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Integumentary System

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Medical Terminology of the Integumentary System

Medical Terminology of the Integumentary System

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    Integumentary System Integumentary System Presentation Transcript

    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDermatology | DermatologistMedical Terminology for Health ProfessionalsMichael L. Whitchurch, MHS“When all the fields around lay bound and hoar,Beneath a thick integument of snow.”Henry David Thoreau(1877-1862), US AuthorIntegumentary SystemETYMOLOGYIntegument comes froma Latin word meaninga covering
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSLearning Objectives1. Identify the structures of the integumentary system.2. Describe the process of an allergic reaction.3. Describe common integumentary diseases and conditions,laboratory and diagnostic procedures, medical and surgicalprocedures, and drug categories.4. Give the medical meaning of word parts related to theintegumentary system.5. Build integumentary words from word parts and divide and defineintegumentary words.6. Spell and pronounce integumentary words.7. Give the medical meaning of word parts related to theintegumentary system.8. Build integumentary words from word parts and divide and defineintegumentary words.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDermatology• The medical specialty that studies the anatomy and physiology ofthe integumentary system and uses diagnostic tests, medical andsurgical procedures, and drugs to treat integumentary diseases.DID YOU KNOWThe skin is the largestorgan in the body.Every minute, you shedBetween 30,000 and40,000 dead skin cellsfrom you body. Over thecourse of your lifetime,you will have shed 40pounds of skin.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy and Physiology• The integumentary system consists of the skin (epidermis anddermis), sebaceous glands, hair, and nails.• Protects the body and is the first line of defense against invadingmicroorganisms• Includes the sense of touchDID YOU KNOWIf your skin could belaid flat, it would coverabout the area of abilliard table.ETYMOLOGYDermis comes from aGreek word meaningskin.__________________Collagen comes froma Greek word meaningglue.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Integumentary System (cont)• Epidermis– This is the thin, outermost layer of the skin.– It contains cells that have no nuclei and arefilled with keratin, a hard, fibrous protein.– These cells form a protective layer, but they aredead cells, so they are constantly being shed orsloughed off in the process known asexfoliation.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Integumentary System• Skin consists of two different layers:– The epidermis is categorized as epithelial tissue and covers the externalsurface of the body.– The epidermis also includes the mucous membranes that line the wallsof internal cavities that connect to the outside of the body.– The dermis is categorized as connective tissue.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Integumentary System• Epidermis– The deepest part (basal layer) of the epidermis is composed of livingcells that are constantly dividing and being forced to the surface(exfoliation).– Does not contain any blood vessels; it receives nutrients and oxygenfrom the blood vessels in the dermis
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Integumentary System• Epidermis– Contains melanocytes, pigment cells that produce melanin, a darkbrown or black pigment that absorbs ultraviolet light from the sun toprotect the DNA in skin cells from undergoing genetic mutations
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSEpidermis and dermis
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Integumentary System (cont)• Dermis– A thicker layer beneath the epidermis– Contains collagen fibers (firm, white protein) and elastin fibers (elastic,yellow protein)– Contains arteries, veins, and neurons (nerve cells), as well as hairfollicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands– A dermatome is a specific area on the skin that sends sensoryinformation to the spinal cord.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDermatomes of the body
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Integumentary System• Sebaceous and Sweat Glands– Sebaceous glands are a type of exocrinegland in the dermis that secrete sebumthrough a duct into a hair follicle.– Also known as oil glands.– Sweat glands are also exocrine glands.– Sweat contains water, sodium, and smallamounts of body waste (urea, ammonia,creatinine).
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Integumentary System• Sebaceous and Sweat Glands– Sweat glands help to regulate the bodytemperature.– The process of sweating and the sweat itself areboth known as perspiration.– The sweat glands are also known as thesudoriferous glands.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Integumentary System• Hair– Covers most of the body– Additional facial, axillary, and pubic hairsappear during puberty.– Forms in a hair follicle in the dermis– Melanocytes give color to the hair.– Hair cells are filled with keratin, whichmakes the hair shaft strong.– Usually, the hair lies flat on the surface ofthe skin, but when the skin is cold, a tinyerector muscle at the base of the hairfollicle contracts and causes the hair tostand up (piloerection).
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Integumentary System• Nails– Cover and protect the distal ends of thefingers and toes– Each nail consists of a nail plate, nail bed,cuticle, lunula, and nail root.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Integumentary System• Subcutaneous Tissues (hypodermis)– A loose, connective tissue directlybeneath the dermis of the skin– Composed of adipose tissue or fat thatcontains lipocytes (fat-storing cells)– Provides a layer of insulation to conserveinternal body heat– Can be thin or as thick as several inches– Subcutaneous layer also acts as acushion to protect the bones and internalorgans
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSPhysiology of an Allergic Reaction• An allergy or allergic reactionis a hypersensitivity responseto certain types of antigensknown as allergens.• Allergens include cells fromplant and animal sources(foods, pollens, molds, animaldander), as well as dust,chemicals, and drugs.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSPhysiology of an Allergic Reaction• The basis of all allergicreactions is the release ofhistamine from basophils inthe blood and mast cells in theconnective tissue.• A local reaction occurs whenan allergen touches the skin ormucous membranes of ahypersensitive individual• Histamine causes redness(inflammation), swelling(edema), irritation, and itching.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSPhysiology of an Allergic Reaction• A systemic reaction occurs when allergens are inhaled oringested by, or injected into, a hypersensitive person, causingsymptoms in several body systems.• Histamine constricts the bronchioles, dilates the blood vesselsthroughout the body, and causes hives on the skin.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSPhysiology of an Allergic Reaction• Anaphylaxis is a severe systemic allergic reaction that can be lifethreatening; it is also known as anaphylactic shock.http://www.scripps.org/articles/3563-anaphylaxis
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnaphylaxis AnimationWatch the Video in the Course Content
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions• General– Dermatitis– Edema– Hemorrhage– Lesionedema
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSInflammation VideoWatch the Inflammation Video in the Course Content.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSEdema
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSTypes of skin lesions.ETYMOLOGYLesion comes from aLatin word meaning toinjure.Cyst comes from aGreek word meaningbladder of fluid filledsac.Macule comes from aLatin word meaning aspot.Papule comes from aLatin word meaningpimple.Pustule comes from aLatin word meaninglittle pimple containingpus.Benign comes from aLatin word meaningkind, not cancerous.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions• Changes in Skin Color– Albinism– Cyanosis– Erythema– Jaundice– Necrosis– Pallor– VitiligoNecrosis and palloMeyer/Custom Medical Stock Photo, IncVitiligo© Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 7-8 Vitiligo© Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions• Skin Injuries– Abrasion– Blister– First-degree burn– Second-degree burn– Third-degree burn– Callus– Cicatrix
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSBurns – Rule of NinesRule of Nines …A method for determining percentageof body burned. Each differentlycolored section represents 9% of thebody surface.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 7-9 Second-degree burn of the handLogical Images, Inc.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSBurn AnimationBack to DirectoryWatch the Inflammation Video in the Course Content.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 7-10 KeloidCustom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions• Skin Injuries– Decubitus ulcer– Excoriation– LacerationLacerationDecubitus ulcer
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDecubitus Ulcer VideoWatch the Inflammation Video in the Course Content.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Condition• Skin Infections– Abscess– Cellulitis– Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1– Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2– Herpes whitlow– Herpes varicella-zoster ShinglesCellulitis HerpesGenitalHerpeshttp://www.howdoeslooklike.com/what-does-herpes-look-like/
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 7-13 ShinglesGill/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Condition• Skin Infections– Tinea Tinea capitis Tinea corporis Tinea cruris Tinea pedis– VerrucaTinea pedisSPL/Photo Researchers, Inc.Verruca
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions• Skin Infestations– Pediculosis– Scabies
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Condition• Allergic Skin Conditions– Contact dermatitis– UrticariaUrticariaContact dermatitisDo you know the difference in the terms ?
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 7-15 Severe contact dermatitisSPL/Photo Researchers, Inc.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions• Benign Skin Markings and Neoplasms– Actinic keratoses– Freckle– Hemangioma– Lipoma– NevusNevusActinic keratosesFreckle
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSStrawberry hemangioma, a birthmark caused by a collection of blood vessels in theskin. (H.C. Robinson/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.)
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 7-17 Nevus
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions• Benign Skin Markings and Neoplasms– Papilloma– Premalignant skin lesions– Senile lentigo– Syndactyly– XanthomaSenile lentigo
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 7-19 Syndactyly
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions• Malignant Neoplasms of the Skin– Cancer of the skin Basal cell carcinoma Malignant melanoma Squamous cell carcinoma– Kaposi’s sarcoma(ISM/Phototake NYC)Kaposi’ssarcomaZevaOelbaum/PeterArnold,Inc.Malignant melanomaBasal cell carcinoma
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSSkin Cancer VideoBack to DirectoryWatch the Inflammation Video in the Course Content.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions• Autoimmune Diseases with Skin Symptoms– Psoriasis– Scleroderma– Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)PsoriasisNMSB/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 7-22 PsoriasisNMSB/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions• Diseases of the Sebaceous Glands– Acne vulgaris– Acne rosacea– Seborrhea
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSComparison of Acne Vulgaris and Acne Rosacearosacea vulgaris
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAcne VideoBack to DirectoryWatch the Inflammation Video in the Course Content.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and ConditionS• Diseases of the Sweat Glands– Anhidrosis– DiaphoresisWhat is the differencebetween these 2 terms ?
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Condition• Diseases of the Hair– Alopecia– Folliculitis– Hirsutism– Pilonidal sinusHirsutismAlopecia
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions (cont)• Diseases of the Nails– Clubbing– Onychomycosis– ParonychiaOnychomycosisLogical Images, Inc./Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 7-25 OnychomycosisLogical Images, Inc./Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSLaboratory and Diagnostic Procedures• Allergy skin testingSIU/Photo Researchers, Inc.
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSLaboratory and Diagnostic Procedure• Culture and sensitivity• RAST• Skin scraping• Tzanck test• Wood’s lamp or lightTzanck smear testhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190962209005106Skin scraping•Culture and sensitivity
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSMedical and Surgical Procedures• Medical Procedures– Botox injections– Collagen injections– CryosurgeryCollageninjectionsCryosurgeryBotox injections
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 7-27 Botox injectionSuzanne Dunn/The Image Works
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSMedical and Surgical Procedures• Medical Procedures– Curettage– Debridement– Electrosurgery– Incision and drainage (I&D)http://youtu.be/LL-4NDj0CygIncision and drainage (I&D)Incisional Wound Debridement (before and after)Electrosurgery
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSMedical and Surgical Procedures• Medical Procedures– Laser surgery– Skin examinationSkin examinationAJ Photo/Photo Researchers, Inc.Laser surgery
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSMedical and Surgical Procedures• Medical Procedures– Skin resurfacing Chemical peel Dermabrasion Laser skin resurfacing Microdermabrasion– SuturingLayered closure with sutures
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSMedical and Surgical Procedures• Surgical Procedures– Biopsy (Bx) Excisional biopsy Incisional biopsy Needle aspiration Punch biopsy• Uses a needle to aspirate the fluid contents in a cyst Shave biopsy• Uses a circular metal cutter to remove a plug-shaped core that includesthe epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSMedical and Surgical Procedures• Surgical Procedures– Dermatoplasty– Liposuctionword parts:dermat/o-plastylip/o-suct-ionLiposuctionJames King-Holmes/D. Mercer/Photo Researchers, Inc
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSMedical and Surgical Procedures• Surgical Procedures– Mohs’ surgery– Rhytidectomy
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSMedical and Surgical Procedures• Surgical Procedures– Skin grafting Autograft Allograft Xenograft Synthetic skin grafts
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 7-31 Skin graftsCourtesy Martin R. Eichelberger, M.D., Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDrug CategoriesThese categories of drugs are used to treat integumentarydiseases and conditions:Anesthetic drugsAntibiotic drugsAntifungal drugsAntipruritic drugsAntiviral drugsCoal tar drugsCorticosteroid drugsDrugs for alopeciaDrugs for infestationsPhotodynamic therapy (PDT)Psoralen drugsVitamin A-type drugs
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSSubcutaneous injection
    • Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAbbreviations