River Foundation For Website

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River Foundation For Website

  1. 1. River Landscapes and Processes (a) Figure 8 is a sketch-map of part of the area shown in Figure 1, the Ordnance Survey map extract of Ross-on-Wye. (i) On Figure 8, mark with an arrow and label the following: Meander Tributary Flood plain (3 marks) (ii) What is a levée? .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... (1 mark) (iii) Complete the sentences below to explain how a flood plain is formed. Choose the correct words from this list. Migrate corrasion outside flows attrition inside floods retreat Hydraulic power and .......................................... erode the ..................................... bend of a meander. The meanders also ............................................downstream. When the river .......................................... silt and sand are deposited which build up the flood plain. (4 marks)
  2. 2. (b) Study Figure 9, on the insert, a map showing what might happen if the River Wye flooded. (i) Describe the likely effects of flooding on the area shown in Figure 9. .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... (4 marks) (ii) Describe how the area could be protected from future flooding. .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... (3 marks) (b) Study Figure 7 which shows some features of the lower course of a river.
  3. 3. On Figure 7, mark with an arrow and label: Delta Ox-bow Lake. (2 marks) (ii) Complete the paragraph below to explain how levées are formed. Choose the correct words from this list. Valley deposit channel velocity fences level erode banks When a river overflows, the .................................. decreases and it begins to .................................. It’s load, the largest material first. After repeated floods, high .................................. called levées are formed at the sides of the river. If the river floods in the future, the effects could be severe as the water cannot drain back into the................................... (4 marks) (c) Study Figure 8, a photograph showing the effects of the floods in Boscastle in 2004. (i) Describe the effects of the floods shown in Figure 8. .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... ..........................................................................................................................
  4. 4. .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... (4 marks) (ii) Explain one way in which river flooding may be prevented. .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... (2 marks) (a) Study Figure 10, below, a photograph of the upper course of the Yellowstone River, USA. Y X Z Figure 10 (a) (i) Name features X, Y and Z. X........................................................................................................................ Y........................................................................................................................ Z........................................................................................................................ (3 marks) (a) (ii) Complete the paragraph below to explain how a waterfall is formed. Choose the correct words from this list. Flood plain weathered advances traction undercut abrasion retreats gorge Waterfalls can be formed when a layer of hard rock is found on top of a layer of soft rock. The soft rock is ............................................. more quickly by erosion processes such
  5. 5. as ............................................. . An overhang of hard rock forms. When this collapses, the waterfall ............................................. upstream and a ........................................... is formed. (4 marks) (b) Study Figure 11, below, which shows flooding in Carlisle, a city in northern England, in January 2005. (b) (i) River Caldew flows into the River Eden. What is the name given to a river that flows into a main river? .......................................................................................................................... (1 mark) (b) (ii) Name one feature of the course of the River Eden. .......................................................................................................................... (1 mark) (b) (iii) Give two facts about the location of the flooding in Carlisle. 1 ....................................................................................................................... ... ..........................................................................................................................
  6. 6. 2 ....................................................................................................................... ... .......................................................................................................................... (2 marks) (b) (iv) With the help of Figure 11, suggest why Carlisle flooded in January 2005. .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... (4 Marks)
  7. 7. 1a) i) Figure 8 below shows a waterfall. i) Draw a sketch and label the main features of the waterfall in the box above. 4 Marks ii) Explain how a gorge is formed. .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... 6 Marks

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