MusculoSkeletal system          HSC1531 Medical Terminology                            for Healthcare Professionals       ...
Multimedia DirectorySlide 30           Bone Structure ExerciseSlide 61           Skeletal Bones ExerciseSlide 78          ...
Multimedia Directory ContinuedSlide 152          Humerus Circumduction AnimationSlide 153          Hand Opposition Animati...
Skeletal System at a Glance    Functions of Skeletal System          Internal framework of body          Supports body ...
Skeletal System at a Glance    Organs of Skeletal System          Bones of the skeleton          Joints    Medical Term...
Anatomy and Physiology    Bones are body organs with blood supply,     nerves, and lymphatic vessels    Bones are connec...
Anatomy and Physiology    Red bone marrow within bones produces     blood cells    Bones also:          Protect vital o...
Anatomy and Physiology    Joint          Place where two bones meet          Held together by ligaments          Gives...
Bones    Also called osseous tissue    One of hardest materials in body    Formed from gradual process before birth cal...
Bones    Flexible tissue is gradually replaced by     osteoblasts (immature bone cells)    In adult bones osteoblasts ma...
Four Shapes of Bones                                   Short                                    IrregularLong bones       ...
Figure 4.1 – Classification of bones by shape.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition                      ...
More about Long Bones Majority of bones in body Divided into:          Diaphysis          Epiphysis    Medical Termino...
Diaphysis Central shaft Medullary cavity          Open canal within diaphysis          Contains              yellow bo...
Epiphysis    Wide ends of long bone          Distal epiphysis          Proximal epiphysis    Articular cartilage      ...
Periosteum    Covers surface of bone     not covered by articular     cartilage    Thin connective tissue     membrane ...
Compact Bone    Also called cortical bone    Very dense and hard    Outer layer of bone    Found in both epiphysis and...
Cancellous Bone    Also called              spongy bone Found inside bone Has spaces containing              red bone m...
Figure 4.2 – Components of a long bone.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition                             ...
Bone Structure Exercise  Click here to review long bone structure with a labeling activity.Medical Terminology: A Living L...
Bony Processes    Projection from the surface of a bone    Rough processes provide place for muscle     attachment    S...
Common Bony ProcessesHead                 Large smooth ball-shaped end of a long boneCondyle              Smooth rounded p...
HeadCondyleEpicondyleTrochanterTubercleTuberosity          Figure 4.3 – Bony processes found on the femur.  Medical Termin...
Bony Depressions    Sinus          Hollow cavity within bone    Foramen          Smooth opening for nerves and blood v...
The Skeleton    Skeleton has two divisions          Axial skeleton          Appendicular skeleton    Medical Terminolog...
AXIAL SKELETON                                      APPENDICULAR SKELETONMedical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Ed...
   Skull                                                                Cranium                                         ...
The Skull    Is divided into two parts             Cranium             Facial bones    Protects brain, eyes, ears, nas...
FACIAL BONES                                     CRANIAL BONESMedical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition      ...
Cranium    Frontal – 1          Forehead    Parietal – 2          Upper sides and roof           of skull    Temporal...
Cranium    Ethmoid – 1          Part of eye orbit, nose,           & floor of skull    Sphenoid – 1          Part of f...
Figure 4.5 – Bones of the skull.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition                                    ...
Facial Bones    Mandible – 1          Lower jawbone    Maxilla – 1          Upper jawbone    Zygomatic – 2          ...
Facial Bones    Palatine – 1          Hard palate and floor           of nose    Nasal – 2          Part of nasal sept...
Figure 4.5 – Bones of the skull.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition                                    ...
Hyoid Bone    Single U-shaped bone    In neck between mandible and larynx    Attachment point for swallowing and     sp...
The Trunk Vertebral column Sternum Rib cage    Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition                  ...
The Vertebral Column    Divided into five     sections        Cervical        Thoracic        Lumbar        Sacrum   ...
   CervicalThe Vertebral Column                                             7 vertebrae of neck                         ...
vertebraeMedical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition                                                         52...
http://www.spinaldoc.com/Anatomy_of_the_Back.php     Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition               ...
RIB CAGE                                   STERNUMMedical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition                  ...
The Rib Cage 12 pairs of ribs Attached to  vertebral column at  back Provides support  for organs, such as  heart and l...
The Rib Cage    True ribs          10 pairs attached to           sternum in front    Floating ribs          Inferior ...
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition                                                         57Bonnie F....
Appendicular Skeleton    Includes bones of:       Pectoral girdle       Upper extremity       Pelvic girdle       Low...
Figure 4.8 – Bones of the appendicular skeleton.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition                    ...
Pectoral Girdle    Attaches upper extremity to axial skeleton    Articulates with:          Sternum anteriorly        ...
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition                                                         61Bonnie F....
Upper Extremity   Arm   Consists of:        Humerus – upper arm        Ulna – part of forearm        Radius – part of...
Figure 4.9 – Anatomical and common names for the               pectoral girdle and upper extremity.Medical Terminology: A ...
Pelvic Girdle    Also called os coxae, innominate bone, or     hipbone    Attaches lower extremity to axial skeleton   ...
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition                                                         65Bonnie F....
Lower Extremity    Leg    Consists of:          Femur – thigh bone          Patella – knee cap          Tibia – shin ...
Lower Extremity    Leg    Consists of:          Femur – thigh bone          Patella – knee cap          Tibia – shin ...
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition                                                         69Bonnie F....
Figure 4.10 – Anatomical and common names for the pelvic                 girdle and lower extremity. Medical Terminology: ...
Skeletal Bones Exercise   Click here to review the bones of the skeleton with a labeling activity.Medical Terminology: A L...
Joints    Formed where two bones meet    Also called an articulation    Three types based on movement allowed     betwe...
Synovial Joints    Freely moving joints    Most common type of joint    Example is ball-and-socket joint    Bones held...
Synovial Joints    Enclosed in an elastic joint     capsule    Contains synovial fluid          Lubricant secreted by s...
Figure 4.12 – Structure of a synovial joint.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition                        ...
Cartilaginous Joints    Allow slight movement    Hold bones firmly in place     by solid piece of cartilage    Example ...
Fibrous Joints    Allow almost no movement    Joined by thick fibrous tissue    Example          Sutures of the skull ...
Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition                                                         79Bonnie F....
Figure 4.11 – Examples of three types of joints found in the body.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition  ...
Word Building with arthr/o–algia                arthralgia                       joint pain–centesis             arthrocen...
Word Building with burs/o & chondr/o–ectomy               bursectomy                           surgical removal of bursa–i...
Word Building with              cortic/o and crani/o–al                      cortical                          pertaining ...
Word Building with              medull/o & myel/o–ary                     medullary                         pertaining to ...
Word Building with oste/o–algia                       ostealgia                     bone painchondr/o –oma                ...
Word Building with               synov/o & vertebr/o–itis                    synovitis                         inflammatio...
Adjective Forms of Bone Namesiliac                    ilium                              ischial      ischiumcarpal       ...
Adjective Forms of Bone Namestibial                    tibia                             ulnar        ulnaclavicular      ...
Skeletal System Vocabulary                            mass of bone tissue that forms at fracture site duringcallus        ...
Chiropractic Medicine Video                Click here to view a video on chiropractic medicine.Medical Terminology: A Livi...
Skeletal System Vocabularykyphosis                 abnormal increase in curve of thoracic spine; humpback                 ...
Figure 4.13 – Abnormal spinal curvatures: kyphosis,                    lordosis, and scoliosis.                  http://ww...
Skeletal System Vocabulary                         profession specializing in diagnosis and treatment ofpodiatry          ...
Fractures                                    fracture with no open skin wound; also called simpleclosed fracture          ...
Figure 4.14 – A) Open (or compound) and B) closed (or simple)                            fractures.                       ...
Figure 4.15 – Colles’ fracture.                                  (Charles Stewart and Associates)                         ...
Fracturesfracture (FX, Fx)                        broken bone                                         incomplete break; on...
Figure 4.16 – X-ray showing oblique fracture of the humerus.                                  (Charles Stewart and Associa...
Fracturespathologic fracture                      fracture caused by diseased or weakened bone                            ...
Figure 4.17 – X-ray showing transverse fracture of radius.    (James Stevenson/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, In...
Bone Pathologies                              cancerous tumor of shaft of long bones; spreads throughEwing’s sarcoma      ...
Bone Pathologies                                 decrease in bone mass; results in thinning andosteoporosis               ...
Osteoporosis Video                       Click here to view a video on osteoporosis.Medical Terminology: A Living Language...
Spinal Column Pathologies                                         inflammatory condition resembles rheumatoidankylosing sp...
Figure 4.18 – Color enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)  image demonstrating a herniated nucleus pulposus putting pr...
Figure 4.13 – Abnormal spinal curvatures:                       kyphosis, lordosis, and scoliosis.                        ...
Spinal Column Pathology                                       narrowing of spinal canal; causes pressure onspinal stenosis...
Joint Pathologybunion                        inflammation of bursa at base of great toedislocation                   bones...
Figure 4.19 – Patient with typical rheumatoid arthritis                              contractures.                 (Scienc...
Arthritis Video                           Click here to view a video on arthritis.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, ...
Skeletal System Pathology                                 damage to ligaments around joint due to overstretching;sprain   ...
Diagnostic Imaging                                  visualizing joint by X-ray after injecting contrastarthrography       ...
Diagnostic Imaging                             Study of spinal column after injecting opaque contrastmyelography          ...
Endoscopic Procedures                             Examining interior of joint with an arthroscope, a fiberopticarthroscopy...
Arthroscopy Video                       Click here to view a video on arthroscopy.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, ...
Surgical Procedures                               removal of a limb for reasons like tumors, gangrene, oramputation       ...
Surgical Proceduresbunionectomy                      removal of bursa at base of great toe                                ...
Surgical Proceduresspinal fusion                              surgical immobilization of adjacent vertebraetotal hip arthr...
Fracture Care                       stabilizes fracture while it heals; external fixation includesfixation               c...
Figure 4.20 – Prosthetic hip joint.(Lawrence Livermore National Library/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.)    ...
Skeletal System Pharmacology                  reduce the reabsorption ofbone reabsorption                  bone; treats os...
Skeletal System Pharmacology                                    have strong anti-inflammatory                             ...
Skeletal System AbbreviationsAE                               above elbowAK                               above kneeBDT   ...
Skeletal System AbbreviationsCa                               calciumDJD                              degenerative joint d...
Skeletal System AbbreviationsL1, L2, etc.                     first lumbar vertebra, etc.LE                               ...
Skeletal System AbbreviationsOrth, ortho                      orthopedicsRA                               rheumatoid arthr...
Skeletal System AbbreviationsTHR                             total hip replacementTKA                             total kn...
Muscular System at a Glance   Function of Muscular    System        Individual cells are able to         contract or sho...
Muscular System at a Glance    Organs of Muscular System      Muscles    Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth ...
Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition       Upper Saddle River,...
Muscular System Combining Forms    fasci/o                    fibrous band    fibr/o                     fibers    kine...
Muscular System Combining Forms    myocardi/o                            heart muscle    myos/o                         ...
Muscular System Suffixes    –asthenia                             weakness    –kinesia                              move...
Muscular System Prefixes    ab–                                   away from    ad–                                   tow...
Anatomy and Physiology    Bundles of parallel muscle tissue fibers    Fibers contract          Shorten in length       ...
Muscles Animation                      Click here to view an animation on muscles.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, ...
Types of Muscles   Skeletal muscle   Smooth muscle   Cardiac muscle   Voluntary muscles        Consciously choose to ...
Figure 4.21 – The three types of muscles: skeletal, smooth,                         and cardiac.                          ...
Skeletal Muscles    Attached to bones    Produce voluntary movement of skeleton    Also referred to as striated muscle ...
Skeletal Muscles    Muscle is wrapped in layers of connective     tissue          Called fascia          Tapers at the ...
Myoneural Junctionhttp://apbrwww5.apsu.edu/thompsonj/Anatomy%20&%20Physiology/2010/2010%20Exam%20Reviews/Exam%203%20Review...
Figure 4.22 – Characteristics of the three types of muscles.                                                         Copyr...
Smooth Muscles    Associated with internal organs          Also called visceral                              muscle     ...
Figure 4.22 – Characteristics of the three types of muscles.                                                         Copyr...
Cardiac Muscle    Also called myocardium    Makes up walls of heart    Involuntary contraction of heart to pump     blo...
Figure 4.22 – Characteristics of the three types of muscles.                                                         Copyr...
Muscle NamesLocation               rectus abdominis                   straight abdominal muscleOrigin and                 ...
Muscle NamesAction                      flexor carpi                  muscle that bends the wrist                         ...
Skeletal Muscle Actions    Skeletal muscles attach to two different     bones and overlap a joint    When muscle contrac...
Skeletal Muscle Actions    Action          Type of movement produced by the muscle    Antagonistic pairs          Pair...
Joint Movement Animation           Click here to view an animation on the movement of joints.Medical Terminology: A Living...
Movement Terminologyabduction                           movement away from midline of bodyadduction                       ...
Figure 4.23 – Abduction and adduction.                                                         Copyright ©2009 by Pearson ...
Humerus Adduction/AbductionAnimation  Click here to view an animation on humerus adduction and abduction.Medical Terminolo...
Figure 4.24 – Flexion and extension.                                                         Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Ed...
Elbow Flexion/Extension Animation       Click here to view an animation on elbow flexion and extension.Medical Terminology...
Figure 4.25 – Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion.                                                         Copyright ©2009 by...
Ankle Dorsiflexion and PlantarFlexion Animation Click here to view an animation on ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion....
Movement Terminologyeversion                            turning outwardinversion                           turning inwardp...
Figure 4.26 – Eversion and inversion.                                                         Copyright ©2009 by Pearson E...
Ankle Inversion and EversionAnimation       Click here to view an animation of ankle inversion and eversion.Medical Termin...
Figure 4.27 – Pronation and supination.                                                         Copyright ©2009 by Pearson...
Elbow Pronation and SupinationAnimation   Click here to view an animation of forearm pronation and supination.Medical Term...
Different Circular Movements    Circumduction          Movement in circular direction from a central           point   ...
Humerus Circumduction Animation           Click here to view an animation of humerus circumduction.Medical Terminology: A ...
Hand Opposition Animation       Click here to view an animation of thumb and finger opposition.Medical Terminology: A Livi...
Humerus Rotation Animation                Click here to view an animation of humerus rotation.Medical Terminology: A Livin...
Word Building with fasci/o and kinesi/o –al                      fascial                           pertaining to fascia –i...
Word Building with muscul/o & myos/o–ar                      muscular                          pertaining to musclespoly– ...
Word Building with my/o –algia                 myalgia                             muscle pain –asthenia              myas...
Word Building withten/o, tend/o, and tendin/o–dynia                   tenodynia                         tendon pain–plasty...
Word Building with –kinesia brady–                 bradykinesia                        slow movement dys–                 ...
Word Building with –tonia a–                     atonia                              lack of tone dys–                   d...
Muscular System Vocabularyadhesion                  scar tissue in fascia; makes muscle movement difficult                ...
Muscle Atrophy Video                     Click here to view a video on muscle atrophy.Medical Terminology: A Living Langua...
Muscular System Vocabularyintermittent              attacks of severe pain and lameness caused by muscleclaudication      ...
Muscle Pathology                                           widespread aching and pain in muscles andfibromyalgia          ...
Muscular Dystrophy Video                  Click here to view a video on muscular dystrophy.Medical Terminology: A Living L...
Pathology of Tendons, Muscles, and/orLigaments                              repetitive motion disorder; compression of fin...
Carpal Tunnel Video                      Click here to view a video on carpal tunnel.Medical Terminology: A Living Languag...
Pathology of Tendons, Muscles, and/orLigaments                             joint capsule of shoulder joint is reinforced b...
Clinical Laboratory Tests                    muscle enzyme found in skeletal and cardiac muscle;creatine                  ...
Muscular System Diagnostic Proceduresdeep tendon reflexes                     muscle contraction in response to stretch; u...
Surgical Procedurescarpal tunnel                    cutting of ligament in wrist to relieve pressure caused byrelease     ...
Muscular System Pharmacologyskeletal muscle                                    relax skeletal muscle spasms   Flexeril, So...
Muscular System AbbreviationsCTS                             carpal tunnel syndromeCPK                             creatin...
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Musculoskeletal system

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Musculoskeletal system

  1. 1. MusculoSkeletal system HSC1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals Florida State College of Jacksonville Instructor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSMedical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 1Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  2. 2. Multimedia DirectorySlide 30 Bone Structure ExerciseSlide 61 Skeletal Bones ExerciseSlide 78 Chiropractic Medicine VideoSlide 91 Osteoporosis VideoSlide 98 Arthritis VideoSlide 103 Arthroscopy VideoSlide 124 Muscles AnimationSlide 138 Joint Movement AnimationSlide 141 Humerus Adduction/Abduction AnimationSlide 143 Elbow Flexion/Extension AnimationSlide 145 Ankle Dorsiflexion and Plantar Flexion AnimationSlide 148 Ankle Inversion and Eversion AnimationSlide 150 Elbow Pronation and Supination Animation Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 2 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  3. 3. Multimedia Directory ContinuedSlide 152 Humerus Circumduction AnimationSlide 153 Hand Opposition AnimationSlide 154 Humerus Rotation AnimationSlide 162 Muscle Atrophy VideoSlide 165 Muscular Dystrophy VideoSlide 167 Carpal Tunnel Video Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 3 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  4. 4. Skeletal System at a Glance Functions of Skeletal System  Internal framework of body  Supports body  Protects internal organs  Point of attachment for muscles  Produces blood cells  Stores minerals Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 4 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  5. 5. Skeletal System at a Glance Organs of Skeletal System  Bones of the skeleton  Joints Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 5 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  6. 6. Anatomy and Physiology Bones are body organs with blood supply, nerves, and lymphatic vessels Bones are connected to each other to form Skeleton  Framework for the body  206 bones Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 15 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  7. 7. Anatomy and Physiology Red bone marrow within bones produces blood cells Bones also:  Protect vital organs  Store minerals Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 16 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  8. 8. Anatomy and Physiology Joint  Place where two bones meet  Held together by ligaments  Gives flexibility to skeleton Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 17 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  9. 9. Bones Also called osseous tissue One of hardest materials in body Formed from gradual process before birth called ossification Fetal skeleton is formed from a cartilage model Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 18 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  10. 10. Bones Flexible tissue is gradually replaced by osteoblasts (immature bone cells) In adult bones osteoblasts mature into osteocytes Formation of strong bones dependant on adequate supply of minerals Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 19 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  11. 11. Four Shapes of Bones Short IrregularLong bones Flat bones bones bonesLonger than wide Roughly as long as Plate- shaped Shape very wide irregularExample: Example:• femur Example: • sternum Example:• humerus • carpals • scapula • vertebrae • tarsals • pelvis Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 20 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  12. 12. Figure 4.1 – Classification of bones by shape.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 21Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  13. 13. More about Long Bones Majority of bones in body Divided into:  Diaphysis  Epiphysis Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 22 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  14. 14. Diaphysis Central shaft Medullary cavity  Open canal within diaphysis  Contains yellow bone marrow  Mostly fat And ……… Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 23 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  15. 15. Epiphysis Wide ends of long bone  Distal epiphysis  Proximal epiphysis Articular cartilage  Covers epiphysis  Prevents bone rubbing on bone Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 24 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  16. 16. Periosteum Covers surface of bone not covered by articular cartilage Thin connective tissue membrane Contains numerous nerve and lymphatic vessels Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 25 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  17. 17. Compact Bone Also called cortical bone Very dense and hard Outer layer of bone Found in both epiphysis and diaphysis Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 26 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  18. 18. Cancellous Bone Also called spongy bone Found inside bone Has spaces containing red bone marrow  Manufactures blood cells Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 27 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  19. 19. Figure 4.2 – Components of a long bone.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 28Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  20. 20. Bone Structure Exercise Click here to review long bone structure with a labeling activity.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 30Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Back to Directory
  21. 21. Bony Processes Projection from the surface of a bone Rough processes provide place for muscle attachment Smooth rounded processes articulate with another bone in a joint Named for shape and location Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 31 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  22. 22. Common Bony ProcessesHead Large smooth ball-shaped end of a long boneCondyle Smooth rounded portion at end of boneEpicondyle Projection above or on a condyleTrochanter Large rough process (upper part of the femur)Tubercle Small rough processTuberosity Large rough process Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 32 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  23. 23. HeadCondyleEpicondyleTrochanterTubercleTuberosity Figure 4.3 – Bony processes found on the femur. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 33 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  24. 24. Bony Depressions Sinus  Hollow cavity within bone Foramen  Smooth opening for nerves and blood vessels Fossa  Shallow cavity or depression within a bone Fissure  Deep groove or slit-like opening Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 34 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  25. 25. The Skeleton Skeleton has two divisions  Axial skeleton  Appendicular skeleton Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 35 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  26. 26. AXIAL SKELETON APPENDICULAR SKELETONMedical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 36Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  27. 27.  Skull  Cranium  Facial  Sternum  Rib cage  Spine  Vertebrae  Sacrum  CoccyxMedical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 37Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  28. 28. The Skull Is divided into two parts  Cranium  Facial bones Protects brain, eyes, ears, nasal cavity, and oral cavity Attachment for muscles of chewing and turning the head Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 40 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  29. 29. FACIAL BONES CRANIAL BONESMedical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 41Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  30. 30. Cranium Frontal – 1  Forehead Parietal – 2  Upper sides and roof of skull Temporal – 2  Sides & base of skull Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 42 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  31. 31. Cranium Ethmoid – 1  Part of eye orbit, nose, & floor of skull Sphenoid – 1  Part of floor of skull Occipital – 1  Back & base of skull Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 43 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  32. 32. Figure 4.5 – Bones of the skull.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 44Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  33. 33. Facial Bones Mandible – 1  Lower jawbone Maxilla – 1  Upper jawbone Zygomatic – 2  Cheek bones Vomer – 1  Part of nasal septum Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 45 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  34. 34. Facial Bones Palatine – 1  Hard palate and floor of nose Nasal – 2  Part of nasal septum and bridge of nose Lacrimal – 2  Inner corner of eye Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 46 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  35. 35. Figure 4.5 – Bones of the skull.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 47Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  36. 36. Hyoid Bone Single U-shaped bone In neck between mandible and larynx Attachment point for swallowing and speech muscles Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 48 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  37. 37. The Trunk Vertebral column Sternum Rib cage Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 49 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  38. 38. The Vertebral Column Divided into five sections  Cervical  Thoracic  Lumbar  Sacrum  Coccyx Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 50 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  39. 39.  CervicalThe Vertebral Column  7 vertebrae of neck  Thoracic  12 vertebrae of chest  Lumbar  5 vertebrae of low back  Sacrum  5 fused vertebrae at base of spine  Coccyx  3–5 small vertebrae attached to sacrum Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 51 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  40. 40. vertebraeMedical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 52Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  41. 41. http://www.spinaldoc.com/Anatomy_of_the_Back.php Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 53 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  42. 42. RIB CAGE STERNUMMedical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 54Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  43. 43. The Rib Cage 12 pairs of ribs Attached to vertebral column at back Provides support for organs, such as heart and lungs Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 55 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  44. 44. The Rib Cage True ribs  10 pairs attached to sternum in front Floating ribs  Inferior 2 pairs  No attachment in front Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 56 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  45. 45. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 57Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  46. 46. Appendicular Skeleton Includes bones of:  Pectoral girdle  Upper extremity  Pelvic girdle  Lower extremity Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 58 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  47. 47. Figure 4.8 – Bones of the appendicular skeleton.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 59Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  48. 48. Pectoral Girdle Attaches upper extremity to axial skeleton Articulates with:  Sternum anteriorly  Vertebral column posteriorly Consists of:  Clavicle – collar bone  Scapula – shoulder blade Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 60 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  49. 49. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 61Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  50. 50. Upper Extremity Arm Consists of:  Humerus – upper arm  Ulna – part of forearm  Radius – part of forearm  Carpals – wrist bones  Metacarpals – hand bones  Phalanges – finger bonesMedical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 62Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  51. 51. Figure 4.9 – Anatomical and common names for the pectoral girdle and upper extremity.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 63Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  52. 52. Pelvic Girdle Also called os coxae, innominate bone, or hipbone Attaches lower extremity to axial skeleton Articulates with sacrum posteriorly Consists of:  Ilium  Ischium  Pubis Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 64 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  53. 53. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 65Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  54. 54. Lower Extremity Leg Consists of:  Femur – thigh bone  Patella – knee cap  Tibia – shin bone  Fibula – lower leg bone  Tarsals – ankle bones  Metatarsals – foot bones  Phalanges – toe bones Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 67 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  55. 55. Lower Extremity Leg Consists of:  Femur – thigh bone  Patella – knee cap  Tibia – shin bone  Fibula – lower leg bone  Tarsals – ankle bones  Metatarsals – foot bones  Phalanges – toe bones Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 68 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  56. 56. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 69Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  57. 57. Figure 4.10 – Anatomical and common names for the pelvic girdle and lower extremity. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 70 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  58. 58. Skeletal Bones Exercise Click here to review the bones of the skeleton with a labeling activity.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 71Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Back to Directory
  59. 59. Joints Formed where two bones meet Also called an articulation Three types based on movement allowed between the 2 bones:  Synovial  Cartilaginous  Fibrous Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 72 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  60. 60. Synovial Joints Freely moving joints Most common type of joint Example is ball-and-socket joint Bones held together by ligaments  Strong bands of connective tissue Some contain a bursa Sac-like structure lined with synovial membrane Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 74 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  61. 61. Synovial Joints Enclosed in an elastic joint capsule Contains synovial fluid  Lubricant secreted by synovial membrane Ends of bones are covered with articular cartilage Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 75 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  62. 62. Figure 4.12 – Structure of a synovial joint.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 76Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  63. 63. Cartilaginous Joints Allow slight movement Hold bones firmly in place by solid piece of cartilage Example  Pubic symphysis Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 77 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  64. 64. Fibrous Joints Allow almost no movement Joined by thick fibrous tissue Example  Sutures of the skull Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 78 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  65. 65. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 79Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  66. 66. Figure 4.11 – Examples of three types of joints found in the body.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 80Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  67. 67. Word Building with arthr/o–algia arthralgia joint pain–centesis arthrocentesis puncture to withdraw fluid from joint–clasia arthroclasia surgically break a joint–desis arthrodesis fusion of a joint–gram arthrogram record of a joint–itis arthritis joint inflammation–otomy arthrotomy incision into a joint–scope arthroscope instrument to view joint Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 81 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  68. 68. Word Building with burs/o & chondr/o–ectomy bursectomy surgical removal of bursa–itis bursitis inflammation of bursa–ectomy chondrectomy surgical removal of cartilage–malacia chondromalacia softening of cartilage–oma chondroma cartilage tumor–plasty chondroplasty surgical repair of cartilage Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 82 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  69. 69. Word Building with cortic/o and crani/o–al cortical pertaining to the outer portionintra– –al intracranial pertaining to inside the skull–otomy craniotomy incision into the skull Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 83 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  70. 70. Word Building with medull/o & myel/o–ary medullary pertaining to the inner portion–oma myeloma red bone marrow tumor Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 84 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  71. 71. Word Building with oste/o–algia ostealgia bone painchondr/o –oma osteochondroma bone and cartilage tumor–clasia osteoclasia surgically break a bone bone and bone marrowmyel/o –itis osteomyelitis inflammation–otomy osteotomy incision into bone–pathy osteopathy bone disease–tome osteotome instrument to cut bone Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 85 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  72. 72. Word Building with synov/o & vertebr/o–itis synovitis inflammation of synovial membrane surgical removal of synovial–ectomy synovectomy membraneinter– –al intervertebral pertaining to between vertebrae Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 86 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  73. 73. Adjective Forms of Bone Namesiliac ilium ischial ischiumcarpal carpus metacarpal metacarpuscervical neck metatarsal metatarsuscostal rib radial radiuscranial cranium sacral sacrumfemoral femur sternal sternumhumeral humerus tarsal tarsus Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 87 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  74. 74. Adjective Forms of Bone Namestibial tibia ulnar ulnaclavicular clavicle maxillary maxillafibular fibula coccygeal coccyxlumbar low back phalangeal phalangesmandibular mandible pelvic pelvispatellar patella pubic pubisscapular scapula thoracic thorax Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 88 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  75. 75. Skeletal System Vocabulary mass of bone tissue that forms at fracture site duringcallus healing solid material to immobilize a fracture; may be made ofcast plaster of Paris or fiberglass practice of treating patients using manipulations of vertebral column; practitioner is a chiropractorchiropractic noise produced by bones or cartilage rubbing togethercrepitationexostosis bone spur Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 89 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  76. 76. Chiropractic Medicine Video Click here to view a video on chiropractic medicine.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 90Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Back to Directory
  77. 77. Skeletal System Vocabularykyphosis abnormal increase in curve of thoracic spine; humpback abnormal increase in forward curvature of lumbar spine;lordosis swayback branch of medicine specializing in diagnosis and treatmentorthopedics of musculoskeletal system; physician is an orthopedist brace or splint used to prevent or correct deformities;orthotic specialist in making is an orthotist Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 91 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  78. 78. Figure 4.13 – Abnormal spinal curvatures: kyphosis, lordosis, and scoliosis. http://www.spinaldoc.com/Anatomy_of_the_Back.php byRiver, NewEducation, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Copyright ©2009 Upper Saddle Pearson Jersey 07458 92Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  79. 79. Skeletal System Vocabulary profession specializing in diagnosis and treatment ofpodiatry disorders of feet and lower leg; practitioner is a podiatrist artificial device to substitute for a missing or damagedprosthesis body part profession specializing in making prostheses; specialist inprosthetics making is a prosthetist Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 93 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  80. 80. Fractures fracture with no open skin wound; also called simpleclosed fracture fractureColles’ fracture common wrist fracture fracture where bone is shattered, splintered, orcomminuted fracture crushed fracture with an open skin wound; also called opencompound fracture fracture fracture with loss of height in vertebral body; oftencompression fracture from osteoporosis Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 94 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  81. 81. Figure 4.14 – A) Open (or compound) and B) closed (or simple) fractures. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 95Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  82. 82. Figure 4.15 – Colles’ fracture. (Charles Stewart and Associates) Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 96Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  83. 83. Fracturesfracture (FX, Fx) broken bone incomplete break; one side of bone is broken, thegreenstick fracture other is bent; common in childrenimpacted fracture bone fragments are pushed into each otheroblique fracture fracture at an angle to bone Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 97 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  84. 84. Figure 4.16 – X-ray showing oblique fracture of the humerus. (Charles Stewart and Associates) Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 98Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  85. 85. Fracturespathologic fracture fracture caused by diseased or weakened bone fracture line spiral around shaft of bone; oftenspiral fracture slower to heal slight fracture caused by repetitive low-impactstress fracture forces like runningtransverse fracture fracture is straight across bone Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 99 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  86. 86. Figure 4.17 – X-ray showing transverse fracture of radius. (James Stevenson/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.) Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 100Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  87. 87. Bone Pathologies cancerous tumor of shaft of long bones; spreads throughEwing’s sarcoma periosteum; amputation is necessary to prevent metastasisosteogenic most common type of bone cancer; begins in osteocytessarcoma softening of bones caused by calcium deficiency; causedosteomalacia in children with insufficient sunlight and vitamin D Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 101 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  88. 88. Bone Pathologies decrease in bone mass; results in thinning andosteoporosis weakening of bones; porous bone easily fractures metabolic disease of bone; unknown cause; results inPaget’s disease bone destruction and deformity caused by calcium and vitamin D deficiency; results inrickets bone deformities like bowed legs Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 102 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  89. 89. Osteoporosis Video Click here to view a video on osteoporosis.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 103Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Back to Directory
  90. 90. Spinal Column Pathologies inflammatory condition resembles rheumatoidankylosing spondylitis arthritis; gradual stiffening and fusion of vertebraeherniated nucleus protrusion of an intervertebral disk; also calledpulposus (HNP) ruptured diskscoliosis lateral curve of spine congenital anomaly; vertebra fails to fully formspina bifida around spinal cord http://www.spinaldoc.com/Anatomy_of_the_Back.php Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 104 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  91. 91. Figure 4.18 – Color enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image demonstrating a herniated nucleus pulposus putting pressure on the spinal cord (see arrows). Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 105Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  92. 92. Figure 4.13 – Abnormal spinal curvatures: kyphosis, lordosis, and scoliosis. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 106Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  93. 93. Spinal Column Pathology narrowing of spinal canal; causes pressure onspinal stenosis spinal cord and nerves forward sliding of lumbar vertebra over vertebraspondylolisthesis below it Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 107 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  94. 94. Joint Pathologybunion inflammation of bursa at base of great toedislocation bones in joint are displaced from normal alignment results in degeneration of bone and joints; bone rubsosteoarthritis (OA) against bonerheumatoid autoimmune inflammation of joints with swelling, stiffness,arthritis (RA) pain; results in joint deformities Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 108 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  95. 95. Figure 4.19 – Patient with typical rheumatoid arthritis contractures. (Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.) Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 109Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  96. 96. Arthritis Video Click here to view a video on arthritis.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 110Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Back to Directory
  97. 97. Skeletal System Pathology damage to ligaments around joint due to overstretching;sprain no dislocation or fracture incomplete dislocation; joint alignment is disrupted, butsubluxation ends of bones remain in contactsystemic lupus autoimmune disease of connective tissue affectingerythematosus many systems including joints; looks like rheumatoid(SLE) arthritistalipes congenital deformity of ankle misalignment; clubfoot Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 111 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  98. 98. Diagnostic Imaging visualizing joint by X-ray after injecting contrastarthrography medium into joint nuclear medicine procedure; radioactive dye is used tobone scan visualize bones; useful for identifying stress fractures and metastasesdual-energy measures bone density using low dose X-ray; detectsabsorptiometry osteoporosis(DXA) Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 112 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  99. 99. Diagnostic Imaging Study of spinal column after injecting opaque contrastmyelography medium; useful for identifying herniated nucleus pulposus uses X-rays to study internal structure of body; especiallyradiography useful for visualizing bones and joints Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 113 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  100. 100. Endoscopic Procedures Examining interior of joint with an arthroscope, a fiberopticarthroscopy camera; view of joint interior appears on monitor during procedure Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 114 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  101. 101. Arthroscopy Video Click here to view a video on arthroscopy.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 115Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Back to Directory
  102. 102. Surgical Procedures removal of a limb for reasons like tumors, gangrene, oramputation crushing injuryarthroscopic performing surgery while using an arthroscope to viewsurgery inside joint bone from another source used to replace boney defectbone graft in another location Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 116 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  103. 103. Surgical Proceduresbunionectomy removal of bursa at base of great toe removal of posterior arch of vertebra to removelaminectomy compression of a spinal nervepercutaneous tube is inserted into intervertebral disk to suck outdiskectomy ruptured disk; may also be done with a laser Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 117 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  104. 104. Surgical Proceduresspinal fusion surgical immobilization of adjacent vertebraetotal hip arthroplasty implanting a prosthetic hip joint(THA)total knee arthroplasty implanting a prosthetic knee joint(TKA) Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 118 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  105. 105. Fracture Care stabilizes fracture while it heals; external fixation includesfixation casts and splints; internal fixation includes pins, plates, and screws realigning bone fragments of fracture; closed reduction isreduction manipulation without surgery; open reduction requires surgery applying a pulling force on fracture or dislocation to restoretraction alignment Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 119 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  106. 106. Figure 4.20 – Prosthetic hip joint.(Lawrence Livermore National Library/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.) Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 120 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  107. 107. Skeletal System Pharmacology reduce the reabsorption ofbone reabsorption bone; treats osteoporosis and Fosamax, Bonivainhibitors Paget’s diseasecalcium supplements that maintainsupplements & bone density; treats Oystercal, Cal-CitrateVitamin D osteomalacia, osteoporosis, &supplements rickets Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 121 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  108. 108. Skeletal System Pharmacology have strong anti-inflammatory prednisone, Medrol,corticosteroids properties; treat rheumatoid Decadron arthritisnonsteroidal anti- provide mild pain relief and anti- Advil, Motrin, Aleve,inflammatory drugs inflammatory benefits; treat Aspirin(NSAIDs) arthritis Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 122 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  109. 109. Skeletal System AbbreviationsAE above elbowAK above kneeBDT bone density testingBE below elbowBK below kneeBMD bone mineral densityC1, C2, etc. first cervical vertebra, etc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 123 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  110. 110. Skeletal System AbbreviationsCa calciumDJD degenerative joint diseaseDXA dual-energy absorptiometryFX, Fx fractureHNP herniated nucleus pulposusJRA juvenile rheumatoid arthritis Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 124 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  111. 111. Skeletal System AbbreviationsL1, L2, etc. first lumbar vertebra, etc.LE lower extremityLLE left lower extremityLUE left upper extremityNSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugOA osteoarthritisORIF open reduction – internal fixation Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 125 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  112. 112. Skeletal System AbbreviationsOrth, ortho orthopedicsRA rheumatoid arthritisRLE right lower extremityRUE right upper extremitySLE systemic lupus erythematosusT1, T2, etc. first thoracic vertebra, etc.THA total hip arthroplasty Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 126 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  113. 113. Skeletal System AbbreviationsTHR total hip replacementTKA total knee arthroplastyTKR total knee replacementUE upper extremity Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 127 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  114. 114. Muscular System at a Glance Function of Muscular System  Individual cells are able to contract or shorten in length  Shortening produces movement Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 128 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  115. 115. Muscular System at a Glance Organs of Muscular System  Muscles Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 129 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  116. 116. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 130Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  117. 117. Muscular System Combining Forms fasci/o fibrous band fibr/o fibers kinesi/o movement muscul/o muscle my/o muscle Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 131 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  118. 118. Muscular System Combining Forms myocardi/o heart muscle myos/o muscle plant/o sole of foot ten/o tendon tend/o tendon tendin/o tendon Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 132 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  119. 119. Muscular System Suffixes –asthenia weakness –kinesia movement –tonia tone Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 133 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  120. 120. Muscular System Prefixes ab– away from ad– towards circum– around Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 134 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  121. 121. Anatomy and Physiology Bundles of parallel muscle tissue fibers Fibers contract  Shorten in length  Produce movement  Move bones closer together  Push food through digestive system  Pump blood through blood vessels Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 135 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  122. 122. Muscles Animation Click here to view an animation on muscles.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 136Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Back to Directory
  123. 123. Types of Muscles Skeletal muscle Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle Voluntary muscles  Consciously choose to contract the muscle  Skeletal muscles Involuntary muscles  Under control of subconscious brain  Smooth muscles and cardiac muscleMedical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 137Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  124. 124. Figure 4.21 – The three types of muscles: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 138Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  125. 125. Skeletal Muscles Attached to bones Produce voluntary movement of skeleton Also referred to as striated muscle  Looks striped under microscope Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 139 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  126. 126. Skeletal Muscles Muscle is wrapped in layers of connective tissue  Called fascia  Tapers at the end to form tendon  Inserts into periosteum to attach muscle to bone Are stimulated by motor neurons  Point of contact with muscle fiber is called myoneural junction Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 140 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  127. 127. Myoneural Junctionhttp://apbrwww5.apsu.edu/thompsonj/Anatomy%20&%20Physiology/2010/2010%20Exam%20Reviews/Exam%203%20Review/CH%2009%20Motor%20Unit%20and%20Neuromuscular%20Junction.htm Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 141 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  128. 128. Figure 4.22 – Characteristics of the three types of muscles. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 142Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  129. 129. Smooth Muscles Associated with internal organs  Also called visceral muscle  Stomach  Respiratory airways  Blood vessels Called smooth because has no microscopic stripes Produces involuntary movement of these organs Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 143 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  130. 130. Figure 4.22 – Characteristics of the three types of muscles. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 144Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  131. 131. Cardiac Muscle Also called myocardium Makes up walls of heart Involuntary contraction of heart to pump blood Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 145 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  132. 132. Figure 4.22 – Characteristics of the three types of muscles. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 146Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  133. 133. Muscle NamesLocation rectus abdominis straight abdominal muscleOrigin and named for its two origins: sternocleidomastoidinsertion sternum and clavicleSize gluteus maximus large buttock muscle Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 147 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  134. 134. Muscle NamesAction flexor carpi muscle that bends the wrist abdominal with fibers runningFiber direction external oblique on an angleNumber ofattachment biceps muscle with two headspoints Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 148 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  135. 135. Skeletal Muscle Actions Skeletal muscles attach to two different bones and overlap a joint When muscle contracts both bones move, but not equally  Origin: less moveable of 2 bones  Insertion: more moveable of 2 bones Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 149 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  136. 136. Skeletal Muscle Actions Action  Type of movement produced by the muscle Antagonistic pairs  Pair of muscles arranged around a joint  Produce opposite actions Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 150 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  137. 137. Joint Movement Animation Click here to view an animation on the movement of joints.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 151Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Back to Directory
  138. 138. Movement Terminologyabduction movement away from midline of bodyadduction movement toward midline of bodyflexion act of bending or being bentextension brings limb into a straight conditiondorsiflexion backward bending of footplantar flexion bending sole of foot; pointing toes Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 152 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  139. 139. Figure 4.23 – Abduction and adduction. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 153Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  140. 140. Humerus Adduction/AbductionAnimation Click here to view an animation on humerus adduction and abduction.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 154Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Back to Directory
  141. 141. Figure 4.24 – Flexion and extension. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 155Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  142. 142. Elbow Flexion/Extension Animation Click here to view an animation on elbow flexion and extension.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 156Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Back to Directory
  143. 143. Figure 4.25 – Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 157Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  144. 144. Ankle Dorsiflexion and PlantarFlexion Animation Click here to view an animation on ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 158Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Back to Directory
  145. 145. Movement Terminologyeversion turning outwardinversion turning inwardpronation turning palm downwardsupination turning palm upwardelevation to raisedepression to drop down Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 159 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  146. 146. Figure 4.26 – Eversion and inversion. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 160Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  147. 147. Ankle Inversion and EversionAnimation Click here to view an animation of ankle inversion and eversion.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 161Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Back to Directory
  148. 148. Figure 4.27 – Pronation and supination. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 162Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  149. 149. Elbow Pronation and SupinationAnimation Click here to view an animation of forearm pronation and supination.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 163Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Back to Directory
  150. 150. Different Circular Movements Circumduction  Movement in circular direction from a central point Opposition  Moving thumb away from palm to contact tip of other fingers Rotation  Moving around a central axis Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 164 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  151. 151. Humerus Circumduction Animation Click here to view an animation of humerus circumduction.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 165Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Back to Directory
  152. 152. Hand Opposition Animation Click here to view an animation of thumb and finger opposition.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 166Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Back to Directory
  153. 153. Humerus Rotation Animation Click here to view an animation of humerus rotation.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 167Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Back to Directory
  154. 154. Word Building with fasci/o and kinesi/o –al fascial pertaining to fascia –itis fasciitis inflammation of fascia –otomy fasciotomy incision into fascia –logy kinesiology study of movement Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 168 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  155. 155. Word Building with muscul/o & myos/o–ar muscular pertaining to musclespoly– –itis polymyositis inflammation of many muscles Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 169 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  156. 156. Word Building with my/o –algia myalgia muscle pain –asthenia myasthenia muscle weakness electr/o electromyogram record of muscle electricity –gram cardi/o –al myocardial pertaining to heart muscle –pathy myopathy muscle disease –plasty myoplasty surgical repair of muscle –rrhaphy myorrhaphy suture a muscle –rrhexis myorrhexis muscle rupture Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 170 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  157. 157. Word Building withten/o, tend/o, and tendin/o–dynia tenodynia tendon pain–plasty tenoplasty surgical repair of tendon–rrhaphy tenorrhaphy suture a tendon–plasty tendoplasty surgical repair of tendon–otomy tendotomy incision into a tendon–itis tendinitis tendon inflammation–ous tendinous pertaining to a tendon Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 171 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  158. 158. Word Building with –kinesia brady– bradykinesia slow movement dys– dyskinesia difficult movement hyper– hyperkinesia excessive movement hypo– hypokinesia insufficient movement Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 172 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  159. 159. Word Building with –tonia a– atonia lack of tone dys– dystonia abnormal tone hyper– hypertonia excessive tone hypo– hypotonia insufficient tone my/o myotonia muscle tone Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 173 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  160. 160. Muscular System Vocabularyadhesion scar tissue in fascia; makes muscle movement difficult poor muscle development; result of muscle disease oratrophy lack of use; muscle wastingcontracture abnormal shortening of muscle fibers, tendons, or fasciahypertrophy increase in muscle bulk from using it Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 174 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  161. 161. Muscle Atrophy Video Click here to view a video on muscle atrophy.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 175Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Back to Directory
  162. 162. Muscular System Vocabularyintermittent attacks of severe pain and lameness caused by muscleclaudication ischemia; usually in calf musclesspasm sudden, involuntary, strong muscle contraction severe neck spasms pulling head to one side; wryneck ortorticollis crick in the neck Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 176 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  163. 163. Muscle Pathology widespread aching and pain in muscles andfibromyalgia soft tissue inflammation of elbow muscles; caused bylateral epicondylitis strong gripping; tennis elbow inherited disease with progressive musclemuscular dystrophy (MD) atrophypseudohypertrophic one type of inherited muscular dystrophy; alsomuscular dystrophy called Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 177 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  164. 164. Muscular Dystrophy Video Click here to view a video on muscular dystrophy.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 178Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Back to Directory
  165. 165. Pathology of Tendons, Muscles, and/orLigaments repetitive motion disorder; compression of fingercarpal tunnel tendons and median nerve as they pass through carpalsyndrome (CTS) tunnel of the wristganglion cyst cyst on tendon sheath; usually on hand, wrist, or ankle chronic disorders involving tendon, muscles, joints, andrepetitive motion nerve damage; tissue is subjected to pressure,disorder vibration, or repetitive movements Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 179 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  166. 166. Carpal Tunnel Video Click here to view a video on carpal tunnel.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 180Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Back to Directory
  167. 167. Pathology of Tendons, Muscles, and/orLigaments joint capsule of shoulder joint is reinforced by tendons;rotator cuff injury high degree of flexibility puts rotator cuff at risk for strain and tearing damage to muscle, tendons, or ligaments due tostrain overuse or overstretching Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 181 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  168. 168. Clinical Laboratory Tests muscle enzyme found in skeletal and cardiac muscle;creatine elevated blood levels indicate muscle damage; seen inphosphokinase (CPK) muscular dystrophy and heart attack Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 182 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  169. 169. Muscular System Diagnostic Proceduresdeep tendon reflexes muscle contraction in response to stretch; used to(DTR) determine if muscles are responding properly study of strength and quality of muscle contractionelectromyography (EMG) in response to electrical stimulationmuscle biopsy removal of muscle tissue for examination Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 183 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  170. 170. Surgical Procedurescarpal tunnel cutting of ligament in wrist to relieve pressure caused byrelease carpal tunnel syndrome surgical stabilization of a joint by anchoring downtenodesis tendons of muscles that move the joint Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 184 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  171. 171. Muscular System Pharmacologyskeletal muscle relax skeletal muscle spasms Flexeril, Somarelaxants Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 185 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht
  172. 172. Muscular System AbbreviationsCTS carpal tunnel syndromeCPK creatine phosphokinaseDTR deep tendon reflexesEMG electromyogramIM intramuscularMD muscular dystrophy Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition 186 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht

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