Cardiovascular System

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  • 1. Cardiovascular System Weighing in at 10 ounces, the blood-filled muscle called the heart has become the universal symbol of love. The Greeks believed the heart was the seat of the spirit, the Chinese associated it with the center for happiness and the Egyptians thought the emotions and intellect arose from the heart. No one is sure the exact origin of the love association, however. One idea is that the heart got its "love mark" in the ancient Greek city of Cyrene, now in modern-day Libya. The colony was known for a plant called Silphium, with heart-shaped seed pods. Silphium had medicinal properties, and possibly also was used as an herbal contraceptive.hsc 1531 medical terminology | FSCJ | professor: michael l. whtichurch, MHS
  • 2. Heart Facts  System is over 60,000 miles long  Adult heart pumps 5 quarts of blood each minute  2,000 gallons each day  Beats about 100,000 times each day  Average 70 year life span = 2.5 billion beats  Adult woman heart = 8 oz.  Adult man = 10 oz  Blood is 78 % water  20 seconds to completely circulate the vascular system http://my.clevelandclinic.org/heart/heartworks/heartfacts.aspx
  • 3. Multimedia Directory Slide 13Heart Anatomy Animation Slide 27Heart Chambers Animation Slide 36Atrial Blood Flow Animation Slide 38Atrial Contraction Animation Slide 40Ventricular Contraction Animation Slide 45Internal Heart Structures Exercise Slide 67Blood Pressure Animation Slide 72Cardiac Arrhythmia Video Slide 81Blood Pressure Measurement Video Slide 84Angina Pectoris Animation Slide 88Coronary Artery Disease Animation Slide 92Heart Attack Video Slide 95Aneurysm Animation
  • 4. Multimedia Directory Continued Slide 106Electrocardiography Video Slide 107EKG Technician Video Slide 112Defibrillation Video
  • 5. Cardiovascular System at a Glance  Functions of Cardiovascular (CV) System  Distribute blood to all areas of body  Delivery of needed substances to cells  Removal of wastes
  • 6. Cardiovascular System at a Glance  Organs of Cardiovascular System  Heart  Arteries  Capillaries  Veins
  • 7. Cardiovascular Combining Forms  angi/o  ather/o  vessel  fatty substance  aort/o  atri/o  aorta  atrium  arteri/o  cardi/o  artery  heart
  • 8. Cardiovascular Combining Forms  coron/o  sphygm/o  heart  pulse  hemangi/o  steth/o  blood vessel  chest  phleb/o  thromb/o  vein  clot
  • 9. Cardiovascular Combining Forms  valv/o  vas/o  valve  vessel, duct  valvul/o  ven/o  valve  vein  vascul/o  ventricul/o  blood vessel  ventricle
  • 10. Cardiovascular System Suffixes  –manometer  instrument to measure pressure  –ole  small  –tension  pressure  –ule  small
  • 11. Anatomy and Physiology  Also called circulatory system  Maintains distribution of blood throughout body  Delivers oxygen and nutrients like glucose and amino acids to cells  Picks up carbon dioxide and other waste products from cells and delivers to lungs, liver, and kidneys for elimination
  • 12. Anatomy and Physiology  Is composed of:  Heart  Blood vessels  Arteries  Capillaries  Veins  Divided into  pulmonary circulation and  systemic circulation
  • 13. Heart Anatomy Animation Click here to view an animation of the anatomy of the heart Back to Directory
  • 14. Pulmonary Circulation  Between heart and lungs  Carries deoxygenated blood away from right side of heart to lungs  Carries oxygenated blood from lungs to left side of heart Figure 5.1
  • 15. Systemic Circulation  Between heart and cells of body  Carries oxygenated blood away from left side of heart to body  Carries deoxygenated blood from body to right side of heart
  • 16. A schematic of the circulatory system illustrating the pulmonary circulation picking up oxygen from the lungs and the systemic circulation delivering oxygen to the body.
  • 17. Heart  Muscular pump  Made up of cardiac muscle fibers  Could be called a muscle instead of an organ  Beats an average of 60 – 100 beats per minute (bpm), or about 100,000 times a day  Each time the muscle contracts:  Blood is ejected from heart  Pushed throughout body within blood vessels
  • 18. Heart  Located in the mediastinum  More to left side of chest  Directly behind sternum  About size of a fist  Shaped like upside-down pear  Tip of heart at lower edge  Called the apex
  • 19. Location of the heart withinthe mediastinum of the thoracic cavity.
  • 20. Heart Layers Endocardium Myocardium Epicardium  Inner layer  Middle layer  Outer layer  Lines heart Thick muscle  Forms the chambers  Contraction of visceral layer of  Smooth, thin layer this layer pericardial sac that reduces friction develops the  Fluid between as the blood passes pressure layers of through heart required to pericardial sac chambers pump blood reduces friction through blood as heart beats vessels
  • 21. Figure 5.3 – Internal view of the heart illustrating the heart chambers, heart layers, and major blood vessels associated with the heart.
  • 22. Heart Chambers  Divided into four chambers  Two atria  Two ventricles  Heart is divided into right and left sides by a wall called the septum
  • 23. Atria  Left and right upper chambers  Receiving chambers  Blood returns to atria in veins  Superior and Inferior vena cava  Pulmonary veins
  • 24. Ventricles  Left and right lower chambers  Pumping chambers  Thick myocardium  Blood exits ventricles into arteries  Aorta  Pulmonary artery
  • 25. Figure 5.3 – Internal view of the heart illustrating the heart chambers, heart layers, and major blood vessels associated with the heart.
  • 26. Figure 5.4 – Internal view of heart specimen illustrating heart chambers, septum, and heart valves.
  • 27. Heart Chambers Animation
  • 28. Heart Valves  Four valves in heart  Tricuspid  Pulmonary  Mitral  Aortic
  • 29. Heart Valves  Act as restraining gates to control direction of blood flow  Found at entrance and exit to ventricles  Allow blood to flow only in forward direction by blocking it from returning to previous chamber
  • 30. Tricuspid Valve  An atrioventricular valve  Between right atrium and ventricle  Prevents blood in ventricle from flowing back into atrium
  • 31. Tricuspid Valve  Has 3 leaflets or cusps
  • 32. Pulmonary Valve  A semilunar valve  Between right ventricle and pulmonary artery  Prevents blood in artery from flowing back into ventricle  Semilunar – valve looks like half moon
  • 33. Mitral Valve  An atrioventricular valve  Between left atrium and ventricle  Prevents blood in ventricle from flowing back into atrium
  • 34. Mitral Valve  Also called bicuspid valve - has two cusps
  • 35. Aortic Valve  A semilunar valve  Between left ventricle and aorta  Prevents blood in aorta from flowing back into ventricle
  • 36. Heart Valves
  • 37. Figure 5.4 – Internal view of heart specimen illustrating heart chambers, septum, and heart valves.
  • 38. Path of Blood Flow Through Heart 1. Deoxygenated blood from body enters relaxed right atrium via two large veins called:  Superior vena cava  Inferior vena cava Figure 5.6
  • 39. Atrial Blood Flow Animation
  • 40. Path of Blood Flow Through Heart 2. Right atrium contracts  Blood flows through tricuspid valve into relaxed right ventricle Figure 5.6
  • 41. Atrial Contraction Animation
  • 42. Path of Blood Flow Through Heart 3. Right ventricle contracts  Blood is pumped through pulmonary valve into pulmonary artery  Carries blood to lungs Figure 5.6
  • 43. Ventricular Contraction Animation Click here to view an animation of ventricular contraction.
  • 44. Path of Blood Flow Through Heart 4. Relaxed left atrium receives blood that has been oxygenated by lungs  Blood enters left atrium from the four pulmonary veins Figure 5.6
  • 45. Path of Blood Flow Through Heart 5. Left atrium contracts  Blood flows through mitral valve into relaxed left ventricle Figure 5.6
  • 46. Path of Blood Flow Through Heart 6. Left ventricle contracts  Blood is pumped through the aortic valve and into aorta  Largest artery in the body  Carries blood to all parts of body Figure 5.6
  • 47. The path of blood flow through thechambers of the left and right side of the heart.
  • 48. Internal Heart Structures Exercise Click here to review the internal structures of the heart in a labeling activity.
  • 49. Conduction System of the Heart  Autonomic nervous system controls heart rate  Therefore, no voluntary control over heart  Special heart tissue conducts electrical impulses  Stimulate different chambers to contract in correct order
  • 50. Path of the Conduction System 1. Sinoatrial (SA) node, or pacemaker, is where electrical impulse begins  From SA node a wave of electricity travels through atria  Causing them to contract, or go into systole
  • 51. Path of the Conduction System 2. Next, atrioventricular node (AV) is stimulated 3. This node transfers stimulation wave to bundle of His
  • 52. Path of the Conduction System4. Electrical wave travels down bundle branches within interventricular septum5. Finally, Purkinje fibers in ventricular myocardium are stimulated  Results in ventricular systole Figure 5.7
  • 53. Systole and Diastole  Heart chambers alternate between:  Relaxing to fill  Contracting to push blood forward  Relaxation phase is diastole  Contraction phase is systole
  • 54. The conduction system of the heart.
  • 55. An electrocardiogram (EKG) wave.
  • 56. QRS Complex Precedes Ventricular Systole http://qrscomplex.net/
  • 57. EKG Wave http://www.vetgo.com/cardio/concepts/concsect.php?conceptkey=170 http://www.medicinenet.com/heart_disease_pictures_slideshow/article.htm
  • 58. Blood Vessels  Pipes that circulate blood through body  Three types:  Arteries  Capillaries  Veins  Lumen is the channel within blood vessels
  • 59. Arteries  Large thick-walled vessels  Wall contains smooth muscle and can dilate or constrict  As arteries travel through body they branch into progressively smaller vessels called arterioles
  • 60. Comparative structure of arteries, capillaries, and veins.
  • 61. Arteries  Carry blood away from heart  Towards either lungs or cells and tissues of body  Pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood to lungs  Aorta carries oxygenated blood to body  Coronary arteries supply myocardium
  • 62. The coronary arteries.
  • 63. The major arteries of the body.
  • 64. Capillaries  Network of tiny, thin-walled blood vessels called a capillary bed  Connecting unit between arteries and veins  Arterial blood flows into capillary bed  Venous blood flows out of capillary bed  Location for:  Oxygen and nutrients to diffuse out  Carbon dioxide and wastes to diffuse in
  • 65. Comparative structure of arteries, capillaries, and veins.
  • 66. Veins Much thinner walls than arteries Much lower pressure system than in arteries  Have valves to insure blood flows only towards heart  Squeezing by skeletal muscles also assists blood return to heart Smallest veins are called venules
  • 67. Comparative structure of arteries, capillaries, and veins.
  • 68. Veins  Carry blood towards the heart  From either the lungs or the cells and tissues of body  Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from lungs  Superior and inferior vena cava carry deoxygenated blood from body
  • 69. The major veins of the body.
  • 70. Blood Pressure Animation
  • 71. Systole and Diastole  Heart chambers alternate between:  Relaxing to fill  Contracting to push blood forward  Relaxation phase is diastole  Contraction phase is systole
  • 72. Blood Pressure  Measurement of force exerted by blood against walls of a vessel  May be affected by several characteristics of blood and blood vessels  Elasticity of arteries  Diameter of blood vessels  Viscosity of blood  Volume of blood  Amount of resistance to blood flow
  • 73. Blood Pressure  During ventricular systole  Blood is under great pressure  Gives highest pressure—systolic  Top number of blood pressure reading  During ventricular diastole  Blood isn’t being pushed from heart at all  Blood pressure drops to lowest point—diastolic  Bottom number of blood pressure reading 115/75 mm HG
  • 74. Blood Pressure Animation
  • 75. Word Building with angi/o –gram angiogram record of a vessel –itis angitis inflammation of a vessel –plasty angioplasty surgical repair of vessel involuntary muscle contraction –spasm angiospasm in a vessel –stenosis angiostenosis narrowing of a vessel
  • 76. Word Building with aort/o & arteri/o –ic aortic pertaining to the aorta –al arterial pertaining to an artery –ole arteriole small artery –rrhexis arteriorrhexis ruptured artery
  • 77. Word Building with ather/o & atri/o surgical removal of fatty –ectomy atherectomy substance –oma atheroma fatty substance tumor/growth –al atrial pertaining to the atrium pertaining to between the inter– –al interatrial atrium
  • 78. Word Building with cardi/o –ac cardiac pertaining to the heart brady– –ia bradycardia state of slow heart electr/o – electrocardiogram record of heart’s electricity gram –megaly cardiomegaly enlarged heart my/o –al myocardial pertaining to heart muscle –ologist cardiologist heart specialist –rrhexis cardiorrhexis ruptured heart tachy– –ia tachycardia state of fast heart
  • 79. Word Building with cardi/o –ac cardiac pertaining to the heart brady– –ia bradycardia state of slow heart electr/o – electrocardiogram record of heart’s electricity gram –megaly cardiomegaly enlarged heart my/o –al myocardial pertaining to heart muscle –ologist cardiologist heart specialist –rrhexis cardiorrhexis ruptured heart tachy– –ia tachycardia state of fast heart
  • 80. Cardiac Arrhythmia Video tachycardia and bradycardia.
  • 81. Word Building with coron/o,phleb/o, and vascul/o –ary coronary pertaining to the heart –itis phlebitis inflammation of a vein –ar vascular pertaining to a blood vessel
  • 82. Word Building with valv/o & valvul/o –plasty valvoplasty surgical repair of valve –itis valvulitis inflammation of a valve –ar valvular pertaining to a valve
  • 83. Word Building with ven/o & ventricul/o –ous venous pertaining to veins –ule venule small vein –gram venogram record of a vein pertaining to –ar ventricular ventricles inter– – pertaining to interventricular ar between ventricles
  • 84. Cardiovascular Vocabulary (13) listening to sounds within body using a stethoscope auscultation branch of medicine for diagnosis and treatment of cardiology cardiovascular disease; physician is a cardiologist flexible tube inserted in body to move fluids into or catheter out of body; may be used to place dye into a vein to view blood vessels
  • 85. Cardiovascular Vocabulary area of necrotic tissue due to infarct loss of blood supply local and temporary deficiency ischemia of blood supply due to a circulatory obstruction abnormal heart sound such as murmur soft blowing sound or a harsh click; also called a bruit orthostatic sudden drop in blood pressure hypotension when standing up suddenly
  • 86. Cardiovascular Vocabulary palpitations pounding, racing heartbeats yellow, fatty deposit of lipids in an artery; hallmark plaque of atherosclerosis to flow backwards; in CV system refers to backflow regurgitation of blood through a valve
  • 87. http://www3.hku.hk/surgery/vdc_cea.php
  • 88. Cardiovascular Vocabulary blood pressure cuff; measures blood sphygmomanometer pressure stainless steel tube placed within blood stent vessel to widen the lumen stethoscope instrument for listening to body sounds
  • 89. Using a systoleto measure blood pressure.
  • 90. Blood Pressure Measurement Video Click here to view a video on the use of a sphygmomanometer.
  • 91. A) A catheter is used to place a collapsed stent next to an atheroscleroticplaque; B) stent is expanded; C) catheter is removed, leaving the expanded stent behind.
  • 92. Heart Pathology (17) angina severe pain and sensation of constriction around pectoris heart; caused by myocardial ischemia irregularity in heartbeat; some are mild and others arrhythmia are life threatening electrical impulse is blocked from traveling down bundle branch bundle branches; results in ventricles beating at block (BBB) different rate than atria; also called heart block
  • 93. Angina Pectoris Animation angina pectoris.
  • 94. Heart Pathology complete stopping of heart cardiac arrest activity myocardial disease; may be caused by viral infection, cardiomyopathy congestive heart failure, or alcoholism; common reason for heart transplant hole, present at birth, in heart congenital septal septum; allows mixing of defect (CSD) oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
  • 95. Heart Pathology left ventricle muscle is too weak to efficiently congestive heart pump blood; results in weakness, failure (CHF) breathlessness, & edema poor blood supply to heart muscle due to coronary artery obstruction of coronary arteries; may cause disease (CAD) angina pectoris and heart attack inflammation of lining membranes of heart; if endocarditis cause is bacterial may have a bacterial colony form, called vegetation
  • 96. Formation of an atherosclerotic plaque within a coronary artery.
  • 97. Coronary Artery Disease Animation
  • 98. Heart Pathology extremely serious arrhythmia characterized by fibrillation quivering of heart fibers; cardiac arrest and death can occur arrhythmia in which atria beat too rapidly, but in a flutter regular pattern heart valve cusps are too loose and fail to shut tightly; allowing prolapse regurgitation heart valve cusps are too stiff; unable to shut tightly; allowing stenosis regurgitation
  • 99. Heart Pathology myocardial occlusion of coronary artery; results in a infarction (MI) myocardial infarct; a heart attack myocarditis inflammation of heart muscle layer pericarditis inflammation of pericardial sac combination of four congenital anomalies; pulmonary stenosis, interventricular septal defect, improper placement of aorta, tetralogy of Fallot hypertrophy of right ventricle; requires immediate surgery Étienne–Louis–Arthur (1850–1911)
  • 100. External and cross-sectional view of an infarct caused by a myocardial infarction.
  • 101. Heart Attack Video
  • 102. Blood Vessel Pathology (15) weakness and ballooning of arterial wall; aneurysm commonly seen in abdominal and cerebral arteries hardening & loss of elasticity of arterial walls; arteriosclerosis often due to atherosclerosis most common form of arteriosclerosis; lipid atherosclerosis plaques form in arterial wall
  • 103. Illustration of a large aneurysm in the abdominal aorta which has ruptured.
  • 104. Aneurysm
  • 105. Development of an atherosclerotic plaque that progressively narrows thelumen of an artery to the point that a thrombus fully occludes the lumen.
  • 106. Blood Vessel Pathology coarctation of aorta severe congenital narrowing of aorta (CoA) obstruction of blood vessel by blood clot that embolus has broken off from a thrombus in another site hemorrhoid varicose veins in anal region
  • 107. Atria Embolus
  • 108. Illustration of an embolus floating in an artery. The embolus will becomelodged in a blood vessel that is smaller than it is, resulting in occlusion of that artery.
  • 109. Blood Vessel Pathology high blood pressure; essential or primary hypertension hypertension is due to CV (HTN) disease; secondary hypertension results from another disease decrease in blood pressure; hypotension may be due to shock or anemia congenital heart anomaly patent ductus where fetal connection arteriosus between pulmonary artery (PDA) and aorta fails to close at birth
  • 110. Patent Ductus Arteriosis In the Normal Embryo Patent Ductus Arteriosis
  • 111. Blood Vessel Pathology peripheral abnormal condition affecting any blood vessel vascular disease outside the heart; symptoms may include pain, (PVD) pallor, & blocked circulation polyarteritis inflammation of several arteries periodic ischemic attacks affecting extremities; Raynaud’s especially fingers, toes, ears, and nose; phenomenon extremities become cyanotic; triggered by cold exposure
  • 112. Blood Vessel Pathology inflammation of vein thrombophlebitis resulting in blood clots within a vein blood clot within a blood vessel; may thrombus partially or completely occlude blood vessel swollen and varicose veins distended veins; often in the legs
  • 113. varicose veinsthrombophlebitis
  • 114. Clinical Laboratory Tests (2) blood test determines level of enzymes specific to cardiac heart muscle in blood; an increase may indicate enzymes heart muscle damage such as a myocardial infarction blood test measures amount of cholesterol and serum triglycerides in blood; indicator of lipoprotein level atherosclerosis risk LDL (bad cholesterol) associated with the development of atherosclerosis HDL (good cholesterol) associated with decreasing the development of atherosclerosis
  • 115. Diagnostic Imaging (5) X-rays taken after injection of opaque dye into angiography blood vessel nuclear medicine scan using radioactive thallium; cardiac scan especially useful in determining myocardial damage
  • 116. angiographycardiac scan
  • 117. Diagnostic Imaging using ultrasound to produce an image of Doppler blood flowing through blood vessels in ultrasonography order to determine velocity; indicates blood clots or deep vein thromboses use of ultrasound to visualize internal echocardiography cardiac structures; especially valves venography X-ray of veins; used to identify a thrombus
  • 118. Cardiac Function Tests (4) catheter is threaded through blood vessel to heart; detects abnormalities, collects cardiac catheterization cardiac blood samples, and determines blood pressure inside heart process of recording electrical activity of electrocardiography heart; able to diagnose arrhythmias and (ECG, EKG) myocardial damage EKG=Elektrokardiogramm (German spelling)
  • 119. cardiac catheterization
  • 120. cardiac catheterization
  • 121. Electrocardiography Video Click here to view a video on electrocardiography
  • 122. EKG Technician Video
  • 123. Cardiac Function Tests portable ECG monitor worn by patient up to a few days to Holter assess heart activity as monitor person goes through daily activities evaluates cardiovascular fitness; patient exercises on treadmill or bicycle with a stress steadily increasing work testing load; EKC and oxygen levels are monitored throughout the test
  • 124. Man undergoing stress test on a treadmill. (Jonathan Nourok/PhotoEdit Inc.)
  • 125. Medical Procedures (6) procedure to restore cardiac output and cardiopulmonary oxygenate air for person in cardiac arrest; resuscitation (CPR) uses chest compressions and artificial respiration procedure that converts irregular heartbeats, defibrillation such as fibrillation, using an electric shock extracorporeal routing blood to a heart-lung machine during a circulation (ECC) surgical procedure
  • 126. extracorporeal circulation (ECC)
  • 127. An emergency medical technician positions defibrillator paddles on the chest of a supine male patient.
  • 128. Medical Procedures (3) device implanted into the heart to deliver an implantable electric shock to restore cardioverter- normal heart rhythm; defibrillator especially helpful for ventricular fibrillation device implanted into the heart to substitute for the pacemaker natural pacemaker; implantation especially helpful for bradycardia
  • 129. Figure 5.22 – Color enhanced X-ray showing pacemaker implanted in thechest and the electrode wires running to the heart. (UHB Trust/Getty Images Inc.–Stone Allstock)
  • 130. Medical Procedures use of drugs, such as streptokinase or thrombolytic therapy tissue-type plasminogen activator, to dissolve clots and restore blood flow
  • 131. Surgical Procedures (10) aneurysmectomy surgical removal of an aneurysm surgical joining of two arteries when an arterial anastomosis artery is severed or a damaged section is removed blood vessel from another location (often a coronary artery bypass leg vein) is grafted to route blood around a graft (CABG) blocked coronary artery embolectomy surgical removal of an embolus
  • 132. Coronary Artery Bypass - CABG
  • 133. Surgical Procedures removal of the diseased inner lining of an endarterectomy artery; usually to remove atherosclerotic plaques replacement of a diseased heart with a heart transplant donor heart placing a stent within a coronary artery; intracoronary treats coronary ischemia due to artery stent atherosclerosis removal of varicose veins; damaged vein is ligation & stripping tied off (ligation) and then removed (stripping)
  • 134. Surgical Procedures percutaneous balloon catheter is inserted through skin into transluminal coronary coronary artery; inflated to dilate the narrow angioplasty (PTCA) blood vessel removal of diseased valve and replacement valve replacement with an artificial valve
  • 135. Balloon angioplasty.
  • 136. Cardiovascular Pharmacology (11) ACE inhibitor produce vasodilation to decrease Lotensin, drugs blood pressure Capoten reduces or prevents cardiac Tambocor, antiarrhythmic arrhythmias Corvert Warfarin, anticoagulant prevents blood clot formation Coumadin antilipidemic reduces blood cholesterol level Lipitor, Zocor
  • 137. Cardiovascular Pharmacology lowers heart rate to treat hypertension Lopressor, Beta-blocker and angina pectoris Inderal Calcium decreases force of heart beat to treat Cardizem, channel hypertension, angina pectoris, and Procardia blocker congestive heart failure increases force of heart contraction to cardiotonic Lanoxin treat congestive heart failure
  • 138. Cardiovascular Pharmacology increases urine production to reduce diuretic Lasix plasma volume to lower blood pressure dissolves existing blood thrombolytic Plavix, Activase clot
  • 139. Cardiovascular Pharmacology contracts smooth muscle in wall vasoconstrictor of blood vessel to raise blood Aramine pressure relaxes smooth muscle in wall of blood vessel to reduce blood Nitro-Dur, vasodilator pressure and increase blood flow Vasodilan to ischemic area
  • 140. Cardiovascular Abbreviations AFB atrial fibrillation AMI acute myocardial infarction AS arteriosclerosis ASD atrial septal defect ASHD arteriosclerotic heart disease AV, A-V atrioventricular BBB bundle branch block BP blood pressure
  • 141. Cardiovascular Abbreviations bpm beats per minute CABG coronary artery bypass graft CAD coronary artery disease cath catheterization CC cardiac catheterization, chief complaint CCU coronary care unit CHF congestive heart failure CoA coarctation of the aorta
  • 142. Cardiovascular Abbreviations CP chest pain CPK creatine phosphokinase CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation CSD congenital septal defect CV cardiovascular DVT deep vein thrombosis ECC extracorporeal circulation ECG, EKG electrocardiogram
  • 143. Cardiovascular Abbreviations ECHO echocardiogram GOT glutamic- oxaloacetic transaminase HTN hypertension ICU intensive care unit IV intravenous LDH lactate dehydrogenase
  • 144. Cardiovascular Abbreviations LVAD left ventricular assist device LVH left ventricular hypertrophy MI myocardial infarction, mitral insufficiency mmHg millimeters of mercury MR mitral regurgitation MS mitral stenosis MVP mitral valve prolapse
  • 145. Cardiovascular Abbreviations P pulse PAC premature atrial contraction PDA patent ductus arteriosus PTCA percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty PVC premature ventricular contraction S1 first heart sound S2 second heart sound
  • 146. Cardiovascular Abbreviations SA, S-A sinoatrial SGOT serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase SK streptokinase tPA tissue-type plasminogen activator Vfib ventricular fibrillation VSD ventricular septal defect VT ventricular tachycardia