Methods Of Flood Control1274

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  • 1. Flood Management/Control
  • 2. There are several ways that flooding can be managed or controlled. These can be split into the methods below:
    • 1. Control the water level
    • Dams
    • Pumping stations
    • 2. Build barriers
    • Embankments
    • Flood walls
    • Levees
    • 3. Alter the river’s channel
    • Straighten it
    • Widen and deepen it
    • 4. Control land use around the river
    • Land use zoning
    • Afforestation
  • 3. Control the water level
    • Dams are often built along the course of a river in order to control the amount of discharge. Water is held back by the dam and released in a controlled way. This controls flooding.
    • Water is usually stored in a reservoir behind the dam. This water can then be used to generate hydroelectric power or for recreation purposes.
    • Building a dam can be very expensive, and sediment is often trapped behind the wall of the dam, leading to erosion further downstream. Settlements and agricultural land may be lost when the river valley is flooded to form a reservoir.
  • 4. Build barriers
    • Man-made levees, flood walls and embankments are all built next to the river channel to prevent water reaching an urban area.
    • This can increase the capacity of the river and prevent it overflowing.
    • These methods are expensive and often criticised for looking ugly.
  • 5. Alter the river’s channel
    • The river channel is widened or deepened so it carry more water.
    • A river channel may be straightened so that water can travel faster along the course.
    • The channel course of the river can also be altered, diverting floodwaters away from settlements.
    • Altering the river channel may lead to a greater risk of flooding downstream, as the water is carried there faster. They are also expensive and can change the ecology of an area.
  • 6. Control land use
    • Afforestation
    • Trees are planted near to the river and the source. This means greater interception of rainwater and lower river discharge.
    • This is a relatively low cost option, which enhances the environmental quality of the drainage basin.
    • Managed flooding (also called ecological flooding)
    • The river is allowed to flood naturally in places, to prevent flooding in other areas - for example, near settlements.
  • 7. Flood plain zoning
    • Local authorities and the national government introduce policies to control urban development close to or on the floodplain. This reduces the chance of flooding and the risk of damage to property.
    • There can be resistance to development restrictions in areas where there is a shortage of housing.
    • Enforcing planning regulations and controls may be harder in LEDCs.
  • 8. Views on flood management techniques
    • Governments and developers
    • Often favour large hard engineering options, such as dam building. Building a dam and a reservoir can generate income. Profits can be made from generating electric or leisure revenue.
    • Environmental groups and local residents Often prefer softer options, such as planting trees. This causes little damage to the environment and does not involve the resettlement of communities.
  • 9. 1) Write two headings, hard management strategies and soft management strategies. Match up the characteristics from the list below to the management type and list them under the correct heading.
    • From the list below decide which of the methods is a hard or soft strategy.
    • Flood plain zoning Dredging Earth levees
    • Embankments Concrete Levees Afforestation
    • Straightening the channel Widening the channel
    • Flood warning system
    Large Scale Expensive Works with nature More sustainable Cheap