy...
Ventilation Flow of air between outside environment and lungs Inhalation    Flow of air into lungs    Brings fresh oxy...
External Respiration Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in lungs Gases diffuse in opposite directions Oxygen    Lea...
Internal Respiration Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange at cellular level Oxygen    Leaves bloodstream and is delivered...
Respiratory System Organs   Nasal cavity   Pharynx   Larynx   Trachea   Bronchial tubes   Lungs
Respiratory System Animation    Click here to view an animation of the respiratory system.
Nasal Cavity Air enters through nares Nasal cavity divided by nasal septum Palate in roof of mouth separates nasal  cav...
nasal septumnares
palate
Nasal Cavity Cilia    Small hairs line opening to nasal cavity    Filter out large dirt particles before they can enter...
Nasal Cavity Much of respiratory tract is coved with mucous  membrane    Mucus is thick and sticky secretion of membrane...
Nasal Cavity Paranasal sinuses    Located within facial bones    Echo chamber for sound production    Gives resonance ...
Figure 7.1 – Sagittal section of upper respiratory system illustrating the internal             anatomy of the nasal cavit...
Pharynx Commonly called throat Used by respiratory and  digestive systems At end of pharynx   Air enters trachea   Fo...
Three Subdivisions of Pharynx Nasopharynx   Upper section by    nasal cavity Oropharynx   Middle section by    oral ca...
Tonsils Lymphatic tissue   Removes    pathogens in air    and food Three pairs   Adenoids   Palatine   Lingual
Eustachian or Auditory Tube Opening found in nasopharynx Other end opens into middle ear Tube opens with each swallow  ...
Figure 7.1 – Sagittal section of upper respiratory system illustrating the  internal anatomy of the nasal cavity, pharynx,...
Larynx Commonly called voice box Muscular tube between  pharynx and trachea Contains vocal cords
Larynx Walls of larynx   Composed of    cartilage plates   Held in place by    ligaments and    muscles   Thyroid cart...
Vocal Cords Folds of membranous tissue    Not actually cord-like in structure Vibrate to produce sound as air passes th...
Figure 7.2 – The vocal cords within the larynx, superior view           from the pharynx. (CNRI/Phototake NYC)            ...
Epiglottis Flap of cartilage Sits above glottis Covers larynx and  trachea during  swallowing   Food goes into    esop...
Figure 7.1 – Sagittal section of upper respiratory system illustrating the internal          anatomy of the nasal cavity, ...
Trachea Commonly called  windpipe Carries air from larynx  to main bronchi Approximately four  inches in length
Figure 7.3 – Structure of the trachea which extends from the            larynx above to the main bronchi below.           ...
Trachea Tube composed of:    Smooth muscle    Cartilage rings Lined with mucous membrane and cilia    Assists in clea...
Bronchial Tubes Distal end of trachea  divides   Forms left and right main    or primary bronchi Each bronchus enters a...
Figure 7.4 – The bronchial tree, note how each main bronchus     enters a lung and then branches into smaller and smaller ...
Alveoli Bronchi continue to  branch to form  narrow bronchioles Bronchiole  terminates in alveoli Approximately 150  mi...
Respiratory Membrane Pulmonary capillaries encase  each alveolus Alveoli wall + capillary wall forms  respiratory membra...
Figure 7.5 - A) Each bronchiole terminates in an alveolar sac, a group of         alveoli. B) Alveoli encased by network c...
Lungs Each is total collection of bronchi,  bronchioles, and alveoli Two lungs   Right lung has 3 lobes   Left lung ha...
Healthy vs. Unhealthy Lungs
Lungs Apex   Pointed superior portion Base   Broad lower area Hilum   Entry and exit point   Bronchi, blood vessels...
Lungs Protected externally  by the ribs Protected internally  by double membrane  called pleura
Pleura Parietal pleura    Outer membrane that lines wall of chest cavity Visceral pleura    Inner membrane that adhere...
Pleura
Figure 7.6 - Position of the lungs within the thoracic cavity, anterior view   illustrating lung structure and their relat...
Respiratory System StructureExerciseClick here to review the respiratory system anatomy with a labeling exercise.
Pulmonary Function Tests It is important to measure actual volume of air flowing in  and out of lungs    Can then determ...
Lung VolumesTidal volume (TV)      Volume of air moving in and out of lungs in                       a single relaxed brea...
Lung CapacitiesInspiratory capacity   Tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume(IC)Functional residual    Expiratory reser...
Respiratory Muscles - Inhalation Diaphragm   Muscle separates abdomen from thoracic cavity   Contracts and moves down i...
Respiratory Muscles - Inhalation Intercostal muscles      Located between ribs      Raise rib cage to further enlarge t...
Figure 7.7 – A) Bell jar apparatus demonstrating how downward movement of the      diaphragm results in air flowing into t...
Respiratory Muscles - Exhalation Unforced exhale results when:      Diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax      Thorac...
Respiratory Rate One of the vital signs (VS), along with heart rate,  temperature, and blood pressure Respiratory rate d...
Respiratory Rates by Age Group Age               Respirations per Minute     Newborn             30–60     1-year-old  ...
Respiratory Rate Assessment Video    Click here to view a video on assessing respiratory rate.
Word Building with bronch/o–gram     bronchogram     record of bronchus–itis     bronchitis      inflammation of bronchus–...
Word Building with bronchi/o anddiaphragmat/o–ectasis   bronchiectasis   dilated bronchus–ic        diaphragmatic    perta...
Word Building with laryng/o–ectomy   laryngectomy    surgical removal of larynx–itis     laryngitis      inflammation of l...
Word Building with lob/o & pleur/o–ectomy     lobectomy        surgical removal of lobe                             punctu...
Word Building with ox/o and ox/i–meter        oximeter    instrument to measure oxygenan–   –ia     anoxia      condition ...
Word Building with pharyng/oand pulmon/o–itis         pharyngitis       inflammation of pharynx–eal          pharyngeal   ...
Word Building with rhin/o–itis         rhinitis       inflammation of nose                             abnormal condition ...
Word Building with sinus/o & thorac/opan– –itis   pansinusitis   inflammation of all sinuses–algia       thoracalgia    ch...
Word Building with trache/oendo– –al   endotracheal      pertaining to within trachea–otomy      tracheotomy       incisio...
Word Building with –phonia & –capniaa–       aphonia       no voicedys–     dysphonia     abnormal voicea–       acapnia  ...
Word Building with –osmia & –thoraxan–       anosmia        no smellhem/o     hemothorax     blood in the chestpy/o      p...
Word Building with –pneaa–       apnea       no breathingbrady–   bradypnea   slow breathingdys–     dyspnea     difficult...
Respiratory System Vocabulary              lack of oxygen; can lead to unconsciousness andasphyxia              death     ...
Respiratory System Vocabularycyanosis            blue skin caused by low oxygen in bloodepistaxis           a nosebleedhem...
Respiratory System Vocabulary                      two-pronged plastic device to delivernasal cannula                     ...
Respiratory System Vocabularypatent        open or unblocked              using fingers to tap on surface to determineperc...
Respiratory System Vocabulary               abnormal crackling sound during inspiration; indicatesrales               flui...
Respiratory Therapy Video      Click here to view a video on respiratory therapy.
Respiratory System Vocabularysputum     phlegm coughed up from respiratory tract           harsh, high-pitched breath soun...
Upper Respiratory System Pathology              acute respiratory condition in children; characterized croup              ...
Bronchial Tube Pathology                 difficulty breathing caused by bronchospasms,asthma                 dyspnea, coug...
Asthma Video        Click here to view a video on asthma.
Figure 7.8 – Color enhanced X-ray of large malignant tumor in              right lower lung. (ISM/Phototake NYC)          ...
Lung Pathologyadult respiratory   acute respiratory failure; characterized bydistress syndrome   tachypnea, dyspnea, cyano...
Lung Pathology                  condition in which alveoli in aatelectasis       portion of lung collapses; prevents      ...
COPD Video Click here to view a video on chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.
Cystic Fibrosis Video       Click here to view a video on cystic fibrosis.
Lung Pathology                     chronic lung condition characterized byemphysema                     destruction of alv...
Lung Pathology                        severe bacterial infection causingLegionnaire’s disease                        pneum...
Lung PathologyPneumocystis carinii   pneumonia caused by a fungus; anpneumonia (PCP)        opportunistic infection seen i...
Lung Pathology                     formation of fibrous scar tissue in lung;pulmonary fibrosis                     reduced...
Lung Pathology                     breathing stops repeatedly during sleep;sleep apnea                     causes drop in ...
Tuberculosis Testing Video      Click here to view a video on tuberculosis testing.
Pleural Cavity Pathology                 accumulation of pus in pleuralempyema                 space; also called pyothora...
Figure 7.9 – Pneumothorax. Figure illustrates how puncture of thoracic wall       and tearing of pleural membrane allows a...
Clinical Laboratory Testsarterial blood      blood test of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels ingases (ABGs)        the bloo...
Diagnostic Imaging                 X-ray of lung after inhaling radiopaquebronchography                 substancechest X-r...
Endoscopic Proceduresbronchoscopy   visual examination of bronchial tubes using a(Bronch)       bronchoscopelaryngoscopy  ...
Figure 7.10 – Bronchoscopy. Figure illustrates physician using a              bronchoscope to inspect the patient’s bronch...
Pulmonary Function Tests                measures oxygen level inoximetry        blood; uses oximeter on                pat...
Oximetry Video     Click here to view a video on performing oximetry.
Spirometry Video        Click here to view a video on spirometry.
Additional Diagnostic Procedures                  monitoring patientpolysomnography   sleeping to identify sleep          ...
Respiratory Therapy               medication suspended in aaerosol        mist and inhaled; delivered bytherapy        a n...
Nebulizer Video        Click here to view a video on nebulizers.
Metered Dose Inhaler Video    Click here to view a video on using metered dose inhalers.
Endotrachael Intubation Video     Click here to view a video on endotrachael intubation.
Figure 7.11 – Endotracheal intubation. First, a lighted scope is used      to identify the trachea from the esophagus. Nex...
Respiratory Therapy             drainage of bronchial secretions             by placing patient in positionspostural      ...
Nasal Cannula Video    Click here to view a video on applying a nasal cannula.
Surgical Procedures                surgical puncture of chestthoracentesis   wall to remove fluids; also                ca...
Figure 7.12 – Patient with tracheostomy tube in place receiving oxygen    through mask placed over the tracheostomy openin...
Figure 7.13 – Thoracentesis. The needle is inserted between the ribs to        withdraw fluid from the pleural sac at the ...
Additional Procedurescardiopulmonary       emergency treatment given to personsresuscitation (CPR)   when respiration and ...
Respiratory System Pharmacologyantibiotic      kills bacteria             Amoxil, Cipro                blocks histamine re...
Respiratory System Pharmacology                  relaxes                                   Proventil,                  bro...
Respiratory System Pharmacology              improves ability to coughexpectorant                               Robitussin...
Respiratory System AbbreviationsABGs     arterial blood gasesARDS     adult respiratory distress syndromeBronch   bronchos...
Respiratory System AbbreviationsCTA      clear to auscultationCXR      chest X-rayDOE      dyspnea on exertionDPT      dip...
Respiratory System AbbreviationsHMD      hyaline membrane diseaseIC       inspiratory capacityIPPB     intermittent positi...
Respiratory System AbbreviationsMDI      metered dose inhalerO2       oxygenPCP      Pneumocystis carinii pneumoniaPFT    ...
Respiratory System AbbreviationsRDS      respiratory distress syndromeRLL      right lower lungRML      right middle lobeR...
Respiratory System AbbreviationsSIDS     sudden infant death syndromeSOB      shortness of breathTB       tuberculosisTLC ...
1. Ventilation, external respiration, internal respiration2. Oxygen, carbon dioxide3. Mucous membrane, mucus4. Nasopharynx...
1. Bronchoplasty2. Laryngitis3. Lobectomy4. Anoxia5. Pleurocentesis6. Rhinorrhea7. Pansinusitis8. Pharyngeal9. Hemothorax1...
Respiratory System
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  • Why are we combining these systems into a single unit ? Blood and Lymph are both fluids have functions within the immune system. We will begin with a discussion of the different elements found in blood and the function of each as part of the immune response…. Next slide
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    1. 1. Respiratory SystemMedical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals HSC 1531 Florida State College of Jacksonville Professor: Michael Whitchurch, MHS
    2. 2. Respiratory System at a Glance Functions of the Respiratory System  Inhale fresh air into lungs  Exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide  Exhale stale air
    3. 3. Respiratory System at a Glance Organs of the Respiratory System  Nasal cavity  Pharynx  Larynx  Trachea  Bronchial tubes  Lungs
    4. 4. Respiratory System Combining Forms alveol/o  bronch/o  alveolus; air sac  bronchus anthrac/o  bronchi/o  coal  bronchus atel/o  bronchiol/o  incomplete  bronchiole
    5. 5. Respiratory System Combining Forms coni/o  laryng/o  dust  larynx diaphragmat/o  lob/o  diaphragm  lobe epiglott/o  nas/o  epiglottis  nose
    6. 6. Respiratory System Combining Forms orth/o  pleur/o  straight, upright  pleura ox/o, ox/i  pneum/o  oxygen  lung, air pharyng/o  pneumon/o  pharynx  lung, air
    7. 7. Respiratory System Combining Forms pulmon/o  spir/o  lung  breathing rhin/o  trache/o  nose  trachea, windpipe sinus/o  sinus, cavity
    8. 8. Respiratory System Suffixes –capnia  –pnea  carbon dioxide  breathing –ectasis  –ptysis  dilated, expansion  spitting –osmia  –thorax  smell  chest –phonia  voice
    9. 9. Anatomy and Physiology Cells of body require constant gas exchange  Delivery of oxygen  Removal of carbon dioxide Respiratory system works in conjunction with …. Cardiovascular system to meet this need
    10. 10. Respiration Must be continuous to meet cells’ needs Subdivided into three distinct parts:  Ventilation  Inhalation  Exhalation
    11. 11. Ventilation Flow of air between outside environment and lungs Inhalation  Flow of air into lungs  Brings fresh oxygen into air sacs Exhalation  Flow of air out of lungs  Removes carbon dioxide from body
    12. 12. Ventilation Flow of air between outside environment and lungs Inhalation  Flow of air into lungs  Brings fresh oxygen into air sacs Exhalation or Expiration  Flow of air out of lungs  Removes carbon dioxide from body
    13. 13. External Respiration Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in lungs Gases diffuse in opposite directions Oxygen  Leaves air sacs and enters blood stream Carbon dioxide  Leaves blood stream and enters air sacs
    14. 14. Internal Respiration Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange at cellular level Oxygen  Leaves bloodstream and is delivered to tissue  Used immediately for metabolism Carbon dioxide  Waste product of metabolism  Leaves tissue and enters bloodstream
    15. 15. Respiratory System Organs Nasal cavity Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchial tubes Lungs
    16. 16. Respiratory System Animation Click here to view an animation of the respiratory system.
    17. 17. Nasal Cavity Air enters through nares Nasal cavity divided by nasal septum Palate in roof of mouth separates nasal cavity above from mouth below
    18. 18. nasal septumnares
    19. 19. palate
    20. 20. Nasal Cavity Cilia  Small hairs line opening to nasal cavity  Filter out large dirt particles before they can enter lungs Walls of nasal cavity and nasal septum  Made of flexible cartilage  Covered with mucous membrane
    21. 21. Nasal Cavity Much of respiratory tract is coved with mucous membrane  Mucus is thick and sticky secretion of membrane  Cleanses air by trapping dust and bacteria Capillaries in mucous membranes  Warm air  Humidify air
    22. 22. Nasal Cavity Paranasal sinuses  Located within facial bones  Echo chamber for sound production  Gives resonance to voice
    23. 23. Figure 7.1 – Sagittal section of upper respiratory system illustrating the internal anatomy of the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, and trachea. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    24. 24. Pharynx Commonly called throat Used by respiratory and digestive systems At end of pharynx  Air enters trachea  Food and liquids enter esophagus
    25. 25. Three Subdivisions of Pharynx Nasopharynx  Upper section by nasal cavity Oropharynx  Middle section by oral cavity Laryngopharynx  Lower section by larynx
    26. 26. Tonsils Lymphatic tissue  Removes pathogens in air and food Three pairs  Adenoids  Palatine  Lingual
    27. 27. Eustachian or Auditory Tube Opening found in nasopharynx Other end opens into middle ear Tube opens with each swallow  Equalizes air pressure between middle ear and outside atmosphere
    28. 28. Figure 7.1 – Sagittal section of upper respiratory system illustrating the internal anatomy of the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, and trachea.
    29. 29. Larynx Commonly called voice box Muscular tube between pharynx and trachea Contains vocal cords
    30. 30. Larynx Walls of larynx  Composed of cartilage plates  Held in place by ligaments and muscles  Thyroid cartilage forms the Adam’s apple
    31. 31. Vocal Cords Folds of membranous tissue  Not actually cord-like in structure Vibrate to produce sound as air passes through opening between folds  Called glottis
    32. 32. Figure 7.2 – The vocal cords within the larynx, superior view from the pharynx. (CNRI/Phototake NYC) Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    33. 33. Epiglottis Flap of cartilage Sits above glottis Covers larynx and trachea during swallowing  Food goes into esophagus  Not into trachea
    34. 34. Figure 7.1 – Sagittal section of upper respiratory system illustrating the internal anatomy of the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, and trachea. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    35. 35. Trachea Commonly called windpipe Carries air from larynx to main bronchi Approximately four inches in length
    36. 36. Figure 7.3 – Structure of the trachea which extends from the larynx above to the main bronchi below. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    37. 37. Trachea Tube composed of:  Smooth muscle  Cartilage rings Lined with mucous membrane and cilia  Assists in cleansing, warming, and moisturizing air as it travels to lungs
    38. 38. Bronchial Tubes Distal end of trachea divides  Forms left and right main or primary bronchi Each bronchus enters a lung Branches to form secondary bronchi
    39. 39. Figure 7.4 – The bronchial tree, note how each main bronchus enters a lung and then branches into smaller and smaller primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, and bronchioles.
    40. 40. Alveoli Bronchi continue to branch to form narrow bronchioles Bronchiole terminates in alveoli Approximately 150 million alveoli in each lung
    41. 41. Respiratory Membrane Pulmonary capillaries encase each alveolus Alveoli wall + capillary wall forms respiratory membrane  External respiration takes place across respiratory membrane
    42. 42. Figure 7.5 - A) Each bronchiole terminates in an alveolar sac, a group of alveoli. B) Alveoli encased by network capillaries, forming the respiratory membrane. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    43. 43. Lungs Each is total collection of bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli Two lungs  Right lung has 3 lobes  Left lung has 2 lobes Spongy because they contain air
    44. 44. Healthy vs. Unhealthy Lungs
    45. 45. Lungs Apex  Pointed superior portion Base  Broad lower area Hilum  Entry and exit point  Bronchi, blood vessels, nerves
    46. 46. Lungs Protected externally by the ribs Protected internally by double membrane called pleura
    47. 47. Pleura Parietal pleura  Outer membrane that lines wall of chest cavity Visceral pleura  Inner membrane that adheres to surface of lungs Pleura is folded to form a sac around each lung called pleural cavity Serous fluid between two pleural layers reduces friction when two layers rub together during ventilation
    48. 48. Pleura
    49. 49. Figure 7.6 - Position of the lungs within the thoracic cavity, anterior view illustrating lung structure and their relationship to other thoracic organs. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    50. 50. Respiratory System StructureExerciseClick here to review the respiratory system anatomy with a labeling exercise.
    51. 51. Pulmonary Function Tests It is important to measure actual volume of air flowing in and out of lungs  Can then determine lung capacity Respiratory therapist  Measures lung volumes  Pulmonary function tests
    52. 52. Lung VolumesTidal volume (TV) Volume of air moving in and out of lungs in a single relaxed breathInspiratory reserve Volume of air that can be forcefully inhaledvolume (IRV) after a normal inhaleExpiratory reserve Volume of air that can be forcefully exhaledvolume (ERV) after a normal exhaleResidual volume (RV) Volume of air remaining in lungs after a forced exhale
    53. 53. Lung CapacitiesInspiratory capacity Tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume(IC)Functional residual Expiratory reserve volume + residualcapacity (FRC) volumeVital capacity (VC) Inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + expiratory reserve volumeTotal lung capacity Inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume +(TLC) expiratory reserve volume + residual volume
    54. 54. Respiratory Muscles - Inhalation Diaphragm  Muscle separates abdomen from thoracic cavity  Contracts and moves down into abdominal cavity  Causes decrease of pressure, negative pressure, within chest cavity  Air then enters lungs (inhalation) to equalize pressure
    55. 55. Respiratory Muscles - Inhalation Intercostal muscles  Located between ribs  Raise rib cage to further enlarge thoracic cavity  Increases negative pressure  Assists with forceful inhalation
    56. 56. Figure 7.7 – A) Bell jar apparatus demonstrating how downward movement of the diaphragm results in air flowing into the lungs. B) Action of the intercostal muscles lifts the ribs to assist the diaphragm in enlarging the volume of the thoracic cavity. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    57. 57. Respiratory Muscles - Exhalation Unforced exhale results when:  Diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax  Thoracic cavity becomes smaller  Creates positive thoracic pressure  Air flows out of lungs to equalize pressure For forceful exhale  Use additional chest and neck muscles to further decrease size of thoracic cavity  Create greater positive pressure
    58. 58. Respiratory Rate One of the vital signs (VS), along with heart rate, temperature, and blood pressure Respiratory rate dependent on level of CO2 in blood When CO2 level is high, we breathe more rapidly to expel excess If CO2 levels drop, respiratory rate will also drop until CO2 builds up in bloodstream
    59. 59. Respiratory Rates by Age Group Age Respirations per Minute  Newborn 30–60  1-year-old 18–30  16-year-old 16–20  Adult 12–20
    60. 60. Respiratory Rate Assessment Video Click here to view a video on assessing respiratory rate.
    61. 61. Word Building with bronch/o–gram bronchogram record of bronchus–itis bronchitis inflammation of bronchus–plasty bronchoplasty surgical repair of bronchus–genic bronchogenic produced by bronchus–scope bronchoscope instrument to view bronchus involuntary muscle contraction of–spasm bronchospasm bronchus–ial bronchial pertaining to bronchus
    62. 62. Word Building with bronchi/o anddiaphragmat/o–ectasis bronchiectasis dilated bronchus–ic diaphragmatic pertaining to diaphragm
    63. 63. Word Building with laryng/o–ectomy laryngectomy surgical removal of larynx–itis laryngitis inflammation of larynx–plasty laryngoplasty surgical repair of larynx–scope laryngoscope instrument to view larynx–eal laryngeal pertaining to larynx–plegia laryngoplegia paralysis of larynx
    64. 64. Word Building with lob/o & pleur/o–ectomy lobectomy surgical removal of lobe puncture of pleura to withdraw–centesis pleurocentesis fluid–ectomy pleurectomy surgical removal of pleura–dynia pleurodynia pleura pain
    65. 65. Word Building with ox/o and ox/i–meter oximeter instrument to measure oxygenan– –ia anoxia condition of no oxygen blood condition of insufficienthypo– –emia hypoxemia oxygenhypo– –ia hypoxia condition of insufficient oxygen
    66. 66. Word Building with pharyng/oand pulmon/o–itis pharyngitis inflammation of pharynx–eal pharyngeal pertaining to pharynx inflammation of nose andnas/o –itis nasopharyngitis pharynx–logist pulmonologist lung specialist–ary pulmonary pertaining to lungs
    67. 67. Word Building with rhin/o–itis rhinitis inflammation of nose abnormal condition of fungus inmyc/o –osis rhinomycosis nose–plasty rhinoplasty surgical repair of nose–rrhagia rhinorrhagia rapid flow (of blood) from nose–rrhea rhinorrhea nose discharge
    68. 68. Word Building with sinus/o & thorac/opan– –itis pansinusitis inflammation of all sinuses–algia thoracalgia chest pain–ic thoracic pertaining to the chest–otomy thoracotomy incision into chest
    69. 69. Word Building with trache/oendo– –al endotracheal pertaining to within trachea–otomy tracheotomy incision into trachea–stenosis tracheostenosis narrowing of trachea
    70. 70. Word Building with –phonia & –capniaa– aphonia no voicedys– dysphonia abnormal voicea– acapnia no carbon dioxidehyper– hypercapnia excessive carbon dioxide
    71. 71. Word Building with –osmia & –thoraxan– anosmia no smellhem/o hemothorax blood in the chestpy/o pyothorax pus in the chestpneum/o pneumothorax air in the chest
    72. 72. Word Building with –pneaa– apnea no breathingbrady– bradypnea slow breathingdys– dyspnea difficult, labored breathingeu– eupnea normal breathinghyper– hyperpnea excessive (deep) breathinghypo– hypopnea insufficient (shallow) breathingortho– orthopnea (sitting) straight breathingtachy– tachypnea rapid breathing
    73. 73. Respiratory System Vocabulary lack of oxygen; can lead to unconsciousness andasphyxia death withdrawing fluid using suction; removing phlegm fromaspiration patient’s airway; inhaling food or liquid into tracheaCheyne- abnormal breathing pattern with long periods of apneaStokes followed by deep & rapid breathingrespiration abnormal widening and thickening of fingers due toclubbing chronic oxygen deficiency
    74. 74. Respiratory System Vocabularycyanosis blue skin caused by low oxygen in bloodepistaxis a nosebleedhemoptysis cough up blood or blood-stained sputumhyperventilation breathing too fast and too deephypoventilation breathing too slow and too shallow branch of medicine involving diagnosis andinternal medicine treatment of diseases of internal organs; physician is an internist
    75. 75. Respiratory System Vocabulary two-pronged plastic device to delivernasal cannula oxygen into the nose difficulty breathing made worse by lyingorthopnea flat; patient breaths better sitting up branch of medicine involving diagnosis andotorhinolaryngology treatment of diseases of the ear, nose, and throat
    76. 76. Respiratory System Vocabularypatent open or unblocked using fingers to tap on surface to determinepercussion condition beneath surfacephlegm thick mucus secreted by respiratory tract grating sound made when layers of pleura rubpleural rub together during respiration branch of medicine involving diagnosis andpulmonology treatment of diseases of respiratory system; physician is a pulmonologist
    77. 77. Respiratory System Vocabulary abnormal crackling sound during inspiration; indicatesrales fluid or mucus in airway musical sound during expiration; caused by bronchialrhonchi tube spasmsrespiratory allied health specialty; assists with respiratory andtherapy cardiopulmonary disordersshortness of indicates that a patient is having difficulty breathing;breath (SOB) also called dyspnea
    78. 78. Respiratory Therapy Video Click here to view a video on respiratory therapy.
    79. 79. Respiratory System Vocabularysputum phlegm coughed up from respiratory tract harsh, high-pitched breath sound; indicates obstructionstridor in the airwaythoracic branch of medicine involving diagnosis and treatment ofsurgery diseases of respiratory system using surgical means
    80. 80. Upper Respiratory System Pathology acute respiratory condition in children; characterized croup by barking type of cough bacterial infection characterized by formation of thick diphtheria membranous film across throat; high mortality rate bacterial infection of upper respiratory system; pertussis characterized by whooping cough
    81. 81. Bronchial Tube Pathology difficulty breathing caused by bronchospasms,asthma dyspnea, coughing, and wheezing enlarged bronchi due to destruction of bronchialbronchiectasis wall; result of infectionsbronchogenic cancerous tumor originating in bronchicarcinoma
    82. 82. Asthma Video Click here to view a video on asthma.
    83. 83. Figure 7.8 – Color enhanced X-ray of large malignant tumor in right lower lung. (ISM/Phototake NYC) Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    84. 84. Lung Pathologyadult respiratory acute respiratory failure; characterized bydistress syndrome tachypnea, dyspnea, cyanosis, and(ARDS) hypoxemia type of pneumoconiosis; coal dust collecting inanthracosis lungs; also called black lung or miner’s lung type of pneumoconiosis; asbestos fibersasbestosis collecting in lungs
    85. 85. Lung Pathology condition in which alveoli in aatelectasis portion of lung collapses; prevents gas exchange in lungchronic progressive, chronic, and usuallyobstructive irreversible group of conditions; likepulmonary emphysema; lungs have decreaseddisease capacity to function(COPD) genetic condition; produces verycystic fibrosis thick mucus that causes severe(CF) congestion in lungs
    86. 86. COPD Video Click here to view a video on chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.
    87. 87. Cystic Fibrosis Video Click here to view a video on cystic fibrosis.
    88. 88. Lung Pathology chronic lung condition characterized byemphysema destruction of alveolar wallshistoplasmosis fungal infection of the lungsinfant respiratory most common in premature infants;distress syndrome characterized by tachypnea; previously(IRDS) called hyaline membrane diseaseinfluenza viral infection of respiratory system
    89. 89. Lung Pathology severe bacterial infection causingLegionnaire’s disease pneumonia, liver, and kidney damage less severe but longer lasting form ofMycoplasma bacterial pneumonia; also called walkingpneumonia pneumonia accumulation of foreign particles, such aspneumoconiosis coal dust, in the lungs
    90. 90. Lung PathologyPneumocystis carinii pneumonia caused by a fungus; anpneumonia (PCP) opportunistic infection seen in AIDS patients inflammatory condition of lungs; results inpneumonia alveoli filling with fluid excessive amount of tissue fluidpulmonary edema accumulating in the lung tissues floating blood clot obstructs pulmonarypulmonary embolism artery; causes infarct of lung tissue
    91. 91. Lung Pathology formation of fibrous scar tissue in lung;pulmonary fibrosis reduced ability to expand lungssevere acute acute viral respiratory infection; begins like flurespiratory but quickly progresses; very high mortality ratesyndrome (SARS) type of pneumoconiosis; accumulation of silicasilicosis dust in lungs
    92. 92. Lung Pathology breathing stops repeatedly during sleep;sleep apnea causes drop in oxygen levels unexpected and unexplained death ofsudden infant death apparently well infant; stops breathing forsyndrome (SIDS) unknown reasons bacterial lung infection; results in inflammationtuberculosis (TB) and calcification of lungs
    93. 93. Tuberculosis Testing Video Click here to view a video on tuberculosis testing.
    94. 94. Pleural Cavity Pathology accumulation of pus in pleuralempyema space; also called pyothorax accumulation of fluid in pleuralpleural effusion cavity; prevents lungs from fully expanding inflammation of pleura;pleurisy characterized by sharp pain with each breath collection of air in pleuralpneumothorax cavity; may result in collapsed lung
    95. 95. Figure 7.9 – Pneumothorax. Figure illustrates how puncture of thoracic wall and tearing of pleural membrane allows air into lung and results in collapsed lung. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    96. 96. Clinical Laboratory Testsarterial blood blood test of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels ingases (ABGs) the bloodsputum culture & cultures sputum for bacterial growth, if present,sensitivity (C&S) then determines best antibiotic to usesputum cytology examining sputum for malignant cells
    97. 97. Diagnostic Imaging X-ray of lung after inhaling radiopaquebronchography substancechest X-ray X-ray of the organs of the thoracic cavitypulmonary X-ray of lungs after injecting dye into bloodangiography vessel nuclear medicine test; radioactive air is inhaledventilation- for ventilation portion; radioactive dye is injectedperfusion scan for perfusion portion; looks for pulmonary emboli
    98. 98. Endoscopic Proceduresbronchoscopy visual examination of bronchial tubes using a(Bronch) bronchoscopelaryngoscopy visual examination of larynx using a laryngoscope
    99. 99. Figure 7.10 – Bronchoscopy. Figure illustrates physician using a bronchoscope to inspect the patient’s bronchial tubes. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    100. 100. Pulmonary Function Tests measures oxygen level inoximetry blood; uses oximeter on patient’s finger tippulmonary group of tests to measure airfunction test flow in and out of lungs, lung(PFT) volumes, and gas exchange measures lung capacity usingspirometry a spirometer
    101. 101. Oximetry Video Click here to view a video on performing oximetry.
    102. 102. Spirometry Video Click here to view a video on spirometry.
    103. 103. Additional Diagnostic Procedures monitoring patientpolysomnography sleeping to identify sleep apnea test for cystic fibrosis; this disease causessweat test large amount of salt in sweat introducing purified protein derivative (PPD)tuberculin skin under the skin;tests (TB test) determines if person has been exposed to TB
    104. 104. Respiratory Therapy medication suspended in aaerosol mist and inhaled; delivered bytherapy a nebulizer or metered dose inhaler (single puff dose) placing a tube through theendotracheal mouth and into the trachea tointubation keep airway openintermittent method for assisting patients inpositive breathing with a machine thatpressure produces an increase inbreathing positive thoracic pressure(IPPB)
    105. 105. Nebulizer Video Click here to view a video on nebulizers.
    106. 106. Metered Dose Inhaler Video Click here to view a video on using metered dose inhalers.
    107. 107. Endotrachael Intubation Video Click here to view a video on endotrachael intubation.
    108. 108. Figure 7.11 – Endotracheal intubation. First, a lighted scope is used to identify the trachea from the esophagus. Next, the tube is placed through the pharynx and into the trachea. Finally, the scope is removed, leaving the tube in place. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    109. 109. Respiratory Therapy drainage of bronchial secretions by placing patient in positionspostural using gravity to promotedrainage drainage; cystic fibrosis treatmentsupplement providing additional oxygenoxygen concentration to improve oxygentherapy levels in bloodstream machine that provides artificialventilator ventilation for a patient unable to breathe alone
    110. 110. Nasal Cannula Video Click here to view a video on applying a nasal cannula.
    111. 111. Surgical Procedures surgical puncture of chestthoracentesis wall to remove fluids; also called thoracocentesis insertion of tube (a chestthoracostomy tube) into chest to drain off fluid or air emergency procedure to create an opening directlytracheostomy into trachea so person can breathe easier; also called tracheotomy
    112. 112. Figure 7.12 – Patient with tracheostomy tube in place receiving oxygen through mask placed over the tracheostomy opening and attached to a ventilator. (Ansell Horn/Phototake NYC) Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    113. 113. Figure 7.13 – Thoracentesis. The needle is inserted between the ribs to withdraw fluid from the pleural sac at the base of the left lung. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    114. 114. Additional Procedurescardiopulmonary emergency treatment given to personsresuscitation (CPR) when respiration and heart stop technique for removing foreign bodyHeimlich maneuver obstructing trachea or pharynx
    115. 115. Respiratory System Pharmacologyantibiotic kills bacteria Amoxil, Cipro blocks histamine released Allegra, Claritan,antihistamine during allergy attack Benadryl Hycodan, Vicksantitussive relieves urge to cough Formula 44
    116. 116. Respiratory System Pharmacology relaxes Proventil, bronchospasbronchodilator Ventolin, ms; treats Theo-Dur asthma reduces Flonase, inflammationcorticosteroids Nasonex, of respiratory Azmacort tract reduces congestion in Afrin, Drixoral,decongestant respiratory Sudafed system
    117. 117. Respiratory System Pharmacology improves ability to coughexpectorant Robitussin, Mucinex up mucus liquefies mucus so it ismucolytic Mucomyst easier to cough up
    118. 118. Respiratory System AbbreviationsABGs arterial blood gasesARDS adult respiratory distress syndromeBronch bronchoscopyCO2 carbon dioxideCOPD chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseCPR cardiopulmonary resuscitationC&S culture and sensitivity
    119. 119. Respiratory System AbbreviationsCTA clear to auscultationCXR chest X-rayDOE dyspnea on exertionDPT diphtheria, pertussis, tetanusENT ear, nose, and throatERV expiratory reserve volumeFRC functional residual capacity
    120. 120. Respiratory System AbbreviationsHMD hyaline membrane diseaseIC inspiratory capacityIPPB intermittent positive pressure breathingIRDS infant respiratory distress syndromeIRV inspiratory reserve volumeLLL left lower lungLUL left upper lung
    121. 121. Respiratory System AbbreviationsMDI metered dose inhalerO2 oxygenPCP Pneumocystis carinii pneumoniaPFT pulmonary function testPPD purified protein derivativeR respirationRA room air
    122. 122. Respiratory System AbbreviationsRDS respiratory distress syndromeRLL right lower lungRML right middle lobeRRT registered respiratory therapistRV residual volumeRUL right upper lungSARS severe acute respiratory syndrome
    123. 123. Respiratory System AbbreviationsSIDS sudden infant death syndromeSOB shortness of breathTB tuberculosisTLC total lung capacityTPR temperature, pulse, respirationTV tidal volumeURI upper respiratory infectionVC vital capacity
    124. 124. 1. Ventilation, external respiration, internal respiration2. Oxygen, carbon dioxide3. Mucous membrane, mucus4. Nasopharynx, middle ear5. Epiglottis6. Bronchioles7. Alveoli8. Hilum9. Tidal volume10. Respiratory rate, heart rate, temperature, blood pressure
    125. 125. 1. Bronchoplasty2. Laryngitis3. Lobectomy4. Anoxia5. Pleurocentesis6. Rhinorrhea7. Pansinusitis8. Pharyngeal9. Hemothorax10. Tachypnea

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