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  • 1. Industry Total for this question: 25 marks (a) study the following industries: Iron ore mining Steel making Banking Dairy farming (i) Tick the two that are examples of primary industry. (2 marks) Study Figure 10, a photograph of primary industry. (ii) Give two features of primary industry shown in Figure 10. 1………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (2 marks) (iii) Give one product which can be made using wood from forests. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (1 mark) (b) Study Figure 11 on the next page, a sketch map of Northern Italy showing information about industry.
  • 2. (i) Using Figure 11, suggest reasons for the location of industry in Northern Italy. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (4 marks) (ii)Heavy industries sometimes pollute the environment. Describe how governments are trying to reduce pollution. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (4 marks)
  • 3. (c) Study Figure 12, a diagram of some factors affecting where industries are located. Using Figure 12, explain how factors such as these may affect industrial location. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (4 marks) (c) Describe and explain the advantages and disadvantages of transnational corporations. (TNCs). …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (8 marks) (a) Study Figure 7, a map showing footloose industry in southern England. Describe and explain the distribution of footloose industry shown in Figure 7. ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................... (4 marks) (b) (i) What is meant by secondary industry? ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... (1 mark) (ii) Study Figure 8, which gives information about secondary industry in the United Kingdom.
  • 5. Complete the line graph by using the figures given for 1991 and 2001. (3 marks) (c) Many areas have experienced industrial decline. Describe and explain how industrial decline has affected the environment and the lives of the local people. 1 Environment ................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................
  • 6. ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... 2 Lives of the local people .................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... (7 marks) (d) Explain how governments can encourage industries to move into certain areas. ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... (4 marks) (e) Describe the inputs, processes and outputs for one type of industry in a European Union
  • 7. area that you have studied. You may include a diagram in your answer. ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... (6 marks) (a) Look at Figure 10, which shows an industrial system in England.
  • 8. (i) Complete the table by circling the correct type of industry shown in Figure 10. Give reasons for your choice. Type of Industry Reason Shown in Figure 10 Primary I chose this because or …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...... Secondary ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… or ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Tertiary ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. or Quaternary (2 marks) (ii) What is the link between secondary and tertiary industry? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (2 marks) (b) Figure 11, on the next page shows the industrial development of South Korea, a newly industrialised country (NIC) in East Asia, between 1971 and 2001.
  • 9. (i) Use Figure 11 to describe the industrial changes that took place in South Korea between 1971 and 2001 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….... ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (4 marks) (ii) Give two reasons for the industrial changes that have taken place in NICs 1.…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2.…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (2 marks) (C) Study Figure 12, which shows the distribution of Samsung factories and offices. Samsung is a South Korean company.
  • 10. (i) Why can Samsung be called a Transnational Corporation (TNC)? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… … ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (1 marks) (ii) Suggest reasons for the distribution of Samsung factories and offices shown in Figure 12. …..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (4 marks) (d) (i) Why has there been a decline in the many traditional manufacturing industries in MEDCs? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (4 marks)
  • 11. (ii) Explain the political and environmental consequences for areas in MEDCs where traditional manufacturing industry had declined ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (6 marks) (a) Study Figure 8, a which shows the location of steel-making, a secondary industry in Great Britain in 2005
  • 12. (i) What is the meaning of the term ‘secondary industry’ ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (1 marks (ii) Explain the factors that have led to the decline of steel-making or another secondary industry in an MEDC that you have studied. Type of secondary industry (if not steel making)…………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (4 marks) (b) Study Figure 9, which a photograph of the Cambridge Science Park. Figure 9
  • 13. (i) Describe the main feature of the Cambridge Science Park shown on the photograph. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….......... ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (4 marks) (ii) Why can industries which have developed on Science Parks be considered to be footloose? ………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (1 marks) (C) Study Figure 10, which shows some of the factors affecting the location of industry. (i) Explain how one or more of these factors have affected the location of some industry. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 14. …………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………… (9 marks) (d) Using one or more examples, describe the effects of industrial pollution on either the land or the sea. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 15. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (6 marks) (a) (i) Study Figure 9, a table which gives information about three countries in the world. Figure 6 Percentage Employed in Primary Secondary Tertiary Country Indu Indu Indu Type of Country stry stry stry A 4 71 25 B 6 29 65 C 81 7 12 Complete the table to show which of the following country the figures refer to. LEDC NIC MEDC (2 marks) (ii) Give two factors encouraging the development of industry in NICs. 1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (2 marks) (b) Explain why certain areas in the UK, or any other MEDC you have studied, may need government help to attract industry. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….... ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 16. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (6 marks) (c) Describe how the global distribution of manufacturing has changed. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (4 marks) (d) (i) Give two features of a ‘Science Park’? 1.…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2.…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (2 mark)
  • 17. (ii) Why is there pressure from developers to build Science Parks in the rural-urban fringes of settlement? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… … ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (4 marks) (e) Study Figures 10a and 10b, on the next page, which show how an old industrial site in the Midlands has been reused. (i) What are the advantages of the changes that have been made to the old industrial site in the Midlands? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (4 marks) (ii) There are many footloose industries in the industrial estate. What is the meaning of the term ‘footloose’? ..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… (1 marks)
  • 18. (a) Study Figure 7, advertisements for four different types of industry. Each advertisement has been given a letter. Item D cannot be reproduced here due to third-party copyright constraints. (a) (i) Complete the table below by writing the letter of the advertisement in Figure 7 (A, B, C or D) against the correct type of industry. One has been done for you. (a) (ii) What is the meaning of the term ‘quaternary industry’? ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... (1 mark)
  • 19. (a) (iii) Explain why in many MEDCs there has been an increase in employment in tertiary and quaternary industries. ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... (4 marks) (b) Describe the effect of government policy on the location of industry in the UK or another MEDC that you have studied. ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... (4 marks) (c) Apart from cheaper labour, explain why industry is developing rapidly in Newly Industrialising Countries (NICs). ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... (4 marks) (d) Describe the features of a manufacturing industry in the European Union (EU), other than in the United Kingdom, that you have studied. You may use the headings inputs, processes and outputs. ...................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................
  • 20. ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... (6 marks) a) Explain the advantages for industry of locating in an area where there has been industrial decline. ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... (4 marks)