Urbanisation in LEDCs Causes, problems, solutions & Case Study of Rio de Janiero
The world is becoming mostly urban.
Study the table. Which parts of the world are experiencing the most rapid growth in their populations? What is urbanisation? 58 83 56 30 53 17 45 74 34 48 76 41 LEDC MEDC World 2025 2001 1990 1950 %
Where are the world’s largest cities? There are 17 megacities in the world – these are cities with a population of over 10 million. These are shown on the map below. The United Nations estimate that by 2015 the number of megacities will have increased to 21! Describe the distribution of megacities in 2000. How does this compare to 2015? new megacities are shown in orange
Urbanisation is taking place at a rapid pace in LEDC cities. This is as a result of a process called rural-urban migration .
What is rural-urban migration?
Rural-urban migration is the movement of people from the countryside to the city.
This causes three things to happen:
Urban growth - towns and cities are expanding, covering a greater area of land.
Urbanisation - an increasing proportion of people living in towns and cities.
Mega cities - those with over 10 million people.
People are attracted to urban areas because they think that, they will have greater opportunities there. For many, life, is better but some end up in poverty.
Rural-urban migration happens as a result of push and pull factors.
B C Where in the world… Imagine you are a migrant in Brazil. Put the following statements in the appropriate circle on the Venn diagram. 1. I have come from here. 2. I will be able to get better medical treatment. 3. I am most likely to end up living here. 4. Other people like me are likely to be living here. 5. I am least likely to get a job here. 6. I am most likely to work the longest hours here. 7. I am likely to be happy here. 8. My family are likely to be here. 9. The living conditions are going to be the best. 10. I am most likely to get a job here. 11. I am most likely to be able to go to school here. 12. I hope to end up living here. A
Problems faced in LEDC cities as a result of rapid urbanisation
Poor electricity and power supplies
Lack of clean water
Few employment opportunities
Drugs, gangs and violence
Poor education and health provision
Poor sewerage systems
Poor rubbish collection
Lack of shelter
Task Sort the problems caused by urban growth and development of shanty towns into social, environmental & economic. Traffic Congestion as cars/buses/rickshaws/animals all share same roads Health Problems EG Asthma & Bronchitis caused by pollution Break up of families Air pollution/Smog from car fumes and factories Unemployment as there are few jobs in formal sector. As shanty towns are built agricultural land/woodland is destroyed. Underground water supplies being lost. Poverty Rural migrants can’t find jobs because they are often illiterate or non-skilled so the informal sector grows. Wages are low paid and workers are exploited. Up to 50% of the population live in Shanty towns Shanty towns are built on poor quality or unsafe land so are prone to flooding/landslides/fires Shanty towns are illegal Overcrowding Poor quality building materials and a lack of basic amenities eg running water/toilets in shanty towns Sewage on streets leads to water borne disease such as cholera/diarrhoea Disease spreads quickly because of high density housing. High Infant mortality rates Malnutrition Increase in crime More street children High birth rates Water pollution – rivers/seas used as dustbins
One problem in LEDC cities is the growth of Shanty Towns.
A shanty town is a spontaneous settlement that is often built illegally on unused land along roadsides or on the edge of a city.
In Brazil they are called FAVELAS
Problems/Characteristics of Shanty Towns
is often a collection of primitive shacks made from any available material. Most houses lack such basic amenities as electricity, gas, running water and sewerage. No refuse collection.
lack of clean water, no disposal of human waste and rubbish lead to disease. Can't afford doctors.
is limited as there are very few schools. Many, even by the age of 6, are trying to earn some money.
earth tracks that often just fill up with rubbish. Few public transport systems.
is under constant threat. The factors listed above can lead to break down of marriages. Increase in crime and ‘street children’.
Improving Shanty Towns
Although most governments would like to remove shanty towns from their cities, they cannot afford to build the necessary replacement accommodation.
Two government-assisted schemes in Brazil aimed at improving the quality of life in the shantytowns are:
Existing housing is improved by re-building with cheap, quick and easy to use breezeblocks. A tank of water on the roof collects rainwater. Electricity and sewerage may by added. Most people who live in these will have some sort of employment so that they can pay low rents.
Groups of people are encouraged to help build their new homes. Each group will do basic work such as digging the ditches to take the water and sewerage pipes. The local authority will then provide breezeblocks and roofing tiles, and the group will provide the labour. The advantages of this is that it can be done in stages and create a community spirit.
The government puts in basic services such as clean water and sewerage and provides building materials, such as breezeblocks. The families then get together and help build the homes (Some being trained as plumbers, some electricians and so on.) This means that the buildings are relatively cheep, hygienic and creates good community spirit.
Case Study - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Rio de Janeiro is a city located on Brazil's south-east coast. It is one of Brazil's largest settlements with a population of approximately 11.7 million people. The population of Rio de Janeiro has grown for a number of reasons. Natural Increase is one reason for its growth (this is when the birth rate is higher than the death rate). The population has also grown as the result of urbanisation. 65% of urban growth is a result of migration.
What are the impacts of rapid urban growth for Rio?
Housing pressures (growth of favelas such as Rocinha. 40% live in Favelas)
Lack of employment means people are looking for other ways to earn money many will work in the informal sector e.g. porters, shoe shiners this is employment for half the city’s work force
Transport problems – congestion and pollution
Sanitation and Health (sewage, waste disposal, disease)
Problems of energy supply
Increased demand for services (schools and Hospitals)
Social problems (crime, Rio murder capital of world)
Shanty towns are built on unstable land of poor materials– risk of landslides & fires.
Example of a Favela: Rocinha
Rocinha is the largest favela in Brazil.
It is located in the southern zone of the city.
It is built on a steep hillside overlooking the city, just one kilometer from the beach.
It is home to between 60,000 to 150,000 people (though this could be more).
Solutions to problems in Rocinha
Self-help schemes - Rocinha, Favela Bairro Project
The authorities in Rio de Janeiro have taken a number of steps to reduce problems in favelas.
They have set up self-help schemes. This is when the local authority provide local residents with the materials needs to construct permanent accommodation. This includes breeze blocks and cement. The local residents provide the labour. The money saved can be spent on providing basic amenities such as electricity and water. Today, almost all the houses in Rocinha are made from concrete and brick.
Some buildings are three and four stories tall and almost all houses have basic sanitation, plumbing, and electricity.
Compared to simple shanty towns or slums, Rocinha has a better developed infrastructure and hundreds of businesses such as banks, drug stores, bus lines, cable television, including locally based channel TV ROC, and, at one time, even a McDonalds franchise, though it has since closed.
What are the sustainable solutions to other problems in Rio ?
Forced evictions of squatter settlements – To clear land for formal development
Low cost housing – Very basic breeze block housing constructed. People re-housed in them. City of God
Site and Service – Land is cleared and building plots prepared with water and electricity.
Self Help Scheme – Existing settlements provided with water, sewage and rubbish collection. Building materials provided for residents to upgrade their homes (Favela Barrio Plan)
Rural Development – To reduce rural to urban migration
Increasing policing - to stop new squatter settlement
Raise taxes - on the rich to pay for improving housing for the poor
Local initiatives – such as Afro-Reggae using music and culture to keep kids away from crime and drugs
Task – Complete the concept map to help your revision.
Differences in land use? Exam Question Compare the model of landuse in an LEDC and MEDC city. MEDC LEDC
HOW DOES AN URBAN MODEL FOR AN LEDC DIFFER FROM A MEDC?
LAND USE IN AN LEDC
LAND USE IN MEDC
In cities in both MEDCs and LEDCs there is a CBD usually near the centre of the city. The poorer part of the MEDC city is the inner city and the zone of transition, which are close to the CBD. In an LEDC city the poorest people live in shanty towns (favela’s). Many of these are on the outskirts of the city but others are found near transport routes or where there are unfavourable physical sites such as steep slopes.