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Eyes and Ears Medical Terminology

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Medical Terminoloy for the Eyes and Ears

Medical Terminoloy for the Eyes and Ears

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  • 1. Multimedia DirectorySlide 13 Eye Anatomy AnimationSlide 3 9 Eye Anatomy ExerciseSlide 46 Conjunctivitis VideoSlide 55Optometrist VideoSlide 6 2 Cataracts VideoSlide 6 3 Macular Degeneration VideoSlide 75Snellen Chart VideoSlide 9 3 Audiology VideoSlide 9 5Ear Anatomy AnimationSlide 109 Ear Anatomy ExerciseSlide 114Inner Ear Anatomy AnimationSlide 12 9 Otitis Media VideoSlide 13 3 Tympanometry VideoSlide 13 6 Audiometry Video
  • 2. Special Senses: The EyeMedical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals Florida State College of Jacksonville Professor: Michael L.Whitchurch, MHS
  • 3. The Eye at a Glance  Function of the Eye  Contains sensory receptors for vision Part 1 Part 2
  • 4. The Eye at a Glance Structures of the Eye  Sclera  Choroid  Retina  Eyeball  Conjunctiva  Eye muscles  Eyelids  Lacrimal apparatus
  • 5. Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 6. Visual Processing of the Cerebrum
  • 7. Anatomy and Physiology Ophthalmology (Ophth) is study of the eye Eyeball  Organ of sight  Transmits external image using sensory impulses via optic nerve to brain  Brain translates sensory impulses into image
  • 8. Anatomy and Physiology External structures important for vision  In addition to eyeball  Eye muscles  Eyelids  Conjunctiva  Lacrimal apparatus
  • 9. The Eyeball Composed of three layers:  Sclera  Choroid  Retina
  • 10. Sclera Outermost layer Tough protective layer Another term for sclera is white of eye Anterior portion is cornea
  • 11. The internal structures of the eye.Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 12. Cornea Anterior portion of sclera Clear, transparent Allows light to enter Bends, or refracts, light rays
  • 13. Figure 13 .1 – The internal structures of the eye. Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 14. Choroid Middle layer Provides blood supply for eye Anterior portion:  Iris  Pupil  Ciliary body
  • 15. Figure 13 .1 – The internal structures of the eye. Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 16. Iris and Pupil Iris  Colored portion of eye  Smooth muscle that changes size of pupil Pupil  Opening in center of iris  Allows light to enter into eyeball
  • 17. Ciliary Body and Lens Lens  Behind iris  Not actually part of choroid layer  Attached to ciliary body Ciliary body  Pulls on edge of lens  Changes shape of lens so it can focus light onto retina
  • 18. Figure 13 .1 – The internal structures of the eye. Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 19. Retina Contains sensory receptor cells that detect light rays Rods  Active in dim light  See gray tones Cones  Active only in bright light  Color vision
  • 20. Figure 13 .1 – The internal structures of the eye. Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 21. Retina Macula lutea  Area of retina where image forms Fovea centralis  Depression in center of macula lutea  High number of cones  Point of clearest vision
  • 22. The internal structures of the eye. Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 23. Optic Disk Point where the optic nerve leaves eyeball Retinal blood vessels enter and leave through optic disk No rods or cones  Results in blind spot in each eye’s field of vision
  • 24. Photograph of the retina of the eye. The optic disk appears yellow and the retinal arteries radiate out from by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Copyright ©2 009 it. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 25. Eye Fluids Aqueous humor  Watery fluid  Located between cornea and lens Vitreous humor  Semi-solid gel  Located between lens and retina
  • 26. The internal structures of the eye. Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 27. Muscles of the Eye Six muscles that connect eyeball to skull  4 rectus muscles pull straight  2 oblique muscles pull on an angle Contract in combination to change direction in which each eye is looking
  • 28. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f4RxYRpIqLs&feature=related The external eye muscles. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 29. Eyelids A pair cover each eyeball Provide protection from foreign particles, injury, sun, and trauma Both upper and lower edges have eyelashes or cilia that protect eye from foreign particles Sebaceous glands located in eyelids secrete a lubricating oil onto surface of eyeball
  • 30. The internal structures of the eye. ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc. CopyrightMedical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 31. Conjunctiva A mucous membrane  Forms continuous covering on underside of each eyelid and across anterior surface of each eyeball  Protects eyeball
  • 32. Figure 13 .1 – The internal structures of the eye. Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 33. Lacrimal Apparatus Lacrimal gland  Located under outer upper corner of each eyelid  Produces tears  Tears wash and lubricate anterior surface of eyeball Lacrimal ducts  Located in inner corner of eye socket  Collect tears  Drain into nasolacrimal duct  Ultimately drain into nasal cavity
  • 34. Figure 13 .5 – The structure of the lacrimal apparatus. Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 35. How We See Light rays pass through:  Cornea  Pupil  Aqueous humor  Lens  Vitreous humor Then strike retina  Stimulating rods and cones
  • 36. The path of light through the cornea, pupil, lens, and striking the retina. Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 37. How We See Upside-down image forms on retina Optic nerve transmits this image to brain Brain turns upside- down image into right-side up image
  • 38. The image formed on the retina is inverted. The brain rights the image as part of the interpretation process. Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 39. Vision Vision requires four mechanisms:  Coordination of external eye muscles so that both eyes move together  Correct amount of light admitted by pupil  Correct focus of light upon retina by lens  Optic nerve transmitting sensory images to brain
  • 40. Eye Vocabularyemmetropia state of normal visionem-ə-trō-pē-əlegally blind severely impaired vision; having 2 0/2 00 acuityNyctalopia difficulty seeing in dim light; also called night blindnessnik-tə-lō-pē-əophthalmology diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the eyeoptician specialist in grinding corrective lenses
  • 41. Eye Vocabulary specializing in examining eyes, testing vision,optometry and prescribing corrective lensesPapilledema swelling of the optic disk; also called chokedpap-əl-ə-’dē-mə diskphotophobia strong sensitivity to bright lightpresbyopia visual loss due to old ageXerophthalmia dry eyeszir-äf-thal-mē-ə,
  • 42. Eyeball Pathologyachromatopsia unable to perceive one or more colors; colorā-krō-mə-täp-sē-ə blindnessmonochromatism unable to perceive one specific coloramblyopia loss of vision not as a result of eye pathology;am-blē-ō-pē-ə commonly called lazy eyecorneal abrasion scraping injury to cornea
  • 43. Eyeball Pathology blurred vision due to uneven cornea; light rays do notastigmatism focus sharply on retina image comes into focus behind retina; can see clearly athyperopia a distance but not up close; also called far sightedness image comes into focus in front of retina; can see clearlymyopia up close but not at a distance; also called nearsightedness
  • 44. Hyperopia (farsightedness). In the uncorrected top figure, the image would come into focus behind the retina, making the image on the retina blurry. The bottom image shows how a biconvex lens corrects this condition. Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 45. Myopia (nearsightedness). In the uncorrected top figure, the image comes into focus in front of the lens, making the image on the retina blurry. The bottom image shows how a biconcave lens corrects this condition. Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 46. Eyeball Pathologycataract damage to lens causing it to become cloudy chronic increase in intraocular pressure; results inglaucoma atrophy of optic nervemacular deterioration of macula lutea area of retinadegeneration
  • 47. Photograph of a person with a cataract in the right eye. Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 48. Cataracts Video Click here to view a video on cataracts.
  • 49. Macular Degeneration Video Click here to view a video on macular degeneration.
  • 50. Eyeball Pathology separation of retina from choroid layer; damages bloodretinal detachment vessels and nerves causing blindness progressive disease in which retina becomes hard andretinitis pigmentosa pigmented, then atrophiesretinoblastoma malignant eye tumor occurring in young children
  • 51. Conjunctiva PathologyPterygium hypertrophied (excessively developed) conjunctivalte-rij-ē-əm tissue in inner corner of eyetrachoma chronic bacterial infection of conjunctiva Pronunciation: te-ˈrij-ē-əm
  • 52. Eyelid Pathology purulent infection of sebaceous gland of eyelid; alsohordeolum called a stye (or sty)
  • 53. Photograph of an infant with strabismus. The left eye is turned inward, called esotropia. (Barts Medical Library/Phototake NYC) ©2 009 byRiver, NewEducation, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Copyright Upper Saddle Pearson Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 54. Brain-related Vision Pathology loss of vision in half of visual field; often result of ahemianopia strokenystagmus jerky involuntary eye movements; indicator of brain injury
  • 55. Eye Examination Tests use of multicolored charts to determine ability tocolor vision tests recognize colorsfluorescein injection of fluorescein dye into bloodstream to observeangiography blood flow within eye applying fluorescein eye drops to cornea to look forfluorescein staining corneal abrasions
  • 56. Eye Examination Test
  • 57. An example of color blindness test. A person with red-green color blindness would not be able to distinguish the green 2 7 from the surrounding red circles. Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 58. Eye ExaminationTestskeratometry measures curvature of corneaophthalmoscopy examination of interior of eye vision test for defect in ability of eye to focus imagerefractive error test on retina; tests for hyperopia and myopiaslit lamp microscopy examining posterior surface of cornea
  • 59. Examination of the interior of the eye using an ophthalmoscope. Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 60. Eye Examination TestsSnellen chart used for testing distance visiontonometry measures intraocular pressurevisual acuity (VA) measures sharpness of vision
  • 61. Surgical Treatments use of extremely cold probe to liftcryoextraction cataract from lensPhacoemulsification use of high-frequency sound waves to liquefy lens with a cataract which is thenfak-ō-i-məl-sə-fə-kā-shən removed with a needle surgical repair of cornea with a corneakeratoplasty transplantenucleation surgical removal of eyeballē-nü-klē-āt
  • 62. Surgical Treatmentslaser-assistedIn-situ keratomileusis correction of myopia using laser surgery to(LASIK) remove corneal tissueker-ət-ō-mil-ü-səsphotorefractive keratectomy use of laser to reshape cornea; treats myopia(PRK) spoke-like incision around cornea to flatten it;radial keratotomy(RK) treats myopia
  • 63. LASIK surgery. The cornea has been lifted in order to reshape it. (Chris Barry/Phototake NYC) Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 64. Surgical Treatmentscryoretinopexy surgical fixation of retina using extreme cold use of laser to destroy very small precise areas oflaser photocoagulation retina placing band around outside of sclera to stabilizescleral buckling detached retinastrabotomy incision into eye muscles to correct strabismus
  • 65. Eye Pharmacologyanesthetic Ocu-Caine, eyedrops to deaden painophthalmic solution Pontocaineantibiotic Del-Mycin, eyedrops to treat bacterial infectionophthalmic solution Ilotycinophthalmic constricts arterioles of eye to Visine, Murinedecongestant reduce redness and itching
  • 66. Eye Pharmacologyantiglaucoma reduces intraocular Betimol, Timopticmedication pressureartificial tears treats dry eyes Akwa Tears, Refresh Plusmiotic constricts pupil Eserine Sulfate, Miostat Atropine-Care, Atropisolmydriatic dilates pupil Ophtalmic
  • 67. The Ear at a Glance Function of the Ear  Contains sensory receptors for hearing and equilibrium (balance)
  • 68. The Ear at a Glance Structures of the Ear  Auricle  External ear  Middle ear  Inner ear
  • 69. Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 70. Ear Suffixes –cusis  hearing –otia  ear condition
  • 71. Anatomy and Physiology Otology (Oto) is study of the ear Audiology is study of hearing disorders Ear responsible for two senses:  Hearing  Equilibrium or sense of balance Sensory information carried to brain by vestibulocochlear nerve  Cochlear nerve – hearing information  Vestibular nerve – balance information
  • 72. The Ear Ear is subdivided into three regions:  External ear  Middle ear  Inner ear
  • 73. External Ear Auricle or pinna  Only portion visible  Captures sound waves  Directs them through external auditory meatus
  • 74. External Ear Auditory canal  Sound moves along canal Cerumen  Produced by oil glands in auditory canal  Oily wax slowly flows out of ear canal removing dirt that has stuck to it
  • 75. External Ear Tympanic membrane  Commonly called eardrum  Sound waves strike membrane  Causes it to vibrate Tympanic membrane separates external ear from middle ear
  • 76. The internal structures of the outer, middle, and inner ear. Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 77. The Middle Ear Small cavity Located in temporal bone of skull Contains three tiny bones called ossicles  Malleus  Incus  Stapes
  • 78. The internal structures of the outer, middle, and inner ear. Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 79. Ossicles Tympanic membrane vibrates incus Vibrations amplify as they move from one ossicle to next Stapes transmits vibration to oval window  Start of inner ear
  • 80. Close-up view of the ossicles within the middle ear. Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 81. Eustachian Tube Also called auditory tube Connects nasopharynx with middle ear Opens with each swallow Equalizes pressure between middle ear cavity and atmospheric pressure
  • 82. The internal structures of the outer, middle, and inner ear. Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 83. The Inner Ear Labyrinth  Cavity within temporal bone  Houses inner ear Contains sensory organs
  • 84. Sensory Organs of Inner Ear Hearing  Cochlea  Organs of Corti Equilibrium  Semicircular canals  Utricle  Saccule
  • 85. The internal structures of the outer, middle, and inner ear. Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 86. How We Hear Sound waves travel down external auditory canal, strike eardrum Eardrum vibrates
  • 87. How We Hear Ossicles conduct vibrations across middle ear from eardrum to oval window Oval window movements initiate vibrations in fluid that fills cochlea
  • 88. How We Hear Fluid vibrations strike hair cells, bending small hairs and stimulating nerve endings Nerve ending sends electrical impulse to brain on cochlear portion of vestibulocochlear nerve
  • 89. The path of sound waves through the outer, middle, and inner ear. Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 90. Inner Ear Anatomy Animation Click here to view an animation on inner ear anatomy.
  • 91. Hearing Loss Conductive Sensorineural hearing loss hearing loss Disease or malformation  Damage or malformation of of outer or middle ear inner ear (cochlea) or the All sound is weaker and cochlear nerve muffled since it is not  Sounds are distorted conducted correctly to because nerve impulse is inner ear incorrect
  • 92. Word Building with acous/o, audi/o &audit/o–tic acoustic pertaining to hearing–gram audiogram record of hearing–meter audiometer instrument to measure hearing–logist audiologist hearing specialist–ory auditory pertaining to hearing
  • 93. Word Building with aur/o, auricul/o,cochle/o and salping/o–al aural pertaining to ear–ar auricular pertaining to ear–ar cochlear pertaining to cochlea–itis salpingitis inflammation of eustachian tube–otomy salpingotomy incision into eustachian tube
  • 94. Word Building with labyrinth/o &myring/o–ectomy labyrinthectomy removal of labyrinth–otomy labyrinthotomy incision into labyrinth–itis myringitis inflammation of eardrum–ectomy myringectomy removal of eardrum–plasty myringoplasty surgical repair of eardrum
  • 95. Word Building with ot/o–algia otalgia ear pain–ic otic pertaining to ear–itis otitis inflammation of ear–logist otologist ear specialist–rrhagia otorrhagia bleeding from ear
  • 96. Word Building with ot/o–scope otoscope instrument to view ear–plasty otoplasty surgical repair of earmyc/o otomycosis abnormal condition of ear fungus–osispy/o otopyorrhea discharge of pus from ear–rrhea
  • 97. Word Building with tympan/o–ic tympanic pertaining to eardrum–itis tympanitis inflammation of eardrum–meter tympanometer instrument to measure eardrum–plasty tympanoplasty surgical repair of eardrum–rrhexis tympanorrhexis ruptured eardrum–otomy tympanotomy incision into eardrum–ectomy tympanectomy removal of eardrum
  • 98. Word Building with –otiamacro– macrotia large earsmicro– microtia small ears
  • 99. Ear VocabularyAmerican Sign nonverbal method of communicating using hands andLanguage (ASL) fingers to represent words and conceptsbinaural referring to both earsmonaural referring to one eardecibel (dB) measures loudness of soundhertz (Hz) measures pitch of sound
  • 100. Ear Vocabulary diagnosis and treatment of diseases of ear,otorhinolaryngology (ENT) nose, and throatpresbycusis normal loss of hearing with age amount of hearing remaining after damage hasresidual hearing occurredtinnitus ringing in earsvertigo dizziness
  • 101. Hearing Loss Pathologyanacusis total absence of hearing; total deafness inability to hear or having some degree of hearingdeafness impairment
  • 102. External Ear PathologyCeruminoma excessive accumulation of earwax forming hard waxsə-rü-mə-nəs plug external ear infection; often by fungus; also calledotitis externa (OE) otomycosis or swimmer’s ear
  • 103. Middle Ear Pathology infection of middle ear; most commonly seen inotitis media (OM) children; watery fluid (serous otitis media) or pus (purulent otitis media) accumulates in middle ear cavity loss of mobility of stapes bone; leads to hearing loss asotosclerosis it cannot vibrate
  • 104. Inner Ear Pathology benign tumor of cochlear nerve; symptoms includeacoustic neuroma tinnitus, headache, dizziness, and hearing loss inner ear infection; causes hearing and equilibriumlabyrinthitis symptoms progressive hearing loss, vertigo, and tinnitus; causesMénière’s disease not well understood
  • 105. Audiology Tests test of hearing ability in regards to both intensity andaudiometry pitch person is able to hear use of a tuning fork placed either next to ear orRinne & Weber against skull to assess both nerve and bonetuning fork tests conduction of sound
  • 106. Otology Testsotoscopy examination of ear canal and eardrum measurement of movement of tympanic membranetympanometry to asses pressure inside middle ear
  • 107. An otoscope, used to visually examine the external auditoryMedical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition tympanic membrane. Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 ear canal and Copyright ©2 009 by Pearson Education, Inc. UpperBonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 108. Audiometry Video Click here to view a video on audiometry.
  • 109. Balance Tests assesses equilibrium; balancing on one foot withfalling test eyes open and then closed
  • 110. Audiology Procedureshearing aid mechanical device used to amplify sound
  • 111. Surgical Treatments mechanical device surgically placed behind outer ear; converts sound into magnetic impulses tocochlear implant stimulate auditory nerve; treats sensorineural hearing lossMyringotomy incision into eardrum to drain fluid accumulated inmir-ən-gät-ə-mē middle ear cavitypressure equalizing surgical placement of tube in eardrum to allow fortube (PE tube) continuous drainage of fluid from middle ear cavitystapedectomy replacement of damaged stapes
  • 112. Photograph of a child with a cochlear implant. by Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright ©2 009 Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  • 113. Ear Pharmacologyantibiotic otic eardrops to treat otitis externa Neomycin, Otocortsolution treats nausea associated with Antivert,antiemetics vertigo Compazineanti-inflammatory reduces inflammation and itching Allergan Ear Dropsotic solution of otitis externawax emulsifiers softens ear wax Debrox Drops