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Ch04 ln no-crs_respiratory_wo video

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    • 1. Pulmonary System | Pulmonology Pulmon/o -ary, - logy, - logist Medical Terminology for Health Professionals Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 2. Learning Objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Identify the structures of the respiratory system. Describe the process of respiration. Describe common respiratory diseases and conditions, laboratory and diagnostic procedures, medical and surgical procedures, and drug categories. Give the medical meaning of word parts related to the respiratory system. Build respiratory words from word parts and divide and define respiratory words. Spell and pronounce respiratory words. Analyze the medical content and meaning of a pulmonology report. Analyze the medical content and meaning of a pulmonology report. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 3. Pulmonology • The medical specialty that studies the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system and uses diagnostic tests, medical and surgical procedures, and drugs to treat respiratory diseases. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 4. Anatomy and Physiology • Consists of the right and left lungs and the air passageways that connect the lungs to the outside of the body • The upper respiratory system is in the head and neck and includes the nose, nasal cavity, and pharynx (throat). • The upper respiratory system shares structures with the ears, nose, and throat (ENT) system. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 5. Anatomy and Physiology • The lower respiratory system is in the neck and thoracic cavity and includes the larynx (voice box), – trachea (windpipe), – bronchi, bronchioles, and – alveoli (in the lungs). • The lungs fill much of the thoracic cavity. • Brings oxygen into the body and expels the waste product carbon dioxide What is the difference between bronchi and bronchioles ? Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 6. Anatomy of the Respiratory System • Nose and Nasal Cavity – The nose contains the nasal cavity, which is divided in the center by the nasal septum. – Each side of the nasal septum has three long, bony projections: the superior, middle, and inferior turbinates, or nasal conchae, which jut into the nasal cavity and slow down inhaled air so that it can be warmed and moistened. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 7. Anatomy of the Respiratory System • The nasal cavity is lined with mucosa, a mucous membrane that humidifies the air and produces mucus. • Mucus and hairs in the nose trap inhaled particles of dust, pollen, smoke, and bacteria and keep them from entering the lungs. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 8. Figure 4-2 Nasal cavity Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 9. Anatomy of the Respiratory System • Pharynx – Mucous membranes of the pharynx warm and moisten inhaled air and trap particles. – A common passageway for inhaled air, exhaled air, and food. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 10. Anatomy of the Respiratory System • Larynx – At its inferior end, the pharynx divides into two parts: the larynx which leads to the trachea; and the esophagus which leads to the stomach. – Remains open during respiration and speech, allowing air to pass in and out through the vocal cords. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 11. Anatomy of the Respiratory System Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 12. Anatomy of the Respiratory System • Larynx – During swallowing, muscles in the neck pull the larynx up to meet the epiglottis, which seals off the larynx, so that swallowed food moves across the epiglottis and into the esophagus, not into the trachea. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 13. Anatomy of the Respiratory System • Trachea – Below the vocal cords, the larynx merges into the trachea, which is about 1 inch in diameter and 4 inches in length. – A passageway for inhaled and exhaled air – A column of C-shaped rings of cartilage provide support to the trachea. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 14. Anatomy of the Respiratory System • Trachea – On the posterior surface where there is no cartilage, the trachea is flexible and can flatten to make room when food passes through the esophagus. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 15. Anatomy of the Respiratory System • Bronchi – The trachea ends at the top of the inverted Y of the right and left primary bronchi. – The primary bronchi have cartilage rings that provide support. – Each primary bronchus enters a lung and branches into smaller bronchioles. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 16. Anatomy of the Respiratory System • Bronchi – The smallest bronchioles (diameter 1 mm or less) have smooth muscle around them, but no cartilage. – The lumen is the central opening in the bronchi and bronchioles through which air passes. – Bronchopulmonary refers to the bronchi and the lungs. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 17. Anatomy of the Respiratory System • Bronchi – The bronchial tree includes the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. – The bronchial tree is lined with cilia, small hairs that move in coordinated waves to carry mucus and trapped particles toward the throat where they can be expelled. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 18. Figure 4-4 Trachea, lung, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 19. Anatomy of the Respiratory System • Lungs – Spongy, air-filled structures – Each lung contains lobes, large divisions whose dividing lines are visible on the outer surface of the lung. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 20. Anatomy of the Respiratory System • Lungs – The right lung, which is larger, has three lobes:  The right upper lobe (RUL)  The right middle lobe (RML)  The right lower lobe (RLL) – The left lung has two lobes:  The left upper lobe (LUL)  The left lower lobe (LLL) What organ is in between these lungs ? Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 21. Anatomy of the Respiratory System • Lungs – The rounded top of each lung is the apex. – The base of each lung lies along the diaphragm. – A bronchus enters the lung at the hilum (an indentation on the medial surface of the lung). – Inside the lung, the bronchus branches into bronchioles, which branch into alveoli. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 22. Anatomy of the Respiratory System • Lungs – Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the alveolus and a nearby small blood vessel (capillary). – Alveolus secretes surfactant, a protein-fat compound that reduces surface tension and keeps the walls of the alveolus from collapsing with each exhalation. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 23. Anatomy of the Respiratory System • Thoracic Cavity – The thorax is a bony cage that consists of the sternum (breast bone), the ribs, and the spinal column; it surrounds and protects the thoracic cavity. – The mediastinum, an irregularly shaped area between the lungs, contains the trachea (and the heart and esophagus). Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 24. Figure 4-5 Diaphragm and pleura Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 25. Anatomy of the Respiratory System • Thoracic Cavity – The diaphragm, a sheet of skeletal muscle, is active during normal or forceful inhalation. – Intercostal muscles pull the ribs up and out, or down and in, during forceful inhalation/exhalation. – Each lung is surrounded by the pleura, a double-layered serous membrane. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 26. Anatomy of the Respiratory System • Thoracic Cavity – The visceral pleura is the layer next to the lung surface, while the parietal pleura is the layer next to the wall of the thorax. – The pleura secretes pleural fluid, a slippery, watery fluid that allows the two layers to slide smoothly past each other as the lungs expand and contract during respiration. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 27. Physiology of Respiration • • • Respiration consists of breathing in and breathing out. Breathing in is inhalation or inspiration. Breathing out is exhalation or expiration. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 28. Physiology of Respiration • • • Breathing is normally an involuntary process. The respiratory control centers in the brain regulate the depth and rate of respiration. Receptors in large arteries in the chest and neck send these centers information about the blood level of oxygen; receptors in the brain send information about the blood level of carbon dioxide. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 29. Physiology of Respiration • The respiratory control centers send nerve impulses to the phrenic nerve, causing the diaphragm to contract and begin inspiration. • A normal depth and rate of respiration is known as eupnea. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 30. Physiology of Respiration (con't) • Respiration involves five separate processes: – – Ventilation ― Movement of air in and out of the lungs External respiration ― Movement of oxygen from the alveoli into the blood and movement of carbon dioxide from the blood into the alveoli – – – Gas transport ― Blood transports oxygen and carbon dioxide; oxygenated blood travels from lungs to heart, where it is pumped throughout the body Internal respiration ― Movement of oxygen from blood into cells and movement of carbon dioxide from cells into blood Cellular respiration ― Oxygen is used by the cells to produce energy in the process of metabolism Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 31. Figure 4-7 Gas exchange Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 32. Diseases and Conditions • Nose and Pharynx – Upper respiratory infection (URI) • Trachea, Bronchi, and Bronchioles – Asthma – Bronchitis – Bronchiectasis Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 33. Diseases and Conditions • Lungs – Abnormal breath sounds – Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) – Atelectasis – Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 34. Rhonchi Lung Sounds Click on the screenshot to view an animation on the topic of lung sounds. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Back to Directory Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 35. Stridor Lung Sounds Click on the screenshot to view an animation on the topic of lung sounds. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Back to Directory Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 36. Vesicular Lung Sounds Click on the screenshot to view an animation on the topic of lung sounds. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Back to Directory Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 37. Diseases and Conditions • Lungs – – – – Cystic fibrosis (CF) Emphysema Influenza Legionnaire’s disease Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 38. Diseases and Conditions • Lungs – Lung cancer – Occupational lung diseases St. Bartholomew’s Hospital/Photo Researchers, Inc. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 39. Figure 4-12 Tar deposits in the lungs (James Stevenson/Photo Researchers, Inc.) Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 40. Diseases and Conditions • Lungs – – – – – – – – – Aspiration pneumonia (Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.) Bacterial pneumonia Bronchopneumonia Double pneumonia Lobar pneumonia Pneumococcal pneumonia Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia Viral pneumonia Walking pneumonia Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 41. Figure 4-14 Pneumonia (Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.) Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 42. Diseases and Conditions • Lungs – – – – Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) Pulmonary edema Pulmonary embolism Tuberculosis (TB) Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 43. Diseases and Conditions • Pleura and Thorax – – – – Hemothorax Pleural effusion Pleurisy Pneumothorax http://images.medicinenet.com/images/illustrations/pneumothorax.jpg Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 44. Diseases and Conditions • Respiration – – – – – – Apnea Bradypnea Cough Dyspnea Orthopnea Tachypnea Do you know what –pnea means ? … You should already recognize the prefixes Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 45. Diseases and Conditions • Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Levels – – – – – Anoxia Asphyxia Cyanosis Hypercapnia Hypoxemia Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 46. Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures • • • • Arterial blood gases (ABG) Carboxyhemoglobin Oximetry Pulmonary function test (PFT) (O’Brien/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.) (BSIP/Phototake NYC) Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 47. Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures • Sputum culture and sensitivity (C&S) • Tuberculosis tests Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 48. Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures • Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Procedures – Chest radiography – CT scan and MRI scan – Lung scan Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 49. Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures • Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Procedures – Chest radiography – CT scan and MRI scan – Lung scan Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 50. Medical and Surgical Procedures • Medical Procedures – Auscultation and percussion – Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) – Endotracheal intubation Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 51. Medical and Surgical Procedures • Medical Procedures – – – – Heimlich maneuver Incentive spirometry Oxygen therapy Vital signs Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 52. Figure 4-20 Nasal cannula (©Ray Kemp/911 Imaging) Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 53. Figure 4-21 Endotracheal tube and Ambu bag (Pearson Education/PH College) Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 54. Medical and Surgical Procedures • Surgical Procedures – Bronchoscopy – Chest tube insertion – Lung resection Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 55. Medical and Surgical Procedures • Surgical Procedures – Thoracentesis – Thoracotomy – Tracheostomy Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 56. Drug Categories • These categories of drugs are used to treat respiratory diseases and conditions: – – – – – – – – – Antibiotic drugs Antitubercular drugs Antitussive drugs Antiviral drugs Bronchodilator drugs Corticosteroid drugs Expectorant drugs Leukotriene receptor blocker drugs Mast cell stabilizer drugs Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 57. Figure 4-24 Metered-dose inhaler (Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.) Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 58. Drug Categories • These categories of drugs are used to treat respiratory diseases and conditions: – – – – Corticosteroid drugs Expectorant drugs Leukotriene receptor blocker drugs Mast cell stabilizer drugs Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 59. Abbreviations Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 60. Abbreviations Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.
    • 61. Image acknowledgement Some of the images used in the presentation were acquired from: Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Florida State College of Jacksonville | Professor: Michael L. Whitchurch, MHS Copyright ©2011 All rights reserved.

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