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Nervous System

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Nervous System Medical Terminology

Nervous System Medical Terminology

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    Nervous System Nervous System Presentation Transcript

    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs “If I only had a brain” The Nervous System Medical Terminology HSC 1531
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs http://www.scienceline.org/2007/10/ask-hsu-spinning-girl-right-left-brain-hemispheres/ do you see the dancer turning clockwise or counter-clockwise? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HVGlfcP3ATI&feature=related
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Look at the chart above and say the color of the word - not the word itself. The right side of the brain tries to say the color while the left side tries to say the word.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Right and Left Brain Conflict What you just experienced was left-brain / right-brain conflict. Your right brain saw the color but your left brain insisted that you say the word. The conflict made this activity cumbersome, slow and often frustrating. You have been forced to be this way because it is how you learned how to read. You have read this way for many years and it is ingrained in you. Your left brain first wanted to say the word, but then it analyzed the color. Meanwhile, your right brain knew all along the color, but was dominated the whole time by the left brain trying to do a simple right brain job. http://www.beabetterhitter.com/text/mental/Right%20Brain%20Left%20Brain/RightBrain-LeftBrain.htm
    • Medical Terminologyfor Healthcare Professionals The Nervous System Florida State College of Jacksonville Instructor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Nervous System at a Glance Functions of Nervous System  Coordinates and controls body function  Receives sensory input  Makes decisions  Orders body responses integumentary musculoskeletal cardiovascular blood and lymphatic immune respiratory digestive urinary reproductive endocrine eyes and ears
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Nervous System at a Glance Central Nervous System CNS  Brain  Spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System PNS  Nerves http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XKb20ri05pQ
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HVGlfcP3ATI&feature=related
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs What are you Right or Left brain dominant ?
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Nervous System Combining Forms  cephal/o  head  cerebell/o  cerebellum  cerebr/o  cerebrum  encephal/o  brain  gli/o  glue  medull/o  medulla
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Nervous System Combining Forms  mening/o  meninges  meningi/o  meninges  myel/o  spinal cord  neur/o  nerve  phas/o  speech  poli/o  gray matter
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Nervous System Combining Forms  pont/o  pons  radicul/o  nerve root  thalam/o  thalamus  thec/o  sheath (meninges)  ventricul/o  ventricle
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Nervous System Suffixes  –algesia  pain, sensitivity  –esthesia  feeling, sensation  –paresis  weakness  –phasia  speech  –plegia  paralysis  –taxia  muscle coordination
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Anatomy and Physiology  Coordinates all activity of body  Receives information from both external and internal sensory receptors  Uses that information to adjust activity of muscles and glands to match needs of body  Nervous system is divided into:  Central nervous system (CNS)  Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Anatomy and Physiology  Central nervous system consists of:  Brain  Spinal cord  Peripheral nervous system consists of:  Cranial nerves  Spinal nerves http://frontalcortex.com/video/pns_and_neuro_exam
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Nervous Tissue  Nervous system composed of two types of cells  Neurons  Neuroglial cells  Neurons  Individual nerve cells  Capable of conducting electrical impulses
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Nervous Tissue  Neurons have three basic parts:  Dendrites – highly branched projections that receive impulses  Nerve cell body – contains nucleus & organelles  Axon – conducts electrical impulse to destination
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs The structure of a neuron. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Photomicrograph of typical neuron showing the nerve cell body, nucleus, and dendrites. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Nervous Tissue  Synapse  Point where axon of one neuron meets dendrite of second neuron  Synaptic cleft  Gap between two neurons in a synapse  Electrical impulse cannot cross  Neurotransmitter  Chemical released by axon  Crosses gap to stimulate dendrite of second neuron
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Neuroglia Cells ependymocytes The term neuroglia literally means nerve glue because these cells were originally believed to serve only one function: to bind neurons to each other and to other structures. http://www.fadavis.com/related_resources/1_2625_1737.pdf
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Nervous Tissue  Neuroglial cells  Variety of cells found in nervous tissue  Each has different support function for neurons  Some Neuroglial cells produce myelin, a fatty substance that acts as insulation for many axons  Neuroglial cells do not conduct electrical impulses
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Electronmicrograph illustrating an axon (red) wrapped in its myelin sheath (blue). Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Central Nervous System  Combination of the brain and spinal cord  Function  Receives impulses from all over body  Processes this information  Responds with action  Bundles of nerve fibers interconnecting different parts of CNS are called tracts
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Central Nervous System  Consists of both gray and white matter  Gray matter  Comprised of unsheathed or uncovered cell bodies and dendrites  White matter  Myelinated nerve fibers
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs The Brain  One of the largest organs in body  Coordinates most body activities  It is center for:  Thoughts  Memory  Judgment  Emotion http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HVGlfcP3ATI&feature=related
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs The Brain  Four sections:  Cerebrum  Cerebellum  Diencephalon  Brain stem
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs The regions of the brain Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Cerebrum  Largest section  Upper portion  Processes:  Thoughts  Judgment  Memory  Association skills  Ability to discriminate between items
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs The regions of the brain. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Cerebrum  Cerebral cortex  Outer layer of cerebrum  Composed of folds of gray matter  Gyri  Elevated portions of the cerebrum, or convolutions  Sulci  Fissures, or valleys, between gyri
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Lobes of Cerebrum  Subdivided into left and right halves called cerebral hemispheres  Each hemisphere has four lobes:  Frontal lobe  Parietal lobe  Occipital lobe  Temporal lobe
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Lobes of Cerebrum  Frontal lobe  Most anterior lobe  Controls motor function, personality, and speech  Parietal lobe  Most superior portion  Receives & interprets nerve impulses  Interprets language
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Lobes of Cerebrum  Occipital lobe  Most posterior  Controls vision  Temporal lobe  Left and right lateral portion  Controls hearing and smell
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs FRONTAL Controls motor function, PARIETAL personality, and speech Receives and interprets Nerve impulses and Language TEMPORAL OCCIPITAL Controls hearing and Controls visual function sense of smell The functional regions of the cerebrum. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Diencephalon  Located below cerebrum  Contains two of most critical areas of brain:  Thalamus  Hypothalamus
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs The regions of the brain. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Diencephalon  Thalamus  Center for relaying impulses from eyes, ears, and skin to cerebrum  Controls perception of pain  Hypothalamus  Controls body temperature, appetite, sleep, sexual desire, and emotions  Controls autonomic nervous system, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, and release of hormones from pituitary gland
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Cerebellum  Second largest portion of brain  Located beneath posterior part of cerebrum  Aids in:  Coordinating voluntary body movements  Maintaining balance and equilibrium  Refines muscular movements initiated in cerebrum
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs The regions of the brain. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Brain Stem  Has three components:  Midbrain  Pons  Medulla oblongata
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs The regions of the brain. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Brain Stem  Midbrain  Acts as pathway for impulses between brain and spinal cord  Pons  Means bridge  Connects cerebellum to rest of brain  Medulla oblongata  Most inferior portion of brain  Connects brain to spinal cord
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Brain Ventricles  Cavities containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)  Watery, clear fluid  Provides shock protection for CNS  Locations:  One in each cerebral hemisphere  One in thalamus  One in front of cerebellum
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Spinal Cord  Extends from medulla oblongata to second lumbar vertebra  Within vertebral column  33 vertebrae of back bone  Line up to form continuous canal  Called spinal cavity or vertebral canal
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs The levels of the spinal cord and spinal nerves. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Spinal Cord  Protected by cerebrospinal fluid  Flows through central canal down through spinal cord  Outer portion of spinal cord is myelinated white matter  Ascending tracts carry sensory information up to brain  Descending tracts carry motor commands down from brain to peripheral nerve
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Photograph of the spinal cord as it descends from the brain with spinal nerve roots visible. (Video Surgery/Photo Researchers, Inc.) Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Meninges  Protective membrane sac  Encases entire CNS  Consists of three layers:  Dura mater  Arachnoid layer  Pia mater
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs The meninges. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Meninges  Dura mater  Means tough mother  Outermost, tough, fibro us sac around CNS  Subdural space  Empty space between dura mater and arachnoid layer
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Meninges  Arachnoid layer  Means spider-like  Thin, delicate layer attached to pia mater by web-like filaments  Subarachnoid space  Between arachnoid layer and pia mater  Contains cerebrospinal fluid
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Meninges  Pia mater  Means soft mother  Innermost membrane layer  Applied directly to surface of brain
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)  Consists of:  12 pairs of cranial nerves  31 pairs of spinal nerves  Cranial nerves  Arise from brain  Spinal nerves  Split off from spinal cord  One pair (left and right) exit between each pair of vertebrae
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Nerves  A nerve:  Is a bundle of axon fibers located outside CNS  Carries messages between CNS and various parts of body  Nerve root  Point where nerve is attached to CNS  Names of most nerves reflect:  Organ the nerve serves  Portion of body the nerve is traveling through
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs The major spinal nerves. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Spinal cord injuries showing the extent of paralysis C4 ; C6 = Quadriplegia T6 ; L1 = Paraplegia
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Cranial Nerves
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Cranial Nerves I Olfactory sense of smell II Optic sense of sight II Oculomotor controls eye muscles and pupil of eye IV Trochlear controls oblique muscles of eye facial sensation and controls muscles for V Trigeminal chewing VI Abducens controls eyeball muscles to turn eye to side
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Cranial Nerves
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Cranial Nerves controls facial muscles for expression, VII Facial salivation, and taste on two-thirds of tongue (anterior) VIII Vestibulocochlear sense of equilibrium and hearing sensation from pharynx and taste on IX Glossopharyngeal one-third of tongue supplies most organs in abdominal and X Vagus thoracic cavities XI Accessory controls neck and shoulder muscles XII Hypoglossal controls tongue muscles
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Neurons  Each nerve can carry information both to and from CNS  But any individual neuron can carry information in only one direction  Either an:  Afferent neuron  Efferent neuron
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Neurons  Afferent neurons  Also called sensory neurons  Carry sensory information from sensory receptor to CNS  Efferent neurons  Also called motor neurons  Carry activity instructions from CNS to muscles or glands
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs A reflex arc showing afferent and efferent neurons. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Divisions of PNS  Nerves of PNS are subdivided into two divisions  Autonomic nervous system (ANS)  Somatic nerves  Each division serves different area of body
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)  Control of involuntary or unconscious bodily functions  It may increase or decrease the activity of:  Smooth muscle found in viscera and blood vessels  Cardiac muscle of heart  Glands  ANS divided into 2 branches:  Sympathetic branch  Parasympathetic branch
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)  Sympathetic branch  Stimulates body in times of stress and crisis  Increases heart rate, dilates airways, increases blood pressure, inhibits digestion, and stimulates production of adrenaline  Parasympathetic branch  Serves as counterbalance for sympathetic nerves  Causes heart rate to slow down, lowers blood pressure, and stimulates digestion
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Somatic Nerves  Mainly involved with conscious and voluntary activities of body  Serve skin and skeletal muscles  Carry information from sensory receptors of skin  Such as touch, temperature, pressure, and pain  Carry motor commands to skeletal muscles
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Right Brain Left Brain http://frank.mtsu.edu/~studskl/hd/hemis.html
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Word Building with cephal/o, cerebell/o and cerebr/o –algia cephalalgia head pain –ar cerebellar pertaining to cerebellum –itis cerebellitis inflammation of cerebellum –al cerebral pertaining to cerebrum spin/o cerebrospinal pertaining to cerebrum and spine –al
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Word Building with encephal/o, meningi/o and mening/o electr/o electroencephalogram record of brain electricity –gram –itis encephalitis brain inflammation –oma meningioma meninges tumor –eal meningeal pertaining to meninges –itis meningitis meninges inflammation
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Word Building with neur/o –al neural pertaining to nerve –algia neuralgia nerve pain –ectomy neurectomy removal of nerve –ologist neurologist nerve specialist –oma neuroma nerve tumor
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Word Building with neur/o –pathy neuropathy nerve disease –plasty neuroplasty surgical repair of nerve poly– polyneuritis inflammation of many nerves –itis –rrhaphy neurorrhaphy suture a nerve
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Word Building with myel/o and pont/o –gram myelogram spinal cord record –itis myelitis inflammation of spinal cord –ine pontine pertaining to pons
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Word Building with radicul/o, thalam/o and thec/o –itis radiculitis nerve root inflammation –pathy radiculopathy nerve root disease –ic thalamic pertaining to thalamus intra– –al intrathecal pertaining to inside meninges
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Nervous System Vocabulary the use of anesthesia for surgical procedures, resuscitation, anesthesiology and pain management neurology diagnosis and treatment of diseases of nervous system neurosurgery treating nervous system disease by surgical means
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Nervous System Vocabulary sensations occurring prior to epileptic seizure or migraine; such as aura seeing colors alternating between strong involuntary muscle contractions and convulsion relaxations sudden, uncontrollable onset of symptoms; such as in epileptic seizure seizure focal seizure seizure in only one limb or body part syncope fainting
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Nervous System Vocabulary conscious awake and aware of surroundings unconscious unaware of surroundings; unable to respond to stimuli coma state of profound unconsciousness paresthesia abnormal sensations such as burning or tingling tremor involuntary repetitive alternating movements
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Nervous System Vocabulary delirium confusion, disorientation, and agitation dementia impaired intellectual function hemiparesis weakness on one side of body paralysis temporary or permanent loss of voluntary movement hemiplegia paralysis on one side of body paraplegia paralysis of lower portion of body palsy loss of ability to control movements
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Brain Pathology disorder characterized by progressive dementia, disorientation, Alzheimer’s disease apathy, and loss of memory astrocytoma malignant tumor originating in astrocytes, a neuroglial cell intracranial mass; may be malignant or benign; dangerous brain tumor because occupies space cerebral aneurysm ballooning of cerebral artery; may cause stroke
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Color enhanced CT-scan showing two malignant tumors in the brain. (Scott Camazine/Photo Researchers, Inc.) Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Common locations for cerebral artery aneurysms in the Circle of Willis. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Brain Pathology bruising of brain from impact; symptoms last longer than 24 hrs; cerebral contusion include unconsciousness, dizziness, vomiting, unequal pupils concussion brain injury from impact; symptoms last less than 24 hrs brain damage results from defect, trauma, or oxygen cerebral palsy (CP) deprivation at time of birth
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Brain Pathology infarct due to loss of blood supply to brain; may be due cerebrovascular accident to hemorrhage, thrombus, embolus, or compression; (CVA) commonly called a stroke transient ischemic attack temporary interference with blood supply to brain; may (TIA) lead to a CVA specific type of headache with severe pain, light migraine sensitivity, dizziness, and nausea
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs The four common causes for cerebrovascular accidents. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Brain Pathology seizures and loss of consciousness caused by uncontrolled epilepsy electrical activity of brain epileptic seizure with strong muscle spasms; formerly called tonic-clonic seizure grand mal epileptic seizure characterized by loss of awareness and absence seizure absence of activity; formerly called petit mal
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Brain Pathology hydrocephalus accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within brain ventricles chronic disorder of brain with tremors, weakness, muscle Parkinson’s disease rigidity, and shuffling gait acute encephalopathy and organ damage; follows viral Reye syndrome infection and associated with taking aspirin
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Hydrocephalus. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Spinal Cord Pathology amyotrophic lateral degeneration of motor neurons of spinal cord; also called sclerosis (ALS) Lou Gehrig’s disease viral infection affecting spinal cord; paralysis may be mild poliomyelitis and temporary or severe and permanent damage to spinal cord due to trauma; may be bruised and spinal cord injury (SCI) recover or severed and permanent
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Spinal Cord Pathology congenital defect where lamina of vertebra do not meet spina bifida or close to form spinal canal protrusion of meninges sac through opening left by meningocele spina bifida defect protrusion of meninges and spinal cord through myelomeningocele opening left by spina bifida defect
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Spina bifida. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Nerve Pathology one-sided facial paralysis due to inflammation of facial nerve Bell’s palsy caused by virus Guillain-Barré temporary loss of myelin sheath; may be autoimmune; starts in syndrome legs and progresses up nervous system multiple sclerosis loss of myelin sheath; results in weakness and numbness (MS)
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Multiple Sclerosis Animation Click here to view an animation on the development of multiple sclerosis.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Nerve Pathology muscular weakness and fatigue due to insufficient myasthenia gravis neurotransmitter at synapses eruption of painful blisters on body along a nerve path; shingles caused by Herpes zoster virus
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Photograph of the skin eruptions associated with shingles. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Meninges Pathology epidural hematoma mass of blood in space outside dura mater mass of blood forming inside subdural space; due to torn subdural hematoma meningeal blood vessel; space occupying lesion
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs A subdural hematoma. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Clinical Laboratory Tests cerebrospinal fluid examination of CSF; may detect infections and blood in the analysis fluid
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Diagnostic Imaging image of brain after injection of radioactive brain scan isotopes into bloodstream X-ray of cerebral blood vessels after injection of cerebral angiography radiopaque dye echoencephalography ultrasound image of brain
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Diagnostic Imaging X-ray of spinal cord after injection of radiopaque dye into spinal myelography canal positron emission use of positive radionuclides to construct an image of the brain; tomography (PET) image reveals metabolic activity of brain areas
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Additional Diagnostic Tests reflex test that reveals nervous system lesions; Babinski’s reflex performed by stroking sole of foot electroencephalography (EEG) records the electrical activity of brain lumbar puncture puncture to remove CSF for examination measures speed at which an impulse travels nerve conduction velocity along a nerve; reveals nerve damage
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Electroneurodiagnostic Technician Video Click here to view a video on electroneurodiagnostic technicians.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs A lumbar puncture. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Medical Treatment anesthetic injection into nerve area to block nerve impulses on nerve block that nerve; used to treat chronic pain
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Surgical Treatments removes blockage of major artery in neck that carries blood carotid endarterectomy to brain by removing inner lining of the artery cerebrospinal fluid shunt carries CSF from ventricle to abdominal cavity; treats shunt hydrocephalus laminectomy removes part of vertebra; relieves pressure on spinal nerve tractotomy surgical cut of nerve tract; treats severe chronic pain
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Nervous System Pharmacology treats minor to moderate pain, non- analgesic Tylenol, Aleve narcotic produces loss of sensation or Xylocaine, anesthetic consciousness Novocain reduces nerve excitability to prevent Tegretol, anticonvulsant seizures Nembutal dopaminergic drugs treats Parkinson’s disease L-dopa, Sinemet
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Nervous System Pharmacology hypnotic promotes sleep Seconal, Restoril narcotic analgesic treats severe pain OxyContin, Demerol sedative calming or relaxing effect Amytal, Butisol
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Nervous System Abbreviations ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ANS autonomic nervous system CNS central nervous system CP cerebral palsy CSF cerebrospinal fluid CVA cerebrovascular accident CVD cerebrovascular disease EEG electroencephalography
    • HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals professor: michael l. whitchurch, mhs Nervous System Abbreviations HA headache ICP intracranial pressure LP lumbar puncture MS multiple sclerosis PET positron emission tomography PNS peripheral nervous system SCI spinal cord injury TIA transient ischemic attack