Introduction to Medical Terminology

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Florida State College of Jacksonville, HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals. Unit 1 - Introduction

Florida State College of Jacksonville, HSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals. Unit 1 - Introduction

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  • 1. Prefixes with More Than a Single Definition a. a-, an- no, not, without, lack of, apart b. ad- toward, near, to c. bi- two, double d. de- down, away from e. di- two, double f. dia- through, between g. dif-, dis- apart, free from, separate h. dys- bad, difficult, painful i. ec-, ecto- out, outside, outer j. end-, endo- within, inner k. ep-, epi- upon, over, above l. eu- good, normal m. ex-, exo- out, away from n. extra- outside, beyond o. hyper- above, beyond, excessive p. hypo- below, under, deficient q. in- in, into, not r. mega- large, great s. meta- beyond, over, between, change t. para- beside, alongside, abnormal u. poly- many, much, excessive v. post- after, behind w. pre- before, in front of x. pro- before, in front of y. super- above, beyond z. supra- above, beyond

Transcript

  • 1. Welcome to …….
    • HSC 1531
    • Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals
    • Spring 2010 Session B 12
    • Reference No. 318972
    • Wednesdays 5:30pm – 9:10pm
    • Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS
  • 2. Introduction to Medical Terminology Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals HSC 1531 Instructor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS, OT/L Florida State College of Jacksonville
  • 3. Introduction to medical terminology
    • Building medical terms from word parts
    • Singular and plural endings
    • Abbreviations
    • The medical record
    • Health care settings
    • Confidentiality
  • 4. Medical Terminology at a Glance
    • Studying medical terminology is like learning a new language
    • Basic rules for building terms will help you both build and translate many different words
    • You must be able to put words together or build words from their parts
      • Like piecing together a puzzle
  • 5. Understanding Medical Terms
    • It is impossible to memorize all of the thousands of medical terms
    • You can distinguish the meaning of many different words by analyzing the word parts
  • 6. Principles of component parts
    • Most of the terms for the body’s organs originated from Latin words, whereas terms describing diseases that affect these organs have their origins in Greek . Many prefixes and suffixes have more than a single definition so one must learn to use the definition that best describes the term.
  • 7. Fundamentals of word structure
    • The fundamental elements in medical terminology
    • are …..
    • the component parts used to build medical words
    • P = Prefix
    • R = Word Root
    • CF = Combining Form
    • S = Suffix
  • 8. Principles of component parts
    • Prefix (p)– means to fix before or to fix to the beginning of a word. A prefix is a syllable or a group of syllables placed at the beginning of a word to alter of modify the meaning of the word to create a new word.
    • Word Root (wr) – a root is a word or word element from which other words are formed. It is the foundation of the word and conveys the central meaning of the word.
  • 9. Principles of component parts
    • Combining Form (cf) – a word root to which a vowel has been added to join the root to a second root or to a suffix. The vowel “o” is the most common vowel used to make combing forms. They are found at the beginning of a word or within a word.
    • Suffix (s) – means to fasten on beneath or under. A suffix may be a syllable or group of syllables united with or placed at the end of a word to alter or modify the meaning of the word or to create a new word.
  • 10. Principles of component parts
    • Prefixes ….
    • with more than a single definition
    • that pertain to position or placement
    • that pertain to number and amount
    • that are descriptive and are used in general
    • Suffixes ….
    • that have more than a single meaning
    • that pertain to pathologic conditions
    • used in diagnostic and surgical procedures
    • that are descriptive and are used in general
  • 11. Identifying medical words
            • Spelling – medical words of Greek origin are often difficult to spell because many begin with a silent letter or have a silent letter within the word. Spelling of all medical words is extremely important because the addition or omission of a single letter may change the meaning of the word.
  • 12. Identifying medical words
    • Spelling Guidelines :
    • … if the suffix begins with a vowel , drop the combining vowel from the combining form and add the suffix.
    • … if the suffix begins with a consonant , keep the combining vowel and add the suffix to the combining form.
    • … keep the combining vowel between two or more roots in a term.
  • 13.
    • Click here to view a movie introducing the parts of a medical term.
    Medical Term Elements Video
  • 14. Medical Terms Are Built from Word Parts
    • Word Part
    • Word root
    • Prefix
    • Suffix
    • Combining form
    • Example (Meaning)
    • cardi ogram (record of the heart )
    • peri cardium ( around the heart)
    • card itis ( inflammation of heart)
    • cardi o my o pathy (heart muscle disease)
  • 15. Word Root
    • Foundation of the term
    • General meaning of word
    • Often gives body system or part
      • cardi = heart
    • Or may be an action
      • cis = to cut
  • 16. Word root
    • Greek Word
    • Kardia (heart)
    • Gaster (stomach)
    • Hepar (liver)
    • Nephros (kidney)
    • Osteon (bone)
    • Word Root
    • Cardi
    • Gastr
    • Hepat
    • Nephr
    • oste
  • 17. Combining Vowels
  • 18. Combining Vowels
  • 19. Combining Vowels
    • Make it possible to pronounce long terms
    • Usually an “o”
    • Combine two word parts:
      • Between two word roots
      • Between word root and suffix
  • 20. Combining Vowel Rules
    • Between word root and suffix
    • If the suffix begins with a vowel
      • Do not use a combining vowel
      • Arthr itis , not arthr oi tis
    • If the suffix begins with a consonant
      • Use a combining vowel
      • Arthro s cope, not arthr s cope
  • 21.
    • Combining vowel is typically kept between two word roots
    • Even if the second word root begins with a vowel
      • gastr oe nteritis, not gastr e nteritis
    Combining Vowel Rules
  • 22. Combining Form
    • Typically used to write word roots
    • Also use the word root/combining vowel format
    • Examples:
      • cardi/o
      • arthr/o
      • gastr/o
  • 23. Common Combining Forms
    • aden/o
      • gland
    • carcin/o
      • cancer
    • cardi/o
      • heart
    • chem/o
    • chemical
    • cis/o
    • to cut
    • dermat/o
    • skin
    • enter/o
    • small intestine
    • gastr/o
    • stomach
    • gynec/o
    • female
    • hemat/o
    • blood
    • hydr/o
    • water
  • 24. Common Combining Forms
    • immun/o
    • immune
    • laryng/o
    • voice box
    • morph/o
    • shape
    • nephr/o
    • kidney
    • neur/o
    • nerve
    • ophthalm/o
    • eye
    • ot/o
    • ear
    • path/o
    • disease
    • pulmon/o
    • lung
    • rhin/o
    • nose
    • ur/o
      • urine , urinary system
  • 25.
    • Added to the front of a term
    • May add meaning such as:
      • location of organ sub – = below
      • number of parts mono – = one
      • time (frequency) post – = after
    Prefix
  • 26.
    • Not all medical terms have a prefix
    • When written by itself, followed by a hyphen
      • intra–
      • hyper–
      • multi–
    Prefix
  • 27. Common Prefixes
    • a–
    • without, away from
    • an–
    • without
    • ante–
    • before, in front of
    • anti–
    • against
    • auto–
    • self
    • brady–
    • slow
    • dys–
    • painful, difficult
  • 28. Common Prefixes
    • endo–
    • within , inner
    • epi–
    • upon, over
    • eu–
    • normal, good
    • hetero–
    • different
    • homo–
    • same
    • hyper–
    • over, above
    • hypo–
    • under, below
  • 29. Common Prefixes
    • infra–
    • under , beneath , below
    • inter–
    • among , between
    • intra–
    • within , inside
    • macro–
    • large
    • micro–
    • small
    • neo–
    • new
    • pan–
    • all
  • 30. Common Prefixes
    • para–
    • beside , beyond , near
    • per–
    • through
    • peri–
    • around
    • post–
    • after
    • pre–
    • before , in front of
    • pseudo–
    • false
    • retro–
    • backward , behind
  • 31. Common Prefixes
    • sub–
    • below , under
    • super–
    • above , excess
    • supra–
    • above
    • tachy–
    • fast
    • trans–
    • through , across
    • ultra–
    • beyond , excess
  • 32. Number Prefixes
    • bi – two
    • hemi – half
    • mono – one
    • multi – many
    • nulli – none
    • poly – many
    • quad – four
    • semi – partial , half
    • tri – three
    • uni – one
  • 33. Suffix
    • Attached to the end of a term
    • Adds meaning such as:
      • condition –algia = pain
      • disease –itis = inflammation
      • procedure –ectomy = surgical removal
    Pg 6
  • 34. Suffix
    • All medical terms must have a suffix
      • Only mandatory word part
    • When written by itself, precede with a hyphen
      • – logy
      • – sclerosis
      • – cyte
  • 35. Common Suffixes
    • – algia
    • pain
    • – cele
    • hernia, protrusion
    • – cise
    • cut
    • – cyte
    • cell
    • – dynia
    • pain
    • – ectasis
    • dilatatio n
    • – gen
    • that which produces
    • – genesis
    • produces, generates
  • 36. Common Suffixes
    • – genic
    • producing
    • – ia
    • state, condition
    • – iasis
    • abnormal condition
    • – logy
    • study of
    • – ism
    • state of
    • – itis
    • inflammation
    • – logist
    • one who studies
    • – lysis
    • destruction
  • 37. Common Suffixes
    • – malacia
    • abnormal softening
    • – megaly
    • enlargement, large
    • – oma
    • tumor, mass
    • – osis
    • abnormal condition
    • – pathy
    • disease
    • – plasia
    • development, growth
    • – plasm
    • formation, development
    • – ptosis
    • drooping
  • 38. Common Suffixes
    • – rrhage
    • excessive , abnormal flow
    • – rrhea
    • discharge, flow
    • – rrhexis
    • rupture
    • – sclerosis
    • hardening
    • – stenosis
    • narrowing
    • – therapy
    • treatment
    • – trophy
    • nourishment, development
  • 39. Adjective Suffixes Pg 7
  • 40. Adjective Suffixes
    • Suffix may be used to convert a word root into a complete word
    • Translation of these suffixes is pertaining to
    • New word can then be used to modify another word
      • The part of speech that modifies a noun or other substantive by limiting, qualifying, or specifying and distinguished in English morphologically by one of several suffixes, such as -able, -ous, -er, and -est, or syntactically by position directly preceding a noun or nominal phrase.
  • 41. Adjective Suffix Example
    • To state that a patient has an ulcer in his stomach:
      • gastr/o = stomach
      • -ic = pertaining to
      • gastric = pertaining to the stomach
      • gastric ulcer = ulcer found in the stomach
  • 42. Adjective Suffixes
    • – ac
    • – al
    • – an
    • – ar
    • – ary
    • – ior
    • – ory
    • – ose
    • – ous
    • – tic
    • – eal
    • – iac
    • – ic
    • – ical
    • – ile
    Pg 7
  • 43. Surgical Suffixes Pg 7
  • 44. Surgical Suffixes
    • – centesis
    • puncture to withdraw fluid
    • – ectomy
    • surgical removal
    • – ostomy
    • surgically create an opening
    • – otomy
    • cutting into
    • – pexy
    • surgical fixation
    • – plasty
    • surgical repair
    • – rrhaphy
    • suture
  • 45. Procedural Suffixes Pg 8
  • 46. Procedural Suffixes
    • – gram
    • record or picture
    • – graph
    • instrument for recording
    • – graphy
    • process of recording
    • – meter
    • instrument for measuring
    • – metry
    • process of measuring
    • – scope
    • instrument for viewing
    • – scopy
    • process of visually examining
  • 47. Word Building
    • Putting together several parts to form a variety of terms to convey the necessary information
    • Begins with knowing the meaning of the various word parts in order to select the correct ones
    • Always remember the rules regarding the location of each word part
  • 48. Let’s dissect a word …… gastroenterology
  • 49. Interpreting Medical Terms
    • Term to be translated …. ( Dissected )
      • gastroenterology
    • Divide the term into its word parts
      • gastr / o / enter / o / logy
  • 50. Interpreting Medical Terms
    • Define each word part
      • gastr = stomach
      • o = combining vowel, no meaning
      • enter = small intestine
      • o = combining vowel, no meaning
      • – logy = study of
    • Combine the meanings of the word parts
      • study of the stomach and small intestine
  • 51. Pronunciation
    • Mispronunciations
    • Artery - the study of fine paintings
    • Barium - what you do when CPR fails
    • Benign - what you are after you be eight
    • Coma - a punctuation mark
    • Morbid - a higher offer
    • Urine - opposite of you’re out
    • Tablet - a small table
    Pg 8
  • 52. Pronunciation
    • Will differ according to place of birth and education
    • When in doubt, ask for spelling
    • New terms in the book are introduced in boldface type, with phonetic spelling in parentheses
    • Stressed syllable will be in capital letters:
      • pericarditis (per ih car DYE tis)
  • 53. Spelling
    • Only one correct way to spell a term
    • Changing one letter can change the meaning of a word
      • abduction
        • (moving away) vs. adduction (moving towards)
      • ileum
        • (small intestine) vs. ilium (hip bone)
    Pg 9
  • 54. Same Sounds Spelled Differently
    • psy psychiatry
    • cy cytology
    • dys dyspepsia
    • dis dislocation
  • 55. Singular and Plural Endings
    • Many medical terms come from Greek or Latin words
    • Rules for forming plurals for these languages are different from English
      • Plural of atrium is atria, not atriums
    • Other words will use English rules
      • Plural of ventricle is ventricles
    Pg 9
  • 56. General Rules for Plurals
  • 57. General Rules for Plurals
  • 58. General Rules for Plurals
    • Word Ends In
    • – a
    • – ax
    • – ex or –ix
    • – is
    • – ma
    • – nx
    • – on
    • – us
    • – um
    • – y
    • Plural
    • vertebrae
    • thoraces
    • appendices
    • metastases
    • sarcomata
    • phalanges
    • ganglia
    • nuclei
    • ova
    • biopsies
    • Singular
    • vertebra
    • thorax
    • appendix
    • metastasis
    • sarcoma
    • phalanx
    • ganglion
    • nucleus
    • ovum
    • biopsy
  • 59. Abbreviations
    • Commonly used to save time
    • Can be confusing
    • If you are concerned about confusion, spell out the term
    • Do not use your own personal abbreviations
    Pg 10
  • 60. The Medical Record
    • Documents details of hospital stay
      • Patient’s day-to-day condition
      • When and what services were provided
      • Response to treatment
    • All personnel with patient contact complete the appropriate report
    • Medical records department ensures that all documents are present, complete, signed, and in order
  • 61. Medical Transcriptionist Video Click here to view a video on the duties of the medical transcriptionist.
  • 62. Common Elements of the Medical Record
    • History and Physical
      • Written by admitting physician
      • Details patient’s:
        • History
        • Exam results
        • Initial diagnosis
        • Physician’s plan of treatment
    • Physician’s Orders
      • Ordered by the doctor
      • Complete list of:
        • Care
        • Medications
        • Tests
        • Treatments
  • 63. Patient Histories Video One Click here to view a video on the correct manner while taking patient histories.
  • 64. Patient Histories Video Two Click here to view a video on the wrong manner while taking patient histories.
  • 65. Common Elements of the Medical Record – Notes
    • Nurse’s Notes
      • Records the patient’s care throughout the day
      • Includes vital signs, treatment specifics, patient’s response to treatment, and patient’s condition
    • Physician’s Progress Notes
      • Daily record of patient’s condition
      • Results of physical exam, summary of test results, updated assessment and diagnoses, further plans for treatment
  • 66. Common Elements of the Medical Record – Reports
    • Consultation Reports
      • Given by a specialist when the physician asks for patient evaluation
    • Ancillary Reports
      • From various treatments and therapies
      • Such as rehabilitation, social services, respiratory therapy, or dietetics
  • 67. Common Elements of the Medical Record – Reports
    • Operative Report
      • From surgeon detailing the operation
      • Includes pre- and post-operative diagnosis
      • Specific details of the procedure and how the patient tolerated the procedure
    • Anesthesiologist’s Report
      • Relates details of drugs given to patient
      • Response to anesthesia
      • Vital signs during surgery
  • 68. Common Elements of the Medical Record – Reports
    • Diagnostic Reports
      • Results of all diagnostic tests performed on the patient
      • From lab to medical imaging
    • Pathologist’s Report
      • Report given by pathologist who studies tissue removed from patient
  • 69. Common Elements of the Medical Record
    • Informed Consent
      • Document voluntarily signed by the patient or responsible party
      • Clearly describes purpose, methods, procedures, benefits, and risks of procedures
    • Discharge Summary
      • Outline of patient’s entire hospital stay
      • Includes condition at admission, admitting diagnosis, test results, treatments, and patient’s response, final diagnosis, and follow-up plans
  • 70. Healthcare Settings
    • Acute Care or General Hospital
      • Provides services to diagnose and treat diseases for a short period of time
    • Specialty Care Hospital
      • Provides care for specific type of disease
      • Example: psychiatric hospital
  • 71. Healthcare Settings
    • Nursing Home or Long-Term Care Facility
      • Provides long-term care for patients who need extra time to recover before going home
      • For persons who cannot care for themselves
    • Ambulatory Care, Surgical Center or Outpatient Clinic
      • For patients who do not need overnight care
      • Simple surgeries, therapy, or diagnostic testing
  • 72. Healthcare Settings
    • Physician’s Office
      • Individual or group of doctors providing diagnostic and treatment services in an office setting
    • Health Maintenance Organization
      • Group of primary care physicians, specialists, and other healthcare professionals
      • Provides wide range of services in a pre-paid system
  • 73. Healthcare Settings
    • Home Health Care
      • Agencies that provide nursing, therapy, personal care, or housekeeping services in patient’s home
    • Rehabilitation
      • Provides physical and occupational therapy
      • Inpatient and outpatient
    • Hospice
      • Organized group of health workers that provide supportive treatment to terminally ill patients and their families
  • 74. Confidentiality
    • Any information or record relating to a patient is privileged
    • Moral and legal responsibility to keep all information private
    • Proper authorization must be signed by patient before any information can be released
    • Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) sets federal standards to protect records
  • 75. HIPAA Video - Confidentiality Click here to view a video describing HIPAA.
  • 76. Introduction to Medical Terminology Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals HSC 1531 Instructor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS, OT/L Florida State College of Jacksonville