We can show this pattern by using a MODEL – a simplified picture. This is an URBAN MODEL to show the different land use within a town or city. Each different colour sector represents a different type of land use.
An urban model is a simplified diagram to show the pattern of land use in a city. An urban zone is an area of a city that has particular characteristics and the same land use in most of the zone.
Patterns of land use in towns and cities Copy and complete the following passage using the words from the box below. Although all towns and cities are different, most have _______ and developed in the same way. This means that they will all have similar types of ______ ____. As _____________ have grown they have developed a ________ and we can show this using a _________ _______ – a simplified picture. This shows the _____ main land uses within a town or city. Each land use tends to be grouped together on the model into what is called an urban _______. urban pattern grown model six land use settlements zone
Land use models – Concentric Model original settlement Burgess based his studies on Chicago. He claimed that most towns and cities grow outwards from an old centre and equally in all directions. In Britain, many towns grew rapidly in the nineteenth- and twentieth-centuries. Why do you think that was the case?
Concentric Model This inner city area is also known as the ‘Zone of Transition’ or the ‘Twilight Zone’ . suburbs inner city
Land use models – Sector Model Hoyt developed his model after the introduction of public transport. He claimed that land uses developed in sectors along main transport routes.
What is another name for zone 2 in Burgess’ model?
Why is zone 2 different in Hoyt’s model?
You could add another ring around both of these models – what is this called?
What are the differences/similarities between the models?
Why does land use vary? Land values are a major influence on land use patterns.
Wealth of the inhabitants
Why does land use vary? Land values are a major influence on land use patterns, but they are not the only factor:
Simple transect across a city CBD inner city inner city suburbs suburbs
What typical characteristics of a CBD are shown here? The Tallest Buildings Public Buildings eg. Town Hall Busy – lots of pedestrians Markets Purpose built shopping centres providing undercover shopping experience Big Department Stores and National Chain Stores – why? Some of the oldest buildings Very accessible – public transport & traffic management required due to congestion. Historic/ old street pattern – often some narrow streets Entertainment e.g. pubs & restaurants High Land values
Concentration of shops and offices
High price of land
Buildings are tall with multiple uses.
Often the zone with the oldest buildings
Concentration of traffic and pedestrians
Little residential land use
Nodal point for transport routes
CBD is constantly changing.
The Central Business District (CBD)
Characteristics of the CBD
What is the Inner City Like? The inner city includes a variety of land uses. Originally it used to be an area of nineteenth-century terraced housing for factory workers. Some of this housing has been now replaced with high rise flats. Typical style of housing in the Inner City Typical aerial view of an Inner City Area
Inner city The inner city includes a variety of land uses. Originally it used to be an area of nineteenth-century terraced housing for factory workers. Some of this housing has been now replaced with high rise flats. The Inner city is also called the ‘Zone of Transition’.
When and Why did Inner City Areas Grow up?
Developed during the 19 th century – due to rapid expansion of industry (led to the demand for workers)
As more moved to the cities – there was a demand for low cost houses for the workers
This resulted in high-density cheap housing (fitting as many houses as possible in a small area
People had to live close to work due to lack of transport
What types of land-use are found in Inner City areas? 19 th Century Terraced Housing Industry – large factories built during the industrial revolution (now some knocked down / converted) Canals and Railways Main Roads (often now ring roads taking traffic out of CBDs)
Typical Characteristics of Inner City Areas
High Density Housing
Mainly terraced (some back to back)
Built in Long narrow, straight Rows – Grid iron pattern
Front doors opening onto the street
Few Amenities (little or no sanitation (often built with toilet in Back Yard
Mainly Ethnic Minorities, students, older people and unemployed (lower income groups)
Mainly private / rented
No gardens or garages - on street parking.
Houses built around and in-between factories.
Some high rise flats where re-development has taken place.
Surrounded by traditional, heavy industry.
Problems in Inner City Areas (since 1950s) 1. Industrial Decline 2. High unemployment 3. Abandoned Warehouses – eyesore and led to vandalism 4. High Crime Rates 5. Poor Quality Housing 6. Overcrowding 7. Lack of Open Space 8. Lack of Parking Spaces 9. Atmospheric Pollution (factories / traffic) 11. Loss of community in the high rise flats. 10. Lots of heavy traffic (for industry)
Advantages Of Living In The Inner City
Cheap to acquire.
Available for rent - accessible for immigrants/the low paid or unemployed.
Some areas improved substantially/large profits made in last 30 years - gentrification).
Near to city centre - places of employment, shops, entertainment and leisure.
The Suburbs Inner & Outer
The Suburbs The suburbs grew most rapidly in the UK with the growth of the rail network. This allowed people easier access to the city centre for work and recreation. The suburbs contain a mixture of housing which tends to be more spacious and modern than the housing found in the inner city. We can divide the suburbs into inner and outer suburbs.
Reasons for Suburban Growth Reasons for Suburban Growth
Reasons for Growth of the Suburbs
Better public transport and increased car ownership meant people could separate work from where they live.
2. Building societies provided mortgages making it easier to buy homes
3. People were better off and looking for a better living environment.
INNER AND OUTER SUBURBS
Inner Suburbs Characteristics Built during inter-war period (1920-1945) . Front and back gardens. Semi-detached. Curved road patterns, & cul-de-sacs. Houses often had drives and bay windows. Off road parking but few garages. Lower density housing. Local shopping parades.
Outer Suburbs Characteristics Housing built in estates. Detached with front and back gardens. Curved street patterns. Low density. Expensive family housing. Lots of green, open space. Parks, schools, leisure facilities Eg golf courses nearby.
Advantages & Disadvantages of the Suburbs !
Larger (lower cost of land) an better quality houses, garages built at lower density.
Best performing schools are located in the "outer rim".
Less traffic congestion and pollution than the inner city.
Closer to the countryside.
Close enough to the CBD to commute by car or train. Access to the national motorway system.
Long commuting travel times with attendant dangers on the road - risk of accidents and being late for work.
Higher costs of journey to work.
High cost of housing (negative equity in the late 80's/early 90's as house prices fell).
Sense of community is diminished as people spend little time at home, separated by fences and hedges.
Distance from CBD for shopping and leisure/entertainment.
Rising number of burglaries.
Housing in the suburbs Describe the pattern of housing in the suburbs. How does it differ to traditional inner city housing areas?
The increased movement of people / services and industries from the centres of inner urban areas outwards, towards and onto the edges of the built-up area.
Causes of suburbanisation
Shift of jobs into service sector
Often tend to be in edge of a city locations to make use of cheaper land prices
Inner cities problems – old housing, crime, unemployment, traffic congestion etc.
Pollution in the inner city.
Good access – motorways etc
Room to expand
Advances in transport meant people could commute longer distances
ICT and communications developments mean more people can work from home
The area where the countryside meets the city is called the rural-urban fringe This is the very edge of the city, beyond the suburbs, where countryside and city merge.
Land-use in the Rural-Urban Fringe
Business parks, science parks, retail parks, out-of-town shopping centres and housing developments
RURAL-URBAN FRINGE This has lead to conflict due to different land-uses wanting to locate here (see diagram for examples)
CBD Inner City Inner Suburbs Outer Suburbs Industry Tallest Buildings Shops Entertainment High Land Values High Density Terraced Housing Some old factories Semi-detached housing Some greenery Gardens Low density housing Large detached houses Garages Gardens Rural-urban fringe Industry Retail Units Car parking space Examples: Fargate Netherthorpe Crosspool Millhouses Dore URBAN LAND-USE TRANSECT IN SHEFFIELD
In Which urban zone are you most likely too………?
Find student accommodation.
See the smallest gardens.
Have derelict buildings.
See the tallest buildings.
Find the oldest buildings.
See expensive housing.
Visit a museum.
Suffer from asthma.
Walk your dog in the park.
Urban Zones – Photo Interpretation
In which urban zone would you find the pictures below?
A B C D E F G H
The Central Business District; contains the main businesses, shopping centres and entertainment of the urban area.
High status housing surrounds the CBD. This includes high-rise expensive modern apartment blocks, many with their own security guards. It has the infrastructure - electricity, telephones, sewerage, water, etc. not found in other parts of the urban area.
Surrounding the high-quality residential area is poor to medium quality housing which started out as a shanty town. It has now been provided with some basic amenities by the government.
Shanty towns (spontaneous squatter settlements or favelas) are found on the steep hillsides, swamps or waste land surrounding the city.
Modern factories are found along main roads, sometimes with favelas in between.
Urban Models in LEDCs
In an exam you need to be able to describe the similarities and differences between an LEDC and MEDC model – Can you do this?