6 River Landscapes and Processes 2004 (15 marks)
(a) Study Figure 9, on the insert, which shows a map of the restoration (...
(ii) Explain how the restoration scheme may attract visitors to the area.

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(c) Describe the causes of a river flood that you have studied.

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(i)       What is a meander?
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(b) Study Figure 9, which shows a plan for flood plain zoning.




 (i)    Flood plain zoning is a ‘soft management strate...
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(a) (ii) Explain the formation of a waterfall.
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Rivers Higher For Website

  1. 1. 6 River Landscapes and Processes 2004 (15 marks) (a) Study Figure 9, on the insert, which shows a map of the restoration (and flood protection) works on the River Skerne in Darlington. Figure 9 (i) Using Figure 9, give two changes to the channel of the River Skerne that have taken place since this section of the river was restored. 1..................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... 2..................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... (2 marks)
  2. 2. (ii) Explain how the restoration scheme may attract visitors to the area. ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... (3 marks) (b) With the aid of diagrams, explain the formation of an oxbow lake. ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... (6 marks)
  3. 3. (c) Describe the causes of a river flood that you have studied. ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... (4 marks) (a) Study Figure 8, which shows part of a meandering river.
  4. 4. (i) What is a meander? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (1 mark) (ii) In the bow, draw and label a cross-section from A-B through the meander. (3 marks) (iii) Explain how features of a meander are formed. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………… (4 marks)
  5. 5. (b) Study Figure 9, which shows a plan for flood plain zoning. (i) Flood plain zoning is a ‘soft management strategy’. What does this mean? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. (1 mark) (ii) Using Figure 9, describe the flood plain zoning and explain why strategies such as this are sustainable. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  6. 6. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (6 marks) (a) Figure 8 is a sketch-map of part of the area shown in Figure 1, the Ordnance Survey map extract of Ross- on-Wye. (i) On Figure 8, mark with an arrow and label three physical features of the river and its valley. (3 marks) (ii) Explain how one physical feature of the River Wye or its valley, shown in Figure 8, has been formed. ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................
  7. 7. ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ .......... (6 marks) (b) Figure 9, below, shows what might happen if the River Wye flooded. Figure 9 (i) Describe the likely effects of flooding on the area shown in Figure 9. ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ..... (4 marks) (ii) Explain one way in which the area could be protected from future flooding.
  8. 8. ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ .. (2 mark) (a) Study Figure 6 which shows some features of the lower course of a river. (i) On Figure 6, mark with an arrow and label three features of the lower course of a river. (3 marks) (ii) Explain, with the aid of a diagram(s), how levées are formed.
  9. 9. ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ .......... (6 marks) (b) Study Figure 7, below, a photograph showing the effects of the floods in Boscastle in 2004. (i) Describe the effects of the floods shown in Figure 7. ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................
  10. 10. ................................................................................................................................................................................ ....... (4 marks) (ii) Explain one way in which flooding may be prevented. ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ... (2 marks) (a) (i) On Figure 9 below , a waterfall has been labelled. Mark with an arrow and label three other features of the river and its valley in its upper course. (3 marks)
  11. 11. (a) (ii) Explain the formation of a waterfall. ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ......... ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ... (6 marks ) (b) Study Figure 10, below, which shows flooding in Carlisle, a city in northern England, in January 2005. (b) (i) With the help of Figure 10, suggest why Carlisle flooded in January 2005. ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................
  12. 12. ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ...... (4 marks) (b) (ii) Describe one way in which the risk of flooding might be reduced. ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ ... (2 marks)

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