Case Study: Problems & Solutions in an MEDC City SHEFFIELD
To understand the problems that exist in Sheffield.
To examine the solutions to these problems.
Problems in Sheffield Transport Housing Poverty Employment Retail Land
Problems in the CBD
Traffic congestion – main roads pass through the seven valleys in Sheffield and converge in the city centre due to relief of land.
Poor quality,narrow roads that were built before mass road transport (lorries) was widespread. Especially bad in inner city areas due to grid iron pattern.
Lack of space for parking
Increase in commuter traffic into the city as car ownership increased and suburbanisation took place.
Poor quality public transport links.
There was a decline in the shops and the services in the city centre due to development on the edge of cities – Meadowhall.
Solutions to problems in Sheffield CBD
2000 onwards…………. Demolition of old buildings eg registry office. Attract new offices and businesses and housing – the Conran apartment development. £130m winter and peace gardens designed. St Pauls hotel built. New restaurants – café rouge New squares created – millenium square. Heart of City £50+m invested in station. Road network upgraded. Pedestrian access improved New multi storey car park New cutting edge sculpture. Re-landscaping New bus loops City centre car parks improved. Sheffield Station Redeveloped the markets using combination of offices and shops. Sheaf Market demolished other buildings upgraded. Pedestrian access and lighting improved. New hotels – Travelodge. Castlegate
Georgian & victorian buildings restored and turned into accomodation. Sheffield Catherdral project and resource centre created. New cafes and bars opened – The Wig & Pen, The Cathedral Quarter New buildings and offices. Sheffield civil service offices moved there. Irwin Mitchell solicitors Victoria Quays & Riverside Generation of creative and digital industries. Providing job opportunities for local people. Refurbishment of Butchers works. New apartments New skate park next to forum café. Improved road layout and lighting on Division Street. Cultural Industries Quarter & Devonshire Quarter John Lewis Store redeveloped and made twice the size. New hotels and car parks developed. Buildings upgraded New retail opportunities created. New Retail Quarter
Problems in the Inner City
Certain wards in Sheffield suffered from poverty and deprivation.
The CBD, Netherthorpe, Norfolk Park all score over 12 on the Index of local deprivation – the highest score.
Deprivation so bad in inner city areas due to the process of filtering. Those with money move to suburbs and rural urban fringe leaving a concentration of people on low income, in poor quality, old housing in the inner city. These people have a low standard of living.
Due to the decline in the British steel industry, large steel factories closed – Hadfields 2700 jobs lost.
Overall 23000 out of 40000 jobs were lost in the Lower Don Valley
This had a negative, downward spiral effect on local shops and services.
Unemployment lad to an increase in social problems such as crime and vandalism.
Old terraced housing was derelict and run down.
Several terraces had shared facilities.
Houses in the inner city were overcrowded, had poor hygiene facilities and lacked open space.
In the Lower Don valley the number of residents went from 10000 in 1970 to 200 in 1990.
Local authority housing in the 1960’s was poorly built, costly to maintain and run down. For example in Norfolk Park.
Land – Lower Don Valley.
Large areas of land were derelict.
Factory buildings were demolished or run down. Often boarded up
Soil was toxic or contaminated from amount of heavy industry.
River and canal were both polluted.
Solutions to problems in Sheffield Inner City
Soultions Effectiveness? Build high rise flats Caused further problems Derelict land cleared Communities broken up New industries encouraged Areas of high unemployment EG Norwich Union Out of town council estates developed 1950’s/60’s - Netherthorpe
1980’s & 90’s– Sheffield Development Corporation (SDC) & Single Regeneration Budget (SRB) Improved lighting and cleared the local park – the Ponderosa. New community centre developed. 2001 – High rise flats at Netherthorpe demolished and remaining flats upgraded and small town houses built. Improved entertainment – centretainment New transport links – tram & Sheffield airport Planted 160000 trees and landscaped area. Created Meadowhall and 18000 jobs Has replaced jobs lost to steel industry – but there weren’t enough jobs and most were part time. Still some social problems of crime. £101m pounds of gov money and £75m from EU with £680m from private investors Effectiveness Solutions