Chapter6 section1 3


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This is the Unit 1 Lesson 6 PPT

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Chapter6 section1 3

  1. 1. BUSINESS LAW I Mr. Whisel Chapter 6 Sections 1-3
  2. 2. SECTION 6.1 GOALS <ul><li>Distinguish a crime from a tort </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the elements of a tort </li></ul><ul><li>Explain when a person is responsible for another’s tort. </li></ul>
  3. 3. WHAT’S YOUR VERDICT? <ul><li>After an exhausting day of skiing, Josephina was driving home near sunset. She dozed off momentarily and crossed the highway dividing lane. She then crashed head-on into John’s panel truck. Both drivers were seriously injured, and their vehicles were “totaled.” </li></ul><ul><li>Although Josephina was asleep at the time, has she violated any rights of the other driver? </li></ul>
  4. 4. HOW DO CRIMES AND TORTS DIFFER? <ul><li>Crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An offense against society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Wrong </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tort </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A private or civil wrong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offense against individual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What’s Your Verdict? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime- Reckless Driving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tort- Injuring John and his property </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. WHAT’S YOUR VERDICT? <ul><li>On a windy autumn day, Mason was burning dry leaves in his backyard. When he went inside to answer a telephone call, flames from the fire leaped to the next-door neighbor’s fence and then to a tool shed where a small can of gasoline exploded. Soon the neighbor’s house was ablaze, and it burned to the ground. </li></ul><ul><li>Did Mason commit a tort? </li></ul>
  6. 6. ELEMENTS OF A TORT <ul><li>Common Elements in Most Torts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A legal obligation to do or not to do something </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A violation of that duty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A harm that is recognized by law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proof that the breach caused the injury </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. DUTIES UNDER TORT LAW <ul><li>The duty not to injure another. (Bodily harm, injury to reputation, or invasion of someone’s privacy) </li></ul><ul><li>The duty not to interfere with the property rights of others, for example, by trespassing on their land. </li></ul><ul><li>The duty not to interfere with the economic rights of other’s such as the right to contract. </li></ul><ul><li>Duty, by law, we all have a certain rights </li></ul>
  8. 8. BREACH <ul><li>Violation of a duty must be proved </li></ul><ul><li>Some torts require that the breach is intentional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Would the fire to the neighbor’s house be intentional? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Torts of Carelessness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negligence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strict Liability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neither Carelessness or Intent is necessary </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. INJURY AND CAUSATION <ul><li>Injury </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Injury resulting form the breach of duty must be proved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Causation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means that breach of the duty caused the injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degrees of Causation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proximate Cause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the amount of causation is great enough for it to be recognized by the law. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. WHAT’S YOUR VERDICT? <ul><li>Hunt was taking riding lessons from Saddleback Stables. Patterson, the Saddleback instructor, was a skilled rider although only 17 years old. Nevertheless, Patterson negligently lost control for the horse that Hunt was riding. As a result, Hunt was thrown to the ground and injured. </li></ul><ul><li>Who was liable for Hunt’s injuries? </li></ul>
  11. 11. RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE TORTS OF ANOTHER <ul><li>Everyone is liable for their conduct </li></ul><ul><li>Even Insane persons are accountable for injury to another </li></ul><ul><li>Vicarious Liability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liable for the torts of another </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. SECTION 6.1 GOALS <ul><li>Distinguish a crime from a tort </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the elements of a tort </li></ul><ul><li>Explain when a person is responsible for another’s tort. </li></ul>
  13. 13. END OF SECTION 6.1 <ul><li>Think About Legal Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Think Critically About Evidence </li></ul>
  14. 14. SECTION 6.2 GOALS <ul><li>Identify nine common intentional torts </li></ul><ul><li>Define negligence and strict liability </li></ul>
  15. 15. WHAT’S YOUR VERDICT? <ul><li>During deer-hunting season, Hart drove miles into the country to search of game. He parked his pickup truck along a dirt road, climbed a fence, and hiked into the woods. Hart thought the land was part of a national forest. However, it actually belonged to Quincy, who had posted “No Trespassing” signs. Confronted by Quincy, Hart apologized for his mistake and left. </li></ul><ul><li>Was Hart guilty of a tort? </li></ul>
  16. 16. COMMON INTENTIONAL TORTS <ul><li>Intentional Tort </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The defendant intended either to injure or the act </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assault </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One person intentionally threatens to physically or offensively injure another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be believable </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. COMMON INTENTIONAL TORTS <ul><li>Battery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmful or offensive touching of another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>False Imprisonment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depriving a person of freedom of movement without the person’s consent and without privilege </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defamation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement against someone’s character or reputation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Statement must be false, be communicated to any third party, bring the victim into disrepute, contempt, or ridicule by others. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. COMMON INTENTIONAL TORTS <ul><li>Invasion of Privacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unwelcome and unlawful intrusion into one’s private life so as to cause outrage, mental suffering, or humiliation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trespass to Land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entry onto the property of another without the owner’s consent. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conversion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If property is stolen, destroyed, or used in a manner inconsistent with the owner’s rights </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. COMMON INTENTIONAL TORTS <ul><li>Fraud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is an intentional misrepresentation of an existing important fact </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. WHAT’S YOUR VERDICT? <ul><li>Britt was driving home late one rainy night after drinking alcohol all evening. With only one working headlight, she raced down residential streets at speeds up to 50 M.P.H. Meanwhile, Yee was slowly backing her station wagon out of her driveway, but she failed to look both ways when she should have. Britt rammed into the right rear end of Yee’s car. Yee’s station wagon was badly damaged, and she was injured. </li></ul><ul><li>Can Yee collect from Britt? </li></ul>
  21. 21. WHAT IS NEGLIGENCE? <ul><li>Negligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common tort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires all elements but in turn is only carelessness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Duty and Negligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires that we act with care, prudence, and good judgment of the reasonable-person so as to not cause injury to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Under 7 Incapable of Negligence </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. WHAT IS NEGLIGENCE? <ul><li>Breach of Duty in Negligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasonable-Person Standard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Causation and Injury in Negligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasonably foreseeing what could possibly happen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defenses to Negligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other person could possibly be at fault </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumption of the risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aware of danger but does something and gets injured. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wet Floor! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. WHAT’S YOUR VERDICT? <ul><li>Mrs. Lamm went to a grocery store and placed a carton of a carbonated soft drink in her shopping cart. One of the bottles exploded and the broken glass cut her leg. </li></ul><ul><li>Can she collect in tort from the grocery store or the bottler? </li></ul><ul><li>Bottle Defective? </li></ul>
  24. 24. WHAT IS STRICT LIABILITY? <ul><li>Engaging in a particular activity that resulted in injury </li></ul><ul><li>Proof of both the activity and the injury substitute for proof of a violation of duty </li></ul>
  25. 25. SECTION 6.2 GOALS <ul><li>Identify nine common intentional torts </li></ul><ul><li>Define negligence and strict liability </li></ul>
  26. 26. END OF SECTION 6.2 QUESTIONS <ul><li>Think About Legal Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Think Critically About Evidence </li></ul>
  27. 27. SECTION 6.3 GOALS <ul><li>Discuss what damages are available to victims of torts </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the various stages of a civil suit </li></ul>
  28. 28. WHAT’S YOUR VERDICT? <ul><li>Horsley, the owner of a dry cleaning store, lived next door to Early, who was the editor of a small newspaper in their tow. The two quarreled frequently and became enemies. As a consequence, when Early published a story on the drum problem in the town, he identified Horsley as “a drug dealer.” This statement was untrue and defamatory. </li></ul><ul><li>What can Horsley collect from Early? </li></ul>
  29. 29. WHAT CAN YOU COLLECT? <ul><li>Injunction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Court order to do or not to do a particular act. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Damages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monetary award to the injured party to compensate for loss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual or Compensatory Damages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Difficult to place a dollar amount on things, usually decided by a jury </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency Fee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fee a lawyer recovers in cases such as this. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. WHAT CAN YOU COLLECT? <ul><li>Punitive Damages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment for malicious defamation and as and example to deter others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always available in intentional torts </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. WHAT’S YOUR VERDICT? <ul><li>Claxon’s car collided with Da Lucia’s in an intersections that had four-way stop signs. Claxon’s car was badly damaged by Da Lucia’s car, so she sued for damages. Claxon claimed that Da Lucia was going at least 20 miles per hour and had not stopped, but had merely slowed down, for the sign. Da Lucia claimed he had stopped and had not yet reached five miles per hour. He said he entered the intersection first and Claxon tried to swing around his front end but had failed. Two Witnesses saw the accident and could testify. </li></ul><ul><li>How can the court determine what really happened? </li></ul>
  32. 32. HOW IS A CIVIL CASE TRIED? <ul><li>Judges and Juries </li></ul><ul><li>Judges decided issues of law </li></ul><ul><li>Juries decide issues of fact </li></ul><ul><li>When there is no jury, Judge makes all decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to Witness Testimony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone who has knowledge of the facts and makes a statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert Witness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One who has superior knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. HOW IS A CIVIL CASE TRIED? <ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes anything that the judge allows to be presented to the jury that helps to prove or disprove the alleged facts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Civil Juries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 to 12 Citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen, Review, and Decide Facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not have to be unanimous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subpoena </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written order by the judge commanding a witness to appear in court to give testimony. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If no show, Contempt of Court </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. HOW IS A CIVIL CASE TRIED? <ul><li>Verdict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision of the jury </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judgment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Final result of the trial </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. WHAT’S YOUR VERDICT? <ul><li>Stevens brought a civil suit against Alvarez for Breach of contract in building a warehouse. Stevens won a judgment of $35,000. Alvarez objected to the decision. However, she did not appeal because her lawyer told her that there was no basis for appeal. Nevertheless, Alvarez stubbornly refused to pay Stevens. </li></ul><ul><li>What steps could Stevens take to collect judgment? </li></ul>
  36. 36. HOW IS THE JUDGMENT SATISFIED? <ul><li>Defendant with pay judgment and if the defendant does not pay, the plaintiff may obtain a writ of execution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Execution means the process by which a judgment for money is enforced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seizing car, bank account, anything that will collect the value owed. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. SECTION 6.3 GOALS <ul><li>Discuss what damages are available to victims of torts </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the various stages of a civil suit </li></ul>
  38. 38. END OF SECTION 6.3 QUESTIONS <ul><li>Think About Legal Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Think Critically About Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter in Review </li></ul>