Digestive System Terminology

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  • The wording in Fig. 3-4 needs to be revised. See text page 3-126.
  • H subscript 2, not H2
  • Digestive System Terminology

    1. 1. Medical TerminologyMedical TerminologyCopyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDigestive SystemGastroenterology
    2. 2. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSLearning Objectives1. Identify the structures of the gastrointestinal system.2. Describe the process of digestion.3. Describe common gastrointestinal diseases and conditions,laboratory and diagnostic procedures, medical and surgicalprocedures, and drug categories.4. Give the medical meaning of word parts related to thegastrointestinal system.5. Build gastrointestinal words from word parts and divide anddefine gastrointestinal words.6. Spell and pronounce gastrointestinal words.7. Analyze the medical content and meaning of agastroenterology report.
    3. 3. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSGastroenterology• The medical specialty that studies the anatomy andphysiology of the gastrointestinal system and uses• diagnostic tests• medical and surgical procedures and• drugs to treat gastrointestinal diseases
    4. 4. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy and Physiology• Gastrointestinal System– Begins at the mouth, continues through thethoracic cavity, and fills most of the abdominalcavity– Upper gastrointestinal system includes the Structures from the mouth through the stomach– Lower gastrointestinal system includes the Small and large intestines– Purpose is to digest food absorb nutrients and … remove undigested material (waste) from the body
    5. 5. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Gastrointestinal System• Begins here… the Oral Cavity
    6. 6. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Gastrointestinal System• Oral Cavity and Pharynx– Begins in the mouth, ororal cavity– Oral cavity contains theteeth; tongue; hard palate;and soft palate with itsfleshy, hanging uvula.– Receptors on the tongueperceive taste and sendthis information to thegustatory cortex in thebrain.
    7. 7. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSOral cavity terms
    8. 8. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Gastrointestinal System• Oral Cavity and Pharynx– Lined with mucosa, a mucous membranethat produces thin mucus.– The sight, smell, and taste of food cause thesalivary glands to release saliva into themouth; this moistens foods as they arechewed and swallowed.– Saliva also contains an enzyme that beginsthe process of digestion.
    9. 9. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Gastrointestinal System• Oral Cavity and Pharynx– There are three pairs of salivary glands:the parotid glands, the sublingual glands,and the submandibular glands.– The teeth tear, chew, and grind the foodduring the process of mastication.– The tongue moves food toward the teethand mixes food with saliva.
    10. 10. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 3-3 Salivary glands
    11. 11. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Gastrointestinal System• Oral Cavity and Pharynx– Swallowing or deglutitionmoves food into the throat orpharynx.– When food is swallowed, theepiglottis closes the entranceto the larynx, so that food inthe back of the throat, pressingon the uvula, does not initiatethe gag reflex.
    12. 12. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSEpiglottisepiglottis
    13. 13. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 3-2 Oral cavity and pharynx
    14. 14. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Gastrointestinal System• Esophagus– A flexible, muscular tube thatconnects the pharynx to thestomach.– Lined with mucosa thatproduces mucus.– By coordinated musclecontractions of the esophagealwall begin the process ofperistalsis moving food towardthe stomach.
    15. 15. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Gastrointestinal System• Stomach– A large, elongated sac in theupper abdominal cavity thatreceives food from theesophagus.– Divided into four areas: thecardia, fundus, body, and pylorus.– The gastric mucosa is arranged inthick, deep folds known as rugaewhich expand as the stomach fillswith food.
    16. 16. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Gastrointestinal System• Stomach– The mucosa produces mucusthat protects the lining of thestomach from the acid thestomach produces.– Two sphincters (muscular rings)keep food in the stomach.– The lower esophageal sphincteris located in the distalesophagus.
    17. 17. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Gastrointestinal System• Stomach– The pyloric sphincter is located inthe distal end of the stomach.– Chyme is a semisolid mixture ofpartially digested food, saliva, anddigestive juices in the stomach.
    18. 18. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 3-4 Stomach
    19. 19. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Gastrointestinal System• Small Intestine– The small intestine is along, hollow tube thatreceives chyme from thestomach.– It is divided into three parts: duodenum jejunum and ileum
    20. 20. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 3-5 Small and large intestines
    21. 21. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Gastrointestinal System• Large Intestine– A larger, hollow tube that receivesundigested material and waterfrom the small intestine.– Consists of the cecum colon rectum and anus– The walls contain haustra(puckered pouches) that cangreatly expand, as needed.
    22. 22. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Gastrointestinal System• Large Intestine– Waves of peristalsis slowly moveundigested material through thelarge intestine as water isabsorbed through the intestinalwall and into the blood.– The colon is the longest part. It travels through all four quadrantsof the abdomen as the• ascending colon• transverse colon• descending colon and• sigmoid colon
    23. 23. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Gastrointestinal System• Large Intestine– The sigmoid colon bends towardthe midline in an S-shaped curvethat joins the rectum.– The rectum is a short, straightsegment that connects to theoutside of the body.– The anus, the external opening ofthe rectum, is located between thebuttocks.– The anal sphincter is a muscularring whose opening and closingis under conscious, voluntarycontrol.
    24. 24. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Gastrointestinal System• Abdomen and Abdominopelvic Cavity– The peritoneum extends into the center ofthe abdominopelvic cavity as theomentum.– The omentum supports the stomach andhangs down as a fatty apron to cover andprotect the small intestine.– The peritoneum also extends as themesentery, a thick, fan-shaped sheet thatsupports the jejunum and ileum.
    25. 25. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Gastrointestinal System• Abdomen and Abdominopelvic Cavity– Contains the largest organs of the gastrointestinal system.– The walls of the abdominopelvic cavity are lined by peritoneum,a membrane that secretes peritoneal fluid.– This watery fluid fills the spaces between the organs and allowsthem to slide past each other during the movements of digestion.
    26. 26. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Gastrointestinal System• The blood supply to thestomach, small intestine,liver, gallbladder, andpancreas comes from theceliac trunk of the aorta, thelargest artery in the body.
    27. 27. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Gastrointestinal System• Liver– The liver is the largest solid organin the body, located in the upperright abdominal cavity.– An accessory organ of digestionthat contributes to, but is notphysically involved in, the processof digestion.– Liver cells (hepatocytes)continuously produce bile, ayellow-green, bitter-tasting, thickfluid.
    28. 28. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Gastrointestinal System• Liver– Bile produced by the liver flowsthrough the hepatic ducts, throughthe common hepatic duct, and theninto either the cystic duct to thegallbladder or the common bileduct.– All of the ducts that carry bile arecollectively known as the biliarytree.
    29. 29. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 3-6 Biliary tree
    30. 30. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Gastrointestinal System• Gallbladder– An accessory organ of digestionposterior to the liver.– Concentrates and stores bile fromthe liver.– The presence of fatty chyme in theduodenum causes the gallbladderto contract, sending bile into thecommon bile duct and duodenumto digest fats.
    31. 31. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAnatomy of the Gastrointestinal System• Pancreas– An accessory organ of digestionposterior to the stomach.– Presence of food in theduodenum causes the pancreasto secrete digestive enzymes intothe pancreatic duct to theduodenum.– Also functions as an organ of theendocrine system.
    32. 32. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSPhysiology of Digestion• There are two parts to digestion:– Mechanical– Chemical• Mechanical digestion usesmastication, deglutition, andperistalsis to break down foods.• Mechanical digestion also involvesbreaking apart fats in theduodenum.
    33. 33. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSPhysiology of Digestion• Fatty chyme stimulates theduodenum to secrete the hormonecholecystokinin, which stimulatesthe gallbladder to contract andrelease bile.• Bile breaks apart large globules offat during the process ofemulsification.• Chemical digestion uses enzymesand acid to break down foods.
    34. 34. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSPhysiology of Digestion• The enzyme amylase in salivabegins to break down carbohydratefoods in the mouth.• The stomach secretes the followingsubstances that continue theprocess of chemical digestion:– Hydrochloric acid– Pepsinogen– Gastrin
    35. 35. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSPhysiology of Digestion• The stomach secretes asubstance known as intrinsicfactor, which helps vitamin B12 beabsorbed from the intestine intothe blood.• When the stomach does notproduce enough intrinsic factor,vitamin B12 is not absorbed.
    36. 36. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS• Chemical digestion is completed inthe small intestine.• Cholecystokinin stimulates thepancreas to secrete four digestiveenzymes into the duodenum:– Amylase– Lipase– Other enzymes that break down proteinsPhysiology of Digestion
    37. 37. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS• The villi of the small intestine produce the digestiveenzymes such as lactase to break down sugars.Physiology of DigestionYour small intestine is lined with tiny hair-like projections called villi, which work toabsorb vitamins, minerals and other nutrients from the food you eat… Mayo Clinic
    38. 38. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSIntestinal Villi
    39. 39. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS• Absorption of nutrients and waterthrough the intestinal wall into theblood takes place mainly in theduodenum and jejunum.• Absorption of water continues in thelarge intestine.• Absorbed nutrients are carried byblood in the portal vein to the liver.Physiology of Digestion
    40. 40. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS• The liver plays an important role inregulating nutrients such as glucoseand amino acids.• Excess glucose in the blood isstored in the liver as glycogen andreleased when the blood glucose levelis low.• The liver uses amino acids to buildplasma proteins and clotting factorsfor the blood.Physiology of Digestion
    41. 41. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS• Elimination occurs whenundigested materials andwater are eliminated from thebody in a solid waste form offeces or stool.• The process of elimination isa bowel movement ordefecation.Physiology of Digestion
    42. 42. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 3-7 Gastrointestinal system.(Robert W. Ginn/PhotoEdit Inc.)
    43. 43. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions• Eating– Anorexia– Dysphagia– Polyphagia
    44. 44. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions• Mouth and Lips– Cheilitis– Sialolithiasis– Stomatitis– GlossitisFigure 3-8 Glossitis(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]
    45. 45. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 3-8 Glossitis(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC])
    46. 46. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions• Esophagus and Stomach– Dyspepsia– Esophageal varices– Gastritis– Gastroenteritis– Gastroesophageal reflux disease(GERD)
    47. 47. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 3-9 Esophageal varix(David M. Martin, M.D./Photo Researchers, Inc.)
    48. 48. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions• Esophagus and Stomach– Heartburn– Hematemesis– Nausea and vomiting (N&V)– Peptic ulcer disease (PUD)– Stomach cancer
    49. 49. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSGastric UlcerFigure 8.11B – Photomicrograph of a gastric ulcer.(Dr. E. Walker/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.)
    50. 50. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 3-10 Gastric ulcer(David M. Martin, M.D./Photo Researchers, Inc.)
    51. 51. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions (cont)• Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum– Ileus– Intussusception– Volvulus
    52. 52. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSVolvus
    53. 53. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSIntussusception
    54. 54. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions• Cecum and Colon– Appendicitis– Colic– Colon cancer– Diverticulum– DysenteryFigure 3-12 Diverticula(David M. Martin, M.D./Photo Researchers, Inc.)
    55. 55. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiverticulum
    56. 56. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 3-13 Diverticulitis and polyposis
    57. 57. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSColon polypPhotograph showing a polyp in the colon.(ISM/Phototake NYC)
    58. 58. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions• Cecum and Colon– Gluten enteropathy– Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)– Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)– PolypFigure 3-15 Colonic polyps(Staats/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.)
    59. 59. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 3-14 Crohn’s disease
    60. 60. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 3-15 Colonic polyps(Staats/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.)
    61. 61. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions• Rectum and Anus– Hemorrhoids– Proctitis– Rectocele• Defecation and Feces– Constipation– Diarrhea– Flatulence– Hematochezia– Incontinence– Steatorrhea
    62. 62. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions• Abdominal Wall and Abdominal Cavity– Adhesions– Hernia– PeritonitisFigure 3-17 Peritonitis(Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.)
    63. 63. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 3-16 Hernia(From Rudolph, A.M., Hoffman, J.I.E., & Rudolph, C.D. (Eds.) 1991. Rudolph’s Pediatrics. (19th ed., p. 1040))
    64. 64. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSHiatal HerniaHiatal Hernia: protrusion of stomachthrough diaphragm into thoracic cavity; alsocalled diaphragmatocele
    65. 65. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSInguinal HerniaA protrusion of a loop of bowelthrough abdominal muscle andinto groin region; may becomeincarcerated or strangulated ifmuscle pinches the loop ofbowel
    66. 66. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions• Liver– Ascites– Cirrhosis– HepatitisFigure 3-18 Fatty liver disease and cirrhosis of theliver(Arthur Glauberman/Photo Researchers, Inc.)
    67. 67. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions• Hepatitis is the most common chronic liver disease.– Hepatitis A (http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hepatitis-a/DS00397)– Hepatitis B (http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hepatitis-b/DS00398)– Hepatitis C (http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hepatitis-c/DS00097 )– Hepatitis D secondary infection from mutated virus only in those with B– Hepatitis E similar to B
    68. 68. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions• Hepatitis A is an acute but short-lived infectioncaused by exposure to water or food that iscontaminated with feces from a person who isinfected with the hepatitis A virus (HAV).
    69. 69. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS• Hepatitis B is an acute infection causedby exposure to the blood of a personwho is already infected with the hepatitisB virus (HBV); it is also known as serumhepatitis.• It is also spread during sexual activity bycontact with saliva and vaginalsecretions.• An infected mother can pass hepatitis Bto her fetus before birth or whenbreastfeeding.Diseases and Conditions
    70. 70. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS• Hepatitis C is an acute infection caused byexposure to the blood of a person who isalready infected with the hepatitis C virus(HCV).• Hepatitis C is not readily transmitted bysexual activity or from a mother to herfetus.• Chronic hepatitis C is the main cause ofchronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and livercancer.Diseases and Conditions
    71. 71. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS• Hepatitis D is a secondaryinfection caused by a mutated(changed) hepatitis virus.• Hepatitis D only develops inpatients who already havehepatitis B; it is also known asdelta hepatitis.• Hepatitis E is similar tohepatitis A but rarely occurs inthe United States.Diseases and Conditions
    72. 72. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS
    73. 73. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS• Hepatomegaly• Jaundice• Liver CancerDiseases and ConditionsFigure 3-20 Jaundice(Dr. M.A. Ansary/Photo Researchers, Inc.)
    74. 74. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 3-21 Liver cancer(Gca/Photo Researchers, Inc.)
    75. 75. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions• Gallbladder and Bile Ducts– Cholangitis– Cholecystitis– CholelithiasisFigure 3-22 Cholelithiasis(Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.)Figure 3-23 Gallstones in the biliary andpancreatic ducts
    76. 76. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDiseases and Conditions (cont)• Pancreas– Pancreatic cancer– Pancreatitis
    77. 77. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSLaboratory and Diagnostic Procedures• Blood Tests– Albumin– Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)– ALT and AST– Bilirubin– GGT– Liver function tests (LFTs)• Gastric and Feces Specimen Tests– CLO test– Culture and sensitivity (C&S)– Fecal occult blood test– Gastric analysis– Ova and parasites (O&P)
    78. 78. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS• Radiologic Procedures– Barium enema– CholangiographyLaboratory and Diagnostic ProceduresFigure 3-24 Barium enema(Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.)
    79. 79. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSBarium enemaFigure 8.18 – Color enhanced X-ray of the colon taken during a barium enema.(CNRI/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.)Can you recognize andname the structures inthe image ?
    80. 80. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS• Radiologic Procedures– Computerized axial tomography (CAT, CT scan)– Flat plate of the abdomen– Gallbladder ultrasoundLaboratory and Diagnostic Procedures
    81. 81. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS• Radiologic Procedures– Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan– Oral cholecystography (OCG)Laboratory and Diagnostic ProceduresOral cholecystogram Penn Medicinehttp://www.pennmedicine.org/encyclopedia/em_PrintArticle.aspx?gcid=003821&ptid=1Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI
    82. 82. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS• Radiologic Procedures– Upper gastrointestinal series (UGI)Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures
    83. 83. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSMedical and Surgical Procedures• Medical Procedures– Insertion of nasogastric tubeFigure 3-26 Nasogastric tube(Pearson Education/PH College)
    84. 84. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSMedical and Surgical Procedures• Surgical Procedures– Abdominocentesis– Appendectomy– Biopsy– Bowel resection and anastomosis– Cholecystectomy– CholedocholithotomyFigure 3-27 Laparoscopic cholecystectomy(Geoff Tompkinson/Photo Researchers, Inc.)
    85. 85. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSMedical and Surgical Procedures• Surgical Procedures– Colostomy– Endoscopy– Exploratory laparotomyFigure 3-28 Colostomy and stoma (Pearson Education/PH College)
    86. 86. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSMedical and Surgical Procedures (cont)• Endoscopic Procedures– Esophagoscopy– Gastroscopy– Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)– Sigmoidoscopy– ColonoscopyEndoscopic procedures http://www.northshore.org/gastroenterology/advanced-therapeutic-endoscopy-program/about-endoscopy/
    87. 87. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 3-25 Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
    88. 88. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSFigure 3-29 Colonoscopy(BSIP/Phototake NYC)Sigmoidoscopy
    89. 89. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSMedical and Surgical Procedures• Surgical Procedures– Gastrectomy– Gastroplasty– Gastrostomy– HemorrhoidectomyFigure 3-30 PEG tube - percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
    90. 90. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSMedical and Surgical Procedures• Surgical Procedures– Herniorrhaphy– Jejunostomy– Liver transplantation– PolypectomyMedline Plus Liver Transplant: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003006.htm
    91. 91. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSDrug Categories• These categories of drugs are used to treatgastrointestinal diseases and conditions:– Antacid drugs– Antibiotic drugs– Antidiarrheal drugs– Antiemetic drugs– H2 blocker drugs– Laxative drugs– Proton pump inhibitor drugs
    92. 92. Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHSAbbreviations

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