PHYSIOLOGY DEPARTMENT
Ass. Prof. VASTYANOV Rooslan
PLEASE,
MOBILES
SHOULD
BE OFF
SENSORY SYSTEMS #3SENSORY SYSTEMS #3
PHYSIOLOGY OF AUDITORY AND
VESTIBULAR SENSORY SYSTEMS
The nature of the soundThe nature of the sound
Sound is due to changes in air pressureSound is due to changes in air press...
Five octaves of a soundFive octaves of a sound
Musical tones can be represented as notes
on a staff or as frequency of vib...
Direct dependence among the sound waves
frequency pressure and perceived tone
Direct dependence among the sound waves
freq...
ound pressure, sound pressure level and loudness leveound pressure, sound pressure level and loudness leve
Outer, middle and internal subdivisions of the earOuter, middle and internal subdivisions of the ear
Peripheral and conductive parts of the
auditory sensory system
Peripheral and conductive parts of the
auditory sensory sys...
The inner and outer hair cells, the basilar membrane
and cochlear nerve fibers
The inner and outer hair cells, the basilar...
Path taken by sound waves reaching the inner earPath taken by sound waves reaching the inner ear
The scheme of the migrating wave in cochleaThe scheme of the migrating wave in cochlea
The scheme showing how the up-and-down movement of
the basilar and tectorial membrane causes the stereoci-
lia extending f...
Frequency-dependent mechanical events in cochleaFrequency-dependent mechanical events in cochlea
The higher the frequency ...
Electrical potentials in the cochlea
together with electrolyte distribution
Electrical potentials in the cochlea
together ...
Afferent
auditory
pathway
Afferent
auditory
pathway
Thalamus=
(MGB) medial
geniculate
body
Areas of the cortex according to Brodmann’s divisionAreas of the cortex according to Brodmann’s division
The causes of a conductive deafness,
air and bone sound conduction
The causes of a conductive deafness,
air and bone sound...
The causes
of a nerve
deafness
The causes
of a nerve
deafness
The vestibular organThe vestibular organ
The vestibular pathwaysThe vestibular pathways
Vestibular organ: effects on postural motor controlVestibular organ: effects on postural motor control
Proprioceptive
sensory system
MechanoreceptorsMechanoreceptors
Mechanical sensationMechanical sensation
The pacinian corpuscle is a
very rapidly adapting receptor
with a large receptive...
Skin receptors localizationSkin receptors localization
Sensory systems 3
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Sensory systems 3

  1. 1. PHYSIOLOGY DEPARTMENT Ass. Prof. VASTYANOV Rooslan
  2. 2. PLEASE, MOBILES SHOULD BE OFF
  3. 3. SENSORY SYSTEMS #3SENSORY SYSTEMS #3 PHYSIOLOGY OF AUDITORY AND VESTIBULAR SENSORY SYSTEMS
  4. 4. The nature of the soundThe nature of the sound Sound is due to changes in air pressureSound is due to changes in air pressure
  5. 5. Five octaves of a soundFive octaves of a sound Musical tones can be represented as notes on a staff or as frequency of vibration in Hz Musical tones can be represented as notes on a staff or as frequency of vibration in Hz
  6. 6. Direct dependence among the sound waves frequency pressure and perceived tone Direct dependence among the sound waves frequency pressure and perceived tone The higher the frequency, the higher the perceived toneThe higher the frequency, the higher the perceived tone
  7. 7. ound pressure, sound pressure level and loudness leveound pressure, sound pressure level and loudness leve
  8. 8. Outer, middle and internal subdivisions of the earOuter, middle and internal subdivisions of the ear
  9. 9. Peripheral and conductive parts of the auditory sensory system Peripheral and conductive parts of the auditory sensory system
  10. 10. The inner and outer hair cells, the basilar membrane and cochlear nerve fibers The inner and outer hair cells, the basilar membrane and cochlear nerve fibers The periotic fluid or perilymph separates the bony labyrinth from the membranous labyrinth The periotic fluid or perilymph separates the bony labyrinth from the membranous labyrinth The otic fluid or endolymph fills the membranous labyrinth The otic fluid or endolymph fills the membranous labyrinth
  11. 11. Path taken by sound waves reaching the inner earPath taken by sound waves reaching the inner ear
  12. 12. The scheme of the migrating wave in cochleaThe scheme of the migrating wave in cochlea
  13. 13. The scheme showing how the up-and-down movement of the basilar and tectorial membrane causes the stereoci- lia extending from the hair cells to bend back and forth The scheme showing how the up-and-down movement of the basilar and tectorial membrane causes the stereoci- lia extending from the hair cells to bend back and forth
  14. 14. Frequency-dependent mechanical events in cochleaFrequency-dependent mechanical events in cochlea The higher the frequency of the sound, the closer the site is to the stapes The higher the frequency of the sound, the closer the site is to the stapes
  15. 15. Electrical potentials in the cochlea together with electrolyte distribution Electrical potentials in the cochlea together with electrolyte distribution There are 5 types of the cochlear AP: 1. The AP of the inner hair cell 2. The AP of the outer hair cell 3. The microphonic AP 4. The AP of the endolymph 5. The AP of the cochlear nerve There are 5 types of the cochlear AP: 1. The AP of the inner hair cell 2. The AP of the outer hair cell 3. The microphonic AP 4. The AP of the endolymph 5. The AP of the cochlear nerve
  16. 16. Afferent auditory pathway Afferent auditory pathway Thalamus= (MGB) medial geniculate body
  17. 17. Areas of the cortex according to Brodmann’s divisionAreas of the cortex according to Brodmann’s division
  18. 18. The causes of a conductive deafness, air and bone sound conduction The causes of a conductive deafness, air and bone sound conduction
  19. 19. The causes of a nerve deafness The causes of a nerve deafness
  20. 20. The vestibular organThe vestibular organ
  21. 21. The vestibular pathwaysThe vestibular pathways
  22. 22. Vestibular organ: effects on postural motor controlVestibular organ: effects on postural motor control
  23. 23. Proprioceptive sensory system
  24. 24. MechanoreceptorsMechanoreceptors
  25. 25. Mechanical sensationMechanical sensation The pacinian corpuscle is a very rapidly adapting receptor with a large receptive field that is used to encode high-frequency (100–400 Hz) vibratory sensation. The receptor is located on the end of a group B myelinated fiber, which is inser- ted into an onion-like lamellar capsule The pacinian corpuscle is a very rapidly adapting receptor with a large receptive field that is used to encode high-frequency (100–400 Hz) vibratory sensation. The receptor is located on the end of a group B myelinated fiber, which is inser- ted into an onion-like lamellar capsule The spindle-shaped Ruffini's corpuscle is a slowly adapting receptor that encodes pressure. It has a large receptive field that is used to encode the magnitude of a stimulus. The receptor is located on the terminal of a group B axon that is covered by a liquid-filled collagen capsule. Collagen strands within the capsule make contact with the nerve fiber and the overlying skin. The spindle-shaped Ruffini's corpuscle is a slowly adapting receptor that encodes pressure. It has a large receptive field that is used to encode the magnitude of a stimulus. The receptor is located on the terminal of a group B axon that is covered by a liquid-filled collagen capsule. Collagen strands within the capsule make contact with the nerve fiber and the overlying skin. Meissner's corpuscle is a rapidly adapting receptor that participates in the touch sensation and low- frequency (10–100 Hz) vibration. The receptor is located at the end of a single group B afferent fiber that is inserted into a small capsule. Meissner's corpuscle is a rapidly adapting receptor that participates in the touch sensation and low- frequency (10–100 Hz) vibration. The receptor is located at the end of a single group B afferent fiber that is inserted into a small capsule. Merkel’s disk is a slowly adapting receptor with a small receptive field that is also used to encode the touch sensation. The epithelial sensory cells form synaptic connections with branches of a single group B afferent fiber. Merkel’s disk is a slowly adapting receptor with a small receptive field that is also used to encode the touch sensation. The epithelial sensory cells form synaptic connections with branches of a single group B afferent fiber.
  26. 26. Skin receptors localizationSkin receptors localization

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